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GIT-PUSH(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-PUSH(1)



NAME
       git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects

SYNOPSIS
       git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
                  [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
                  [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


DESCRIPTION
       Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary to complete the given refs.

       You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you push into it, by setting up hooks there.
       See documentation for git-receive-pack(1).

OPTIONS
       <repository>
           The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see
           the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).

       <refspec>...
           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source ref <src>, followed by a
           colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
           in the remote repository is to be updated.

           The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1
           expression", such as master~4 or HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).

           The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be
           used here, an actual ref must be named. If :<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be updated.

           The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference on the remote side, but by default
           this is only allowed if the update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading +, you can tell
           git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a fast-forward. This does not attempt to merge
           <src> into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.

           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

           Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the remote repository.

           The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates) directs git to push "matching" branches:
           for every branch that exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
           already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode if no explicit refspec is found (that
           is neither on the command line nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).

       --all
           Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under refs/heads/ be pushed.

       --prune
           Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example a remote branch tmp will be removed
           if a local branch with the same name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.  git push
           --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/* would make sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if
           refs/heads/foo doesn't exist.

       --mirror
           Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under refs/ (which includes but is not limited
           to refs/heads/, refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
           refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end, and
           deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This is the default if the configuration option
           remote.<remote>.mirror is set.

       -n, --dry-run
           Do everything except actually send the updates.

       --porcelain
           Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref will be tab-separated and sent to
           stdout instead of stderr. The full symbolic names of the refs will be given.

       --delete
           All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the same as prefixing all refs with a
           colon.

       --tags
           All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command line.

       --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
           Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
           repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.

       -f, --force
           Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an ancestor of the local ref used to
           overwrite it. This flag disables the check. This can cause the remote repository to lose commits; use it
           with care.

       --repo=<repository>
           This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is passed in the invocation. In this case, git
           push derives the remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote branch, then that remote
           repository is pushed to. Otherwise, the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option can be
           used to override the name "origin". In other words, the difference between these two commands

               git push public         #1
               git push --repo=public  #2

           is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public" only if the current branch does not
           track a remote branch. This is useful if you write an alias or script around git push.

       -u, --set-upstream
           For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add upstream (tracking) reference, used by
           argument-less git-pull(1) and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge in git-
           config(1).

       --thin, --no-thin
           These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer significantly reduces the amount of sent data
           when the sender and receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is --thin.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs, unless an error occurs. Progress is not
           reported to the standard error stream.

       -v, --verbose
           Run verbosely.

       --progress
           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is attached to a terminal,
           unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is not directed
           to a terminal.

       --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand
           Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed are available on a remote tracking
           branch. If check is used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in the revisions to be
           pushed are available on at least one remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
           aborted and exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is used all submodules that changed in the revisions to
           be pushed will be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions it will also be aborted
           and exit with non-zero status.

GIT URLS
       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the remote server, and the
       path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git natively supports ssh, git, http, https, ftp, ftps, and rsync protocols. The following syntaxes may be used
       with them:

       ?   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ?   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ?   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ?   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ?   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       ?   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       ?   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ?   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ?   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by git natively, the following syntaxes may be used:

       ?   /path/to/repo.git/

       ?    file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies --local option. See git-
       clone(1) for details.

       When git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the remote-<transport>
       remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:

       ?   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string recognized by the specific
       remote helper being invoked. See git-remote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a different format for
       them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration section
       of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>


       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:


       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any context that takes a
       URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>


       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/


       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for
       pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.

REMOTES
       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:

       ?   a remote in the git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       ?   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       ?   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each contain a refspec which
       git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using git-remote(1), git-
       config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to access
       the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the
       command line. The entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>


       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file will be used to access
       the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on the
       command line. This file should have the following format:

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>


       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull:
       lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file will be used to access
       the repository. This file should have the following format:

                   <url>#<head>


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don't provide one on the command
       line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:

                   refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>


       git push uses:

                   HEAD:refs/heads/<head>


OUTPUT
       The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this section describes the output when pushing
       over the git protocol (either locally or via ssh).

       The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line representing the status of a single ref. Each
       line is of the form:

            <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)


       If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:

            <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)


       The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose option is used.

       flag
           A single character indicating the status of the ref:

           (space)
               for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

           +
               for a successful forced update;

           -
               for a successfully deleted ref;

           *
               for a successfully pushed new ref;

           !
               for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

           =
               for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.

       summary
           For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new values of the ref in a form suitable for
           using as an argument to git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for forced
           non-fast-forward updates).

           For a failed update, more details are given:

           rejected
               Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it is not a fast-forward and you did not
               force the update.

           remote rejected
               The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook on the remote side, or because the remote
               repository has one of the following safety options in effect: receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to
               the checked out branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced non-fast-forward updates),
               receive.denyDeletes or receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).

           remote failure
               The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref, perhaps because of a temporary error on
               the remote side, a break in the network connection, or other transient error.

       from
           The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of
           the local ref is omitted.

       to
           The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix.

       reason
           A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed refs, no explanation is needed. For a
           failed ref, the reason for failure is described.

NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS
       When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to point at commit A to point at another
       commit B, it is called a fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.

       In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original commit A built on top of is a subset
       of the commits the new commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.

       In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example, suppose you and somebody else started at
       the same commit X, and you built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history leading
       to commit A. The history looks like this:

                 B
                /
            ---X---A


       Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A back to the original repository you
       two obtained the original commit X.

       The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at commit X to point at commit A. It is
       a fast-forward.

       But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now points at A) with commit B. This does
       not fast-forward. If you did so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody will now
       start building on top of B.

       The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.

       If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by the other person (history from X to
       A), you would need to first fetch the history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
       by both parties, and push the result back.

       You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push" the result. A "git pull" will create a
       merge commit C between commits A and B.

                 B---C
                /   /
            ---X---A


       Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your push will be accepted.

       Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A, with "git pull --rebase", and push the
       result back. The rebase will create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of A.

                 B   D
                /   /
            ---X---A


       Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be accepted.

       There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and
       it is possible even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit A
       yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
       you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if you are
       certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of it), you can
       run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for a case
       where you do mean to lose history.

EXAMPLES
       git push
           Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current branch's remote (or origin, if no remote is
           configured for the current branch).

       git push origin
           Without additional configuration, works like git push origin :.

           The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be configured by setting the push
           option of the remote.

           For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to origin use git config remote.origin.push
           HEAD. Any valid <refspec> (like the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for git
           push origin.

       git push origin :
           Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS section above for a description of
           "matching" branches.

       git push origin master
           Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and
           update the same ref (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master did not exist
           remotely, it would be created.

       git push origin HEAD
           A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the remote.

       git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
           Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.  refs/heads/master) to update the ref that matches
           satellite/master (most probably refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the origin repository, then do the same
           for dev and satellite/dev.

       git push origin HEAD:master
           Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the origin repository. This form is convenient
           to push the current branch without thinking about its local name.

       git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
           Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying the current master branch. This form is
           only needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the remote name
           are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will work.

       git push origin :experimental
           Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.  refs/heads/experimental), and delete
           it.

       git push origin +dev:master
           Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch, allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This
           can leave unreferenced commits dangling in the origin repository.  Consider the following situation, where
           a fast-forward is not possible:

                           o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
                                    \
                                     X---Y---Z  dev

           The above command would change the origin repository to

                                     A---B  (unnamed branch)
                                    /
                           o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master

           Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name, and so would be unreachable. As
           such, these commits would be removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 1.7.11.3                      08/29/2012                       GIT-PUSH(1)