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PGREP(1)                      Linux User's Manual                     PGREP(1)



NAME
       pgrep, pkill - look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes


SYNOPSIS
       pgrep [-flvx] [-d delimiter] [-n|-o] [-P ppid,...] [-g pgrp,...]
            [-s sid,...] [-u euid,...] [-U uid,...] [-G gid,...]
            [-t term,...] [pattern]

       pkill [-signal] [-fvx] [-n|-o] [-P ppid,...] [-g pgrp,...]
            [-s sid,...] [-u euid,...] [-U uid,...] [-G gid,...]
            [-t term,...] [pattern]


DESCRIPTION
       pgrep  looks through the currently running processes and lists the process IDs which matches the selection cri-
       teria to stdout.  All the criteria have to match.  For example,

       pgrep -u root sshd

       will only list the processes called sshd AND owned by root.  On the other hand,

       pgrep -u root,daemon

       will list the processes owned by root OR daemon.

       pkill will send the specified signal (by default SIGTERM) to each process instead of listing them on stdout.


OPTIONS
       -d delimiter
              Sets the string used to delimit each process ID in the output (by default a newline).  (pgrep only.)

       -f     The pattern is normally only matched against the process name.  When -f is set, the full command line is
              used.

       -g pgrp,...
              Only  match  processes  in  the process group IDs listed.  Process group 0 is translated into pgrep's or
              pkill's own process group.

       -G gid,...
              Only match processes whose real group ID is listed.  Either the numerical or  symbolical  value  may  be
              used.

       -l     List the process name as well as the process ID. (pgrep only.)

       -n     Select only the newest (most recently started) of the matching processes.

       -o     Select only the oldest (least recently started) of the matching processes.

       -P ppid,...
              Only match processes whose parent process ID is listed.

       -s sid,...
              Only  match  processes  whose  process session ID is listed.  Session ID 0 is translated into pgrep's or
              pkill's own session ID.

       -t term,...
              Only match processes whose controlling terminal is listed.  The terminal name should be specified  with-
              out the "/dev/" prefix.

       -u euid,...
              Only match processes whose effective user ID is listed.  Either the numerical or symbolical value may be
              used.

       -U uid,...
              Only match processes whose real user ID is listed.  Either the numerical  or  symbolical  value  may  be
              used.

       -v     Negates the matching.

       -x     Only match processes whose name (or command line if -f is specified) exactly match the pattern.

       -signal
              Defines  the signal to send to each matched process.  Either the numeric or the symbolic signal name can
              be used.  (pkill only.)


OPERANDS
       pattern
              Specifies an Extended Regular Expression for matching against the process names or command lines.


EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Find the process ID of the named daemon:

       unix$ pgrep -u root named

       Example 2: Make syslog reread its configuration file:

       unix$ pkill -HUP syslogd

       Example 3: Give detailed information on all xterm processes:

       unix$ ps -fp $(pgrep -d, -x xterm)

       Example 4: Make all netscape processes run nicer:

       unix$ renice +4 'pgrep netscape'


EXIT STATUS
       0      One or more processes matched the criteria.

       1      No processes matched.

       2      Syntax error in the command line.

       3      Fatal error: out of memory etc.


NOTES
       The process name used for matching is limited to the 15 characters present in  the  output  of  /proc/pid/stat.
       Use the -f option to match against the complete command line, /proc/pid/cmdline.

       The running pgrep or pkill process will never report itself as a match.


BUGS
       The options -n and -o and -v can not be combined.  Let me know if you need to do this.

       Defunct processes are reported.


SEE ALSO
       ps(1) regex(7) signal(7) killall(1) skill(1) kill(1) kill(2)


STANDARDS
       pkill and pgrep were introduced in Sun's Solaris 7.  This implementation is fully compatible.


AUTHOR
       Kjetil Torgrim Homme <kjetilhoATifi.no>

       Albert Cahalan <albertATusers.net> is the current maintainer of the procps package.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-feedbackATlists.net>



Linux                            June 25, 2000                        PGREP(1)