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LAST,LASTB(1)         Linux System Administrator's Manual        LAST,LASTB(1)

       last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users

       last [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [-adFiowx] [ -f file ] [ -t YYYYMMDDHHMMSS ] [name...]  [tty...]
       lastb [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [ -f file ] [-adFiowx] [name...]  [tty...]

       Last  searches  back through the file /var/log/wtmp (or the file designated by the -f flag) and displays a list
       of all users logged in (and out) since that file was created.  Names of users and tty's can be given, in  which
       case  last  will show only those entries matching the arguments.  Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last 0
       is the same as last tty0.

       When last catches a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key, usually control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal (gen-
       erated  by  the  quit  key, usually control-\), last will show how far it has searched through the file; in the
       case of the SIGINT signal last will then terminate.

       The pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.  Thus last reboot  will  show  a  log  of  all
       reboots since the log file was created.

       Lastb  is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the file /var/log/btmp, which contains all
       the bad login attempts.

       -f file
              Tells last to use a specific file instead of /var/log/wtmp.

       -num   This is a count telling last how many lines to show.

       -n num The same.

              Display the state of logins as of the specified time.  This is useful, e.g., to determine easily who was
              logged in at a particular time -- specify that time with -t and look for "still logged in".

       -f file
              Specifies a file to search other than /var/log/wtmp.

       -R     Suppresses the display of the hostname field.

       -a     Display the hostname in the last column. Useful in combination with the next flag.

       -d     For  non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the remote host but its IP number as well.
              This option translates the IP number back into a hostname.

       -F     Print full login and logout times and dates.

       -i     This option is like -d in that it displays the IP number of the remote host, but it displays the IP num-
              ber in numbers-and-dots notation.

       -o     Read an old-type wtmp file (written by linux-libc5 applications).

       -w     Display full user and domain names in the output.

       -x     Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.

       The  files  wtmp  and  btmp  might  not  be  found. The system only logs information in these files if they are
       present. This is a local configuration issue. If you want the files to be used, they can be created with a sim-
       ple touch(1) command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp).


       Miquel van Smoorenburg,

       shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)

                                 Jul 31, 2004                    LAST,LASTB(1)