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ED(1)                                                                    ED(1)



NAME
       ed, red - text editor

SYNOPSIS
       ed [-GVhs] [-p string] [file]

       red [-GVhs] [-p string] [file]

DESCRIPTION
       ed  is a line-oriented text editor.  It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files.
       red is a restricted ed: it can only edit files in the current directory and cannot execute shell commands.

       If invoked with a file argument, then a copy of file is read into the editor's buffer.   Changes  are  made  to
       this copy and not directly to file itself.  Upon quitting ed, any changes not explicitly saved  with a 'w' com-
       mand are lost.

       Editing is done in two distinct modes: command and input.  When first invoked, ed is in command mode.  In  this
       mode commands are read from the standard input and executed to manipulate the contents of the editor buffer.  A
       typical command might look like:

              ,s/old/new/g

       which replaces all occurrences of the string old with new.

       When an input command, such as 'a' (append), 'i' (insert) or 'c' (change), is  given,  ed  enters  input  mode.
       This  is  the  primary  means  of adding text to a file.  In this mode, no commands are available; instead, the
       standard input is written directly to the editor buffer.  Lines consist of text up to and including  a  newline
       character.  Input mode is terminated by entering a single period  (.) on a line.

       All ed commands operate on whole lines or ranges of lines; e.g., the 'd' command deletes lines; the 'm' command
       moves lines, and so on.  It is possible to modify only a portion of a line by means of replacement, as  in  the
       example above.  However even here, the 's' command is applied to whole lines at a time.

       In general, ed commands consist of zero or more line addresses, followed by a single character command and pos-
       sibly additional parameters; i.e., commands have the structure:

              [address [,address]]command[parameters]

       The address(es) indicate the line or range of lines to be affected by the  command.   If  fewer  addresses  are
       given than the command accepts, then default addresses are supplied.


   OPTIONS
       -G      Forces backwards compatibility.  Affects the commands 'G', 'V', 'f', 'l', 'm', 't', and '!!'.

       -s      Suppresses diagnostics. This should be used if ed's standard input is from a script.


       -p string
               Specifies a command prompt.  This may be toggled on and off with the 'P' command.


       file    Specifies the name of a file to read.  If file is prefixed with a bang (!), then it is interpreted as a
               shell command.  In this case, what is read is the standard output of file executed via sh(1).  To  read
               a  file  whose  name begins with a bang, prefix the name with a backslash (\).  The default filename is
               set to file only if it is not prefixed with a bang.


   LINE ADDRESSING
       An address represents the number of a line in the buffer.  ed maintains a current address  which  is  typically
       supplied  to  commands  as the default address when none is specified.  When a file is first read,  the current
       address is set to the last line of the file.  In general, the current address is set to the last line  affected
       by a command.

       A line address is constructed from one of the bases in the list below, optionally followed by a numeric offset.
       The offset may include any combination of digits, operators (i.e.  + and -) and whitespace.  Addresses are read
       from left to right, and their values are computed relative to the current address.

       One  exception  to  the rule that addresses represent line numbers is the address 0 (zero).  This means "before
       the first line," and is legal wherever it makes sense.

       An address range is two addresses separated either by a comma or semicolon. The value of the first address in a
       range  cannot  exceed  the  value  of the the second.  If only one address is given in a range, then the second
       address is set to the given address.  If an n-tuple of addresses is given where n > 2, then  the  corresponding
       range  is  determined by the last two addresses in the n-tuple.  If only one address is expected, then the last
       address is used.

       Each address in a comma-delimited range is interpreted relative to the current address.  In a  semicolon-delim-
       ited  range,  the first address is used to set the current address, and the second address is interpreted rela-
       tive to the first.


       The following address symbols are recognized.


       .       The current line (address) in the buffer.


       $       The last line in the buffer.


       n       The nth, line in the buffer where n is a number in the range [0,$].


       -       The previous line.  This is equivalent to -1 and may be repeated with cumulative effect.


       ^n      The nth previous line, where n is a non-negative number.


       +       The next line.  This is equivalent to +1 and may be repeated with cumulative effect.


       whitespace n

       +n      The nth next line, where n is a non-negative number.  Whitespace followed by a number n is  interpreted
               as +n.


       ,       The first through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to the address range 1,$.


       ;       The current through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to the address range .,$.


       /re/    The  next  line  containing the regular expression re.  The search wraps to the beginning of the buffer
               and continues down to the current line, if necessary.  // repeats the last search.


       ?re?    The previous line containing the regular expression re.  The search wraps to the end of the buffer  and
               continues up to the current line, if necessary.  ?? repeats the last search.


       'lc     The line previously marked by a 'k' (mark) command, where lc is a lower case letter.


   REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       Regular expressions are patterns used in selecting text.  For example, the ed command

              g/string/

       prints  all  lines  containing  string.  Regular expressions are also used by the 's' command for selecting old
       text to be replaced with new.

       In addition to a specifying string literals, regular expressions can represent  classes  of  strings.   Strings
       thus represented are said to be matched by the corresponding regular expression.  If it is possible for a regu-
       lar expression to match several strings in a line, then the left-most longest match is the one selected.

       The following symbols are used in constructing regular expressions:


       c       Any character c not listed below, including '{', '}', '(', ')', '<' and '>', matches itself.


       \c      A backslash-escaped character c other than '{', '}', '(', ')', '<', '>', 'b', 'B', 'w', 'W',  '+',  and
               '?'  matches itself.


       .       Matches any single character.


       [char-class]
               Matches  any  single  character  in  char-class.  To include a  ']' in char-class, it must be the first
               character.  A range of characters may be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a
               '-',  e.g.,  'a-z'  specifies the lower case characters.  The following literal expressions can also be
               used in char-class to specify sets of characters:

                 [:alnum:]  [:cntrl:]  [:lower:]  [:space:]
                 [:alpha:]  [:digit:]  [:print:]  [:upper:]
                 [:blank:]  [:graph:]  [:punct:]  [:xdigit:]

               If '-' appears as the first or last character of char-class, then it matches itself.  All other charac-
               ters in char-class match themselves.

               Patterns in char-class of the form:

                 [.col-elm.] or,   [=col-elm=]

               where  col-elm is a collating element are interpreted according to locale(5) (not currently supported).
               See regex(3) for an explanation of these constructs.

       [^char-class]
               Matches any single character, other than newline, not in char-class.  char-class is defined as above.

       ^       If '^' is the first character of a regular expression, then it anchors the regular  expression  to  the
               beginning of a line.  Otherwise, it matches itself.

       $       If '$' is the last character of a regular expression, it anchors the regular expression to the end of a
               line.  Otherwise, it matches itself.

       \(re\)  Defines a (possibly null) subexpression re.  Subexpressions may be nested.  A subsequent  backreference
               of the form '\n', where n is a number in the range [1,9], expands to the text matched by the nth subex-
               pression.  For example, the regular  expression  '\(a.c\)\1'  matches  the  string  'abcabc',  but  not
               'abcadc'.  Subexpressions are ordered relative to their left delimiter.

       *       Matches  the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding it zero or more
               times.  If '*' is the first character of a regular expression or subexpression, then it matches itself.
               The '*' operator sometimes yields unexpected results.  For example, the regular expression 'b*' matches
               the beginning of the string 'abbb', as opposed to the substring 'bbb', since a null match is  the  only
               left-most match.

       \{n,m\}
       \{n,\}
       \{n\}   Matches  the  single  character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding it at least n
               and at most m times.  If m is omitted, then it matches at least n times.  If the comma is also omitted,
               then  it  matches  exactly  n  times.   If   any of these forms occurs first in a regular expression or
               subexpression, then it is interpreted literally (i.e.,  the  regular  expression  '\{2\}'  matches  the
               string '{2}', and so on).

       \<
       \>      Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately following it to the begin-
               ning (\<) or ending (\>) of a word, i.e., in  ASCII,  a  maximal  string  of  alphanumeric  characters,
               including the underscore (_).


       The  following  extended operators are preceded by a backslash (\) to distinguish them from traditional ed syn-
       tax.

       \'
       \'      Unconditionally matches the beginning (\') or ending (\') of a line.

       \?      Optionally matches the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately  preceding  it.
               For example, the regular expression 'a[bd]\?c' matches the strings 'abc', 'adc' and 'ac'.  If \? occurs
               at the beginning of a regular expressions or subexpression, then it matches a literal '?'.

       \+      Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding it one  or  more
               times.   So  the  regular  expression 'a\+' is shorthand for 'aa*'.  If \+ occurs at the beginning of a
               regular expression or subexpression, then it matches a literal '+'.


       \b      Matches the beginning or ending (null string) of a word.  Thus the regular  expression  '\bhello\b'  is
               equivalent to '\<hello\>'.  However, '\b\b' is a valid regular expression whereas '\<\>' is not.

       \B      Matches (a null string) inside a word.

       \w      Matches any character in a word.

       \W      Matches any character not in a word.

   COMMANDS
       All  ed  commands  are single characters, though some require additional parameters.  If a command's parameters
       extend over several lines, then each line except for the last must be terminated with a backslash (\).

       In general, at most one command is allowed per line.  However, most commands accept a print  suffix,  which  is
       any of 'p' (print), 'l' (list) , or 'n' (enumerate), to print the last line affected by the command.

       An  interrupt (typically ^C) has the effect of aborting the current command and returning the editor to command
       mode.

       ed recognizes the following commands.  The commands are shown together with  the  default  address  or  address
       range supplied if none is specified (in parenthesis).

       (.)a    Appends  text  to  the  buffer  after  the  addressed line, which may be the address 0 (zero).  Text is
               entered in input mode.  The current address is set to last line entered.

       (.,.)c  Changes lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer, and text is appended  in
               their place.  Text is entered in input mode.  The current address is set to last line entered.

       (.,.)d  Deletes the addressed lines from the buffer.  If there is a line after the deleted range, then the cur-
               rent address is set to this line. Otherwise the current address is set to the line before  the  deleted
               range.

       e file  Edits  file,  and  sets  the default filename.  If file is not specified, then the  default filename is
               used.  Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the new file is read.  The current address is set  to
               the last line read.

       e !command
               Edits the standard output of '!command', (see !command below).  The default filename is unchanged.  Any
               lines in the buffer are deleted before the output of command is read.  The current address  is  set  to
               the last line read.

       E file  Edits  file  unconditionally.  This is similar to the e command, except that unwritten changes are dis-
               carded without warning.  The current address is set to the last line read.

       f file  Sets the default filename to file.  If file is not specified, then the default  unescaped  filename  is
               printed.

       (1,$)g/re/command-list
               Applies  command-list  to  each  of  the addressed lines matching a regular expression re.  The current
               address is set to the line currently matched before command-list is executed.  At the end  of  the  'g'
               command, the current address is set to the last line affected by command-list.

               Each  command  in  command-list  must be on a separate line, and every line except for the last must be
               terminated by a backslash (\).  Any commands are allowed, except for 'g', 'G', 'v', and 'V'.  A newline
               alone in command-list is equivalent to a 'p' command.

       (1,$)G/re/
               Interactively  edits the addressed lines matching a regular expression re.  For each matching line, the
               line is printed, the current address is set, and the user is prompted to enter a command-list.  At  the
               end  of  the  'G'  command, the current address is set to the last line affected by (the last) command-
               list.

               The format of command-list is the same as that of the 'g' command.  A newline alone acts as a null com-
               mand list.  A single '&' repeats the last non-null command list.

       H       Toggles  the  printing  of error explanations.  By default, explanations are not printed.  It is recom-
               mended that ed scripts begin with this command to aid in debugging.

       h       Prints an explanation of the last error.

       (.)i    Inserts text in the buffer before the current line.  Text  is  entered  in  input  mode.   The  current
               address is set to the last line entered.

       (.,.+1)j
               Joins  the  addressed  lines.  The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer and replaced by a single
               line containing their joined text.  The current address is set to the resultant line.

       (.)klc  Marks a line with a lower case letter lc.  The  line can then be addressed as 'lc (i.e., a single quote
               followed  by  lc ) in subsequent commands.  The mark is not cleared until the line is deleted or other-
               wise modified.

       (.,.)l  Prints the addressed lines unambiguously.  If invoked from a terminal, ed pauses at  the  end  of  each
               page until a newline is entered.  The current address is set to the last line printed.

       (.,.)m(.)
               Moves  lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are moved to after the right-hand destination address,
               which may be the address 0 (zero).  The current address is set to the last line moved.

       (.,.)n  Prints the addressed lines along with their line numbers.  The current address is set to the last  line
               printed.

       (.,.)p  Prints  the  addressed  lines.    If invoked from a terminal, ed pauses at the end of each page until a
               newline is entered.  The current address is set to the last line printed.

       P       Toggles the command prompt on and off.  Unless a prompt was specified by with  command-line  option  -p
               string, the command prompt is by default turned off.

       q       Quits ed.

       Q       Quits  ed  unconditionally.   This  is similar to the q command, except that unwritten changes are dis-
               carded without warning.

       ($)r file
               Reads file to after the addressed line.  If file is not specified, then the default filename  is  used.
               If  there was no default filename prior to the command, then the default filename is set to file.  Oth-
               erwise, the default filename is unchanged.  The current address is set to the last line read.

       ($)r !command
               Reads to after the addressed line the standard output of '!command', (see  the  !command  below).   The
               default filename is unchanged.  The current address is set to the last line read.

       (.,.)s/re/replacement/
       (.,.)s/re/replacement/g
       (.,.)s/re/replacement/n
               Replaces  text  in  the addressed lines matching a regular expression re with replacement.  By default,
               only the first match in each line is replaced.  If the 'g' (global) suffix is given, then  every  match
               to  be  replaced.   The  'n'  suffix,  where  n  is  a positive number, causes only the nth match to be
               replaced.  It is an error if no substitutions are performed on any of the addressed lines.  The current
               address is set the last line affected.

               re  and replacement may be delimited by any character other than space and newline (see the 's' command
               below).  If one or two of the last delimiters is omitted, then the last line  affected  is  printed  as
               though the print suffix 'p' were specified.


               An  unescaped  '&'  in  replacement  is replaced by the currently matched text.  The character sequence
               '\m', where m is a number in the range [1,9], is replaced by the mth backreference  expression  of  the
               matched  text.  If replacement consists of a single '%', then replacement from the last substitution is
               used.  Newlines may be embedded in replacement if they are escaped with a backslash (\).

       (.,.)s  Repeats the last substitution.  This form of the 's' command accepts a count suffix 'n', or any  combi-
               nation of the characters 'r', 'g', and 'p'.  If a count suffix 'n' is given, then only the nth match is
               replaced.  The 'r' suffix causes the regular expression of the last search to be used  instead  of  the
               that of the last substitution.  The 'g' suffix toggles the global suffix of the last substitution.  The
               'p' suffix toggles the print suffix of the last substitution.  The current address is set to  the  last
               line affected.

       (.,.)t(.)
               Copies  (i.e., transfers) the addressed lines to after the right-hand destination address, which may be
               the address 0 (zero).  The current address is set to the last line copied.

       u       Undoes the last command and restores the current address to what it was before the command.  The global
               commands 'g', 'G', 'v', and 'V'.  are treated as a single command by undo.  'u' is its own inverse.

       (1,$)v/re/command-list
               Applies command-list to each of the addressed lines not matching a regular expression re.  This is sim-
               ilar to the 'g' command.

       (1,$)V/re/
               Interactively edits the addressed lines not matching a regular expression re.  This is similar  to  the
               'G' command.

       (1,$)w file
               Writes  the  addressed lines to file.  Any previous contents of file is lost without warning.  If there
               is no default filename, then the default filename is set to file, otherwise it  is  unchanged.   If  no
               filename is specified, then the default filename is used.  The current address is unchanged.

       (1,$)wq file
               Writes the addressed lines to file, and then executes a 'q' command.

       (1,$)w !command
               Writes  the addressed lines to the standard input of '!command', (see the !command below).  The default
               filename and current address are unchanged.

       (1,$)W file
               Appends the addressed lines to the end of file.  This is similar to the 'w' command,  expect  that  the
               previous contents of file is not clobbered.  The current address is unchanged.

       (.)x    Copies  (puts)  the contents of the cut buffer to after the addressed line.  The current address is set
               to the last line copied.

       (.,.)y  Copies (yanks) the addressed lines to the cut buffer.  The cut buffer is overwritten by subsequent 'y',
               's', 'j', 'd', or 'c' commands.  The current address is unchanged.

       (.+1)zn Scrolls  n  lines at a time starting at addressed line.  If n is not specified, then the current window
               size is used.  The current address is set to the last line printed.

       !command
               Executes command via sh(1).  If the first character of command is '!', then it is replaced by  text  of
               the previous '!command'.  ed does not process command for backslash (\) escapes.  However, an unescaped
               '%' is replaced by the default filename.  When the shell returns from execution, a '!'  is  printed  to
               the standard output.  The current line is unchanged.

       (.,.)#  Begins  a comment;  the rest of the line, up to a newline, is ignored.  If a line address followed by a
               semicolon is given, then the current address is set to that address.  Otherwise, the current address is
               unchanged.

       ($)=    Prints the line number of the addressed line.

       (.+1)newline
               Prints the addressed line, and sets the current address to that line.

FILES
       ed.hup  The file to which ed attempts to write the  buffer if the terminal hangs up.

SEE ALSO
       vi(1), sed(1), regex(3), sh(1).

       USD:12-13

       B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, Software Tools in Pascal , Addison-Wesley, 1981.

LIMITATIONS
       ed processes file arguments for backslash escapes, i.e.,  in a filename, any characters preceded by a backslash
       (\) are interpreted literally.

       If a text (non-binary) file is not terminated by a newline character, then ed appends  one  on  reading/writing
       it.  In the case of a binary file, ed does not append a newline on reading/writing.

       per line overhead: 4 ints

DIAGNOSTICS
       When an error occurs, if ed's input is from a regular file or here document, then it exits, otherwise it prints
       a '?' and returns to command mode.  An explanation of the last error can be printed with the  'h'  (help)  com-
       mand.

       Attempting  to  quit ed or edit another file before writing a modified buffer results in an error.  If the com-
       mand is entered a second time, it succeeds, but any changes to the buffer are lost.

       ed exits with 0 if no errors occurred; otherwise >0.



                                5 October 2006                           ED(1)