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PERLAPI(1)             Perl Programmers Reference Guide             PERLAPI(1)



NAME
       perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

DESCRIPTION
       This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated by embed.pl, specifically a listing of
       functions, macros, flags, and variables that may be used by extension writers.  The interfaces of any functions
       that are not listed here are subject to change without notice.  For this reason, blindly using functions listed
       in proto.h is to be avoided when writing extensions.

       Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the "PL_" prefix.  Some macros are provided for
       compatibility with the older, unadorned names, but this support may be disabled in a future release.

       The listing is alphabetical, case insensitive.

"Gimme" Values
       GIMME   A backward-compatible version of "GIMME_V" which can only return "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY"; in a void
               context, it returns "G_SCALAR".  Deprecated.  Use "GIMME_V" instead.

                       U32     GIMME

       GIMME_V The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's "wantarray".  Returns "G_VOID", "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY" for
               void, scalar or list context, respectively.

                       U32     GIMME_V

       G_ARRAY Used to indicate list context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME" and perlcall.

       G_DISCARD
               Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be discarded.  See perlcall.

       G_EVAL  Used to force a Perl "eval" wrapper around a callback.  See perlcall.

       G_NOARGS
               Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback.  See perlcall.

       G_SCALAR
               Used to indicate scalar context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME", and perlcall.

       G_VOID  Used to indicate void context.  See "GIMME_V" and perlcall.

Array Manipulation Functions
       AvFILL  Same as "av_len()".  Deprecated, use "av_len()" instead.

                       int     AvFILL(AV* av)

       av_clear
               Clears an array, making it empty.  Does not free the memory used by the array itself.

                       void    av_clear(AV* ar)

       av_delete
               Deletes the element indexed by "key" from the array.  Returns the deleted element. If "flags" equals
               "G_DISCARD", the element is freed and null is returned.

                       SV*     av_delete(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 flags)

       av_exists
               Returns true if the element indexed by "key" has been initialized.

               This relies on the fact that uninitialized array elements are set to &PL_sv_undef.

                       bool    av_exists(AV* ar, I32 key)

       av_extend
               Pre-extend an array.  The "key" is the index to which the array should be extended.

                       void    av_extend(AV* ar, I32 key)

       av_fetch
               Returns the SV at the specified index in the array.  The "key" is the index.  If "lval" is set then the
               fetch will be part of a store.  Check that the return value is non-null before dereferencing it to a
               "SV*".

               See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to use
               this function on tied arrays.

                       SV**    av_fetch(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 lval)

       av_fill Ensure than an array has a given number of elements, equivalent to Perl's "$#array = $fill;".

                       void    av_fill(AV* ar, I32 fill)

       av_len  Returns the highest index in the array.  Returns -1 if the array is empty.

                       I32     av_len(AV* ar)

       av_make Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs.  The SVs are copied into the array, so they may
               be freed after the call to av_make.  The new AV will have a reference count of 1.

                       AV*     av_make(I32 size, SV** svp)

       av_pop  Pops an SV off the end of the array.  Returns &PL_sv_undef if the array is empty.

                       SV*     av_pop(AV* ar)

       av_push Pushes an SV onto the end of the array.  The array will grow automatically to accommodate the addition.

                       void    av_push(AV* ar, SV* val)

       av_shift
               Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array.

                       SV*     av_shift(AV* ar)

       av_store
               Stores an SV in an array.  The array index is specified as "key".  The return value will be NULL if the
               operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the array (as in the case of
               tied arrays). Otherwise it can be dereferenced to get the original "SV*".  Note that the caller is
               responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of "val" before the call, and decrementing it
               if the function returned NULL.

               See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to use
               this function on tied arrays.

                       SV**    av_store(AV* ar, I32 key, SV* val)

       av_undef
               Undefines the array.  Frees the memory used by the array itself.

                       void    av_undef(AV* ar)

       av_unshift
               Unshift the given number of "undef" values onto the beginning of the array.  The array will grow auto-
               matically to accommodate the addition.  You must then use "av_store" to assign values to these new ele-
               ments.

                       void    av_unshift(AV* ar, I32 num)

       get_av  Returns the AV of the specified Perl array.  If "create" is set and the Perl variable does not exist
               then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       AV*     get_av(const char* name, I32 create)

       newAV   Creates a new AV.  The reference count is set to 1.

                       AV*     newAV()

       sortsv  Sort an array. Here is an example:

                   sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_len(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);

               See lib/sort.pm for details about controlling the sorting algorithm.

                       void    sortsv(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp)

Callback Functions
       call_argv
               Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       I32     call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)

       call_method
               Performs a callback to the specified Perl method.  The blessed object must be on the stack.  See perl-
               call.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       I32     call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)

       call_pv Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       I32     call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)

       call_sv Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in the SV.  See perlcall.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       I32     call_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       ENTER   Opening bracket on a callback.  See "LEAVE" and perlcall.

                               ENTER;

       eval_pv Tells Perl to "eval" the given string and return an SV* result.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       SV*     eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)

       eval_sv Tells Perl to "eval" the string in the SV.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       I32     eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       FREETMPS
               Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "SAVETMPS" and perlcall.

                               FREETMPS;

       LEAVE   Closing bracket on a callback.  See "ENTER" and perlcall.

                               LEAVE;

       SAVETMPS
               Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "FREETMPS" and perlcall.

                               SAVETMPS;

Character classes
       isALNUM Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII alphanumeric character (including under-
               score) or digit.

                       bool    isALNUM(char ch)

       isALPHA Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII alphabetic character.

                       bool    isALPHA(char ch)

       isDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII digit.

                       bool    isDIGIT(char ch)

       isLOWER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a lowercase character.

                       bool    isLOWER(char ch)

       isSPACE Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is whitespace.

                       bool    isSPACE(char ch)

       isUPPER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an uppercase character.

                       bool    isUPPER(char ch)

       toLOWER Converts the specified character to lowercase.

                       char    toLOWER(char ch)

       toUPPER Converts the specified character to uppercase.

                       char    toUPPER(char ch)

Cloning an interpreter
       perl_clone
               Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the current one.

               perl_clone takes these flags as parameters:

               CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the stacks also, without it we only clone the data and zero
               the stacks, with it we copy the stacks and the new perl interpreter is ready to run at the exact same
               point as the previous one.  The pseudo-fork code uses COPY_STACKS while the threads->new doesn't.

               CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE perl_clone keeps a ptr_table with the pointer of the old variable as a key and
               the new variable as a value, this allows it to check if something has been cloned and not clone it
               again but rather just use the value and increase the refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then
               perl_clone will kill the ptr_table using the function "ptr_table_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table =
               NULL;", reason to keep it around is if you want to dup some of your own variable who are outside the
               graph perl scans, example of this code is in threads.xs create

               CLONEf_CLONE_HOST This is a win32 thing, it is ignored on unix, it tells perls win32host code (which is
               c++) to clone itself, this is needed on win32 if you want to run two threads at the same time, if you
               just want to do some stuff in a separate perl interpreter and then throw it away and return to the
               original one, you don't need to do anything.

                       PerlInterpreter*        perl_clone(PerlInterpreter* interp, UV flags)

CV Manipulation Functions
       CvSTASH Returns the stash of the CV.

                       HV*     CvSTASH(CV* cv)

       get_cv  Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine.  If "create" is set and the Perl subroutine does not
               exist then it will be declared (which has the same effect as saying "sub name;").  If "create" is not
               set and the subroutine does not exist then NULL is returned.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       CV*     get_cv(const char* name, I32 create)

Embedding Functions
       cv_undef
               Clear out all the active components of a CV. This can happen either by an explicit "undef &foo", or by
               the reference count going to zero.  In the former case, we keep the CvOUTSIDE pointer, so that any
               anonymous children can still follow the full lexical scope chain.

                       void    cv_undef(CV* cv)

       load_module
               Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the string part of name.  Note that the actual module
               name, not its filename, should be given.  Eg, "Foo::Bar" instead of "Foo/Bar.pm".  flags can be any of
               PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, or PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS (or 0 for no flags). ver, if spec-
               ified, provides version semantics similar to "use Foo::Bar VERSION".  The optional trailing SV* argu-
               ments can be used to specify arguments to the module's import() method, similar to "use Foo::Bar VER-
               SION LIST".

                       void    load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)

       nothreadhook
               Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct when there are no threads.

                       int     nothreadhook()

       perl_alloc
               Allocates a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                       PerlInterpreter*        perl_alloc()

       perl_construct
               Initializes a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                       void    perl_construct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_destruct
               Shuts down a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                       int     perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_free
               Releases a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

                       void    perl_free(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_parse
               Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script.  See perlembed.

                       int     perl_parse(PerlInterpreter* interp, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)

       perl_run
               Tells a Perl interpreter to run.  See perlembed.

                       int     perl_run(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       require_pv
               Tells Perl to "require" the file named by the string argument.  It is analogous to the Perl code "eval
               "require '$file'"".  It's even implemented that way; consider using load_module instead.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       void    require_pv(const char* pv)

Functions in file pp_pack.c
       packlist
               The engine implementing pack() Perl function.

                       void    packlist(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist)

       pack_cat
               The engine implementing pack() Perl function. Note: parameters next_in_list and flags are not used.
               This call should not be used; use packlist instead.

                       void    pack_cat(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list, U32 flags)

       unpackstring
               The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. "unpackstring" puts the extracted list items on the
               stack and returns the number of elements.  Issue "PUTBACK" before and "SPAGAIN" after the call to this
               function.

                       I32     unpackstring(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strend, U32 flags)

       unpack_str
               The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. Note: parameters strbeg, new_s and ocnt are not used.
               This call should not be used, use unpackstring instead.

                       I32     unpack_str(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strbeg, char *strend, char **new_s, I32 ocnt, U32 flags)

Global Variables
       PL_modglobal
               "PL_modglobal" is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for use by extensions that need to keep
               information on a per-interpreter basis.  In a pinch, it can also be used as a symbol table for exten-
               sions to share data among each other.  It is a good idea to use keys prefixed by the package name of
               the extension that owns the data.

                       HV*     PL_modglobal

       PL_na   A convenience variable which is typically used with "SvPV" when one doesn't care about the length of
               the string.  It is usually more efficient to either declare a local variable and use that instead or to
               use the "SvPV_nolen" macro.

                       STRLEN  PL_na

       PL_sv_no
               This is the "false" SV.  See "PL_sv_yes".  Always refer to this as &PL_sv_no.

                       SV      PL_sv_no

       PL_sv_undef
               This is the "undef" SV.  Always refer to this as &PL_sv_undef.

                       SV      PL_sv_undef

       PL_sv_yes
               This is the "true" SV.  See "PL_sv_no".  Always refer to this as &PL_sv_yes.

                       SV      PL_sv_yes

GV Functions
       GvSV    Return the SV from the GV.

                       SV*     GvSV(GV* gv)

       gv_fetchmeth
               Returns the glob with the given "name" and a defined subroutine or "NULL".  The glob lives in the given
               "stash", or in the stashes accessible via @ISA and UNIVERSAL::.

               The argument "level" should be either 0 or -1.  If "level==0", as a side-effect creates a glob with the
               given "name" in the given "stash" which in the case of success contains an alias for the subroutine,
               and sets up caching info for this glob.  Similarly for all the searched stashes.

               This function grants "SUPER" token as a postfix of the stash name. The GV returned from "gv_fetchmeth"
               may be a method cache entry, which is not visible to Perl code.  So when calling "call_sv", you should
               not use the GV directly; instead, you should use the method's CV, which can be obtained from the GV
               with the "GvCV" macro.

                       GV*     gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_fetchmethod
               See gv_fetchmethod_autoload.

                       GV*     gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)

       gv_fetchmethod_autoload
               Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to invoke the method on the "stash".  In fact in
               the presence of autoloading this may be the glob for "AUTOLOAD".  In this case the corresponding vari-
               able $AUTOLOAD is already setup.

               The third parameter of "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" determines whether AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if the
               given method is not present: non-zero means yes, look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no, don't look for
               AUTOLOAD.  Calling "gv_fetchmethod" is equivalent to calling "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" with a non-zero
               "autoload" parameter.

               These functions grant "SUPER" token as a prefix of the method name. Note that if you want to keep the
               returned glob for a long time, you need to check for it being "AUTOLOAD", since at the later time the
               call may load a different subroutine due to $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob created via a
               side effect to do this.

               These functions have the same side-effects and as "gv_fetchmeth" with "level==0".  "name" should be
               writable if contains ':' or "' ''". The warning against passing the GV returned by "gv_fetchmeth" to
               "call_sv" apply equally to these functions.

                       GV*     gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)

       gv_fetchmeth_autoload
               Same as gv_fetchmeth(), but looks for autoloaded subroutines too.  Returns a glob for the subroutine.

               For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will create a GV even if "level < 0".  For an autoloaded
               subroutine without a stub, GvCV() of the result may be zero.

                       GV*     gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_stashpv
               Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.  "name" should be a valid UTF-8 string and must
               be null-terminated.  If "create" is set then the package will be created if it does not already exist.
               If "create" is not set and the package does not exist then NULL is returned.

                       HV*     gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 create)

       gv_stashpvn
               Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.  "name" should be a valid UTF-8 string.  The
               "namelen" parameter indicates the length of the "name", in bytes.  If "create" is set then the package
               will be created if it does not already exist.  If "create" is not set and the package does not exist
               then NULL is returned.

                       HV*     gv_stashpvn(const char* name, U32 namelen, I32 create)

       gv_stashsv
               Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package, which must be a valid UTF-8 string.  See
               "gv_stashpv".

                       HV*     gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 create)

Handy Values
       Nullav  Null AV pointer.

       Nullch  Null character pointer.

       Nullcv  Null CV pointer.

       Nullhv  Null HV pointer.

       Nullsv  Null SV pointer.

Hash Manipulation Functions
       get_hv  Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash.  If "create" is set and the Perl variable does not exist
               then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       HV*     get_hv(const char* name, I32 create)

       HEf_SVKEY
               This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures, specifies the structure con-
               tains an "SV*" pointer where a "char*" pointer is to be expected. (For information only--not to be
               used).

       HeHASH  Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.

                       U32     HeHASH(HE* he)

       HeKEY   Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry. The pointer may be either "char*"
               or "SV*", depending on the value of "HeKLEN()".  Can be assigned to.  The "HePV()" or "HeSVKEY()"
               macros are usually preferable for finding the value of a key.

                       void*   HeKEY(HE* he)

       HeKLEN  If this is negative, and amounts to "HEf_SVKEY", it indicates the entry holds an "SV*" key.  Otherwise,
               holds the actual length of the key.  Can be assigned to. The "HePV()" macro is usually preferable for
               finding key lengths.

                       STRLEN  HeKLEN(HE* he)

       HePV    Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a "char*" value, doing any necessary dereferencing of possi-
               bly "SV*" keys.  The length of the string is placed in "len" (this is a macro, so do not use &len).  If
               you do not care about what the length of the key is, you may use the global variable "PL_na", though
               this is rather less efficient than using a local variable.  Remember though, that hash keys in perl are
               free to contain embedded nulls, so using "strlen()" or similar is not a good way to find the length of
               hash keys. This is very similar to the "SvPV()" macro described elsewhere in this document.

                       char*   HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)

       HeSVKEY Returns the key as an "SV*", or "Nullsv" if the hash entry does not contain an "SV*" key.

                       SV*     HeSVKEY(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_force
               Returns the key as an "SV*".  Will create and return a temporary mortal "SV*" if the hash entry con-
               tains only a "char*" key.

                       SV*     HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_set
               Sets the key to a given "SV*", taking care to set the appropriate flags to indicate the presence of an
               "SV*" key, and returns the same "SV*".

                       SV*     HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)

       HeVAL   Returns the value slot (type "SV*") stored in the hash entry.

                       SV*     HeVAL(HE* he)

       HvNAME  Returns the package name of a stash.  See "SvSTASH", "CvSTASH".

                       char*   HvNAME(HV* stash)

       hv_clear
               Clears a hash, making it empty.

                       void    hv_clear(HV* tb)

       hv_clear_placeholders
               Clears any placeholders from a hash.  If a restricted hash has any of its keys marked as readonly and
               the key is subsequently deleted, the key is not actually deleted but is marked by assigning it a value
               of &PL_sv_placeholder.  This tags it so it will be ignored by future operations such as iterating over
               the hash, but will still allow the hash to have a value reassigned to the key at some future point.
               This function clears any such placeholder keys from the hash.  See Hash::Util::lock_keys() for an exam-
               ple of its use.

                       void    hv_clear_placeholders(HV* hb)

       hv_delete
               Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed from the hash and returned to the
               caller.  The "klen" is the length of the key.  The "flags" value will normally be zero; if set to
               G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned.

                       SV*     hv_delete(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 flags)

       hv_delete_ent
               Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed from the hash and returned to the
               caller.  The "flags" value will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned.
               "hash" can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.

                       SV*     hv_delete_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash)

       hv_exists
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists.  The "klen" is the length of the
               key.

                       bool    hv_exists(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen)

       hv_exists_ent
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. "hash" can be a valid precomputed
               hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.

                       bool    hv_exists_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash)

       hv_fetch
               Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the hash.  The "klen" is the length of the
               key.  If "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of a store.  Check that the return value is non-null
               before dereferencing it to an "SV*".

               See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to use
               this function on tied hashes.

                       SV**    hv_fetch(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 lval)

       hv_fetch_ent
               Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key in the hash.  "hash" must be a valid pre-
               computed hash number for the given "key", or 0 if you want the function to compute it.  IF "lval" is
               set then the fetch will be part of a store.  Make sure the return value is non-null before accessing
               it.  The return value when "tb" is a tied hash is a pointer to a static location, so be sure to make a
               copy of the structure if you need to store it somewhere.

               See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to use
               this function on tied hashes.

                       HE*     hv_fetch_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash)

       hv_iterinit
               Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table.  Returns the number of keys in the hash (i.e. the
               same as "HvKEYS(tb)").  The return value is currently only meaningful for hashes without tie magic.

               NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, "hv_iterinit" used to return the number of hash buckets that happen to
               be in use.  If you still need that esoteric value, you can get it through the macro "HvFILL(tb)".

                       I32     hv_iterinit(HV* tb)

       hv_iterkey
               Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit".

                       char*   hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)

       hv_iterkeysv
               Returns the key as an "SV*" from the current position of the hash iterator.  The return value will
               always be a mortal copy of the key.  Also see "hv_iterinit".

                       SV*     hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)

       hv_iternext
               Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit".

               You may call "hv_delete" or "hv_delete_ent" on the hash entry that the iterator currently points to,
               without losing your place or invalidating your iterator.  Note that in this case the current entry is
               deleted from the hash with your iterator holding the last reference to it.  Your iterator is flagged to
               free the entry on the next call to "hv_iternext", so you must not discard your iterator immediately
               else the entry will leak - call "hv_iternext" to trigger the resource deallocation.

                       HE*     hv_iternext(HV* tb)

       hv_iternextsv
               Performs an "hv_iternext", "hv_iterkey", and "hv_iterval" in one operation.

                       SV*     hv_iternextsv(HV* hv, char** key, I32* retlen)

       hv_iternext_flags
               Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit" and "hv_iternext".  The "flags" value will
               normally be zero; if HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is set the placeholders keys (for restricted hashes)
               will be returned in addition to normal keys. By default placeholders are automatically skipped over.
               Currently a placeholder is implemented with a value that is &Perl_sv_placeholder. Note that the imple-
               mentation of placeholders and restricted hashes may change, and the implementation currently is insuf-
               ficiently abstracted for any change to be tidy.

               NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

                       HE*     hv_iternext_flags(HV* tb, I32 flags)

       hv_iterval
               Returns the value from the current position of the hash iterator.  See "hv_iterkey".

                       SV*     hv_iterval(HV* tb, HE* entry)

       hv_magic
               Adds magic to a hash.  See "sv_magic".

                       void    hv_magic(HV* hv, GV* gv, int how)

       hv_scalar
               Evaluates the hash in scalar context and returns the result. Handles magic when the hash is tied.

                       SV*     hv_scalar(HV* hv)

       hv_store
               Stores an SV in a hash.  The hash key is specified as "key" and "klen" is the length of the key.  The
               "hash" parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it.  The return
               value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within
               the hash (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise it can be dereferenced to get the original "SV*".
               Note that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of "val" before the
               call, and decrementing it if the function returned NULL.  Effectively a successful hv_store takes own-
               ership of one reference to "val".  This is usually what you want; a newly created SV has a reference
               count of one, so if all your code does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store will own the
               only reference to the new SV, and your code doesn't need to do anything further to tidy up.  hv_store
               is not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary SV for the key, so if
               your key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store in preference to hv_store_ent.

               See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to use
               this function on tied hashes.

                       SV**    hv_store(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash)

       hv_store_ent
               Stores "val" in a hash.  The hash key is specified as "key".  The "hash" parameter is the precomputed
               hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it.  The return value is the new hash entry so cre-
               ated.  It will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored
               within the hash (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise the contents of the return value can be
               accessed using the "He?" macros described here.  Note that the caller is responsible for suitably
               incrementing the reference count of "val" before the call, and decrementing it if the function returned
               NULL.  Effectively a successful hv_store_ent takes ownership of one reference to "val".  This is usu-
               ally what you want; a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so if all your code does is create
               SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store will own the only reference to the new SV, and your code
               doesn't need to do anything further to tidy up.  Note that hv_store_ent only reads the "key"; unlike
               "val" it does not take ownership of it, so maintaining the correct reference count on "key" is entirely
               the caller's responsibility.  hv_store is not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not cre-
               ate a temporary SV for the key, so if your key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store in
               preference to hv_store_ent.

               See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more information on how to use
               this function on tied hashes.

                       HE*     hv_store_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash)

       hv_undef
               Undefines the hash.

                       void    hv_undef(HV* tb)

       newHV   Creates a new HV.  The reference count is set to 1.

                       HV*     newHV()

Magical Functions
       mg_clear
               Clear something magical that the SV represents.  See "sv_magic".

                       int     mg_clear(SV* sv)

       mg_copy Copies the magic from one SV to another.  See "sv_magic".

                       int     mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, I32 klen)

       mg_find Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV.  See "sv_magic".

                       MAGIC*  mg_find(SV* sv, int type)

       mg_free Free any magic storage used by the SV.  See "sv_magic".

                       int     mg_free(SV* sv)

       mg_get  Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV.  See "sv_magic".

                       int     mg_get(SV* sv)

       mg_length
               Report on the SV's length.  See "sv_magic".

                       U32     mg_length(SV* sv)

       mg_magical
               Turns on the magical status of an SV.  See "sv_magic".

                       void    mg_magical(SV* sv)

       mg_set  Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV.  See "sv_magic".

                       int     mg_set(SV* sv)

       SvGETMAGIC
               Invokes "mg_get" on an SV if it has 'get' magic.  This macro evaluates its argument more than once.

                       void    SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvLOCK  Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained on sv if a suitable module has been loaded.

                       void    SvLOCK(SV* sv)

       SvSETMAGIC
               Invokes "mg_set" on an SV if it has 'set' magic.  This macro evaluates its argument more than once.

                       void    SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvSetMagicSV
               Like "SvSetSV", but does any set magic required afterwards.

                       void    SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetMagicSV_nosteal
               Like "SvSetSV_nosteal", but does any set magic required afterwards.

                       void    SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV Calls "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv.  May evaluate arguments more than once.

                       void    SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV_nosteal
               Calls a non-destructive version of "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv. May evaluate arguments
               more than once.

                       void    SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSHARE Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a suitable module has been loaded.

                       void    SvSHARE(SV* sv)

       SvUNLOCK
               Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable module has been loaded.

                       void    SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)

Memory Management
       Copy    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memcpy" function.  The "src" is the source, "dest" is the desti-
               nation, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type" is the type.  May fail on overlapping copies.  See
               also "Move".

                       void    Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       CopyD   Like "Copy" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call optimise.

                       void *  CopyD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Move    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memmove" function.  The "src" is the source, "dest" is the desti-
               nation, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type" is the type.  Can do overlapping moves.  See also
               "Copy".

                       void    Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       MoveD   Like "Move" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call optimise.

                       void *  MoveD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Newx    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.

                       void    Newx(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Newxc   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function, with cast.

                       void    Newxc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Newxz   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.  The allocated memory is zeroed with "memzero".

               In 5.9.3, we removed the 1st parameter, a debug aid, from the api.  It was used to uniquely identify
               each usage of these allocation functions, but was deemed unnecessary with the availability of better
               memory tracking tools, valgrind for example.

                       void    Newxz(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Poison  Fill up memory with a pattern (byte 0xAB over and over again) that hopefully catches attempts to access
               uninitialized memory.

                       void    Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Renew   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function.

                       void    Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Renewc  The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function, with cast.

                       void    Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Safefree
               The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "free" function.

                       void    Safefree(void* ptr)

       savepv  Perl's version of "strdup()". Returns a pointer to a newly allocated string which is a duplicate of
               "pv". The size of the string is determined by "strlen()". The memory allocated for the new string can
               be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

                       char*   savepv(const char* pv)

       savepvn Perl's version of what "strndup()" would be if it existed. Returns a pointer to a newly allocated
               string which is a duplicate of the first "len" bytes from "pv". The memory allocated for the new string
               can be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

                       char*   savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)

       savesharedpv
               A version of "savepv()" which allocates the duplicate string in memory which is shared between threads.

                       char*   savesharedpv(const char* pv)

       savesvpv
               A version of "savepv()"/"savepvn()" which gets the string to duplicate from the passed in SV using
               "SvPV()"

                       char*   savesvpv(SV* sv)

       StructCopy
               This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.

                       void    StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)

       Zero    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memzero" function.  The "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is
               the number of items, and "type" is the type.

                       void    Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       ZeroD   Like "Zero" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call optimise.

                       void *  ZeroD(void* dest, int nitems, type)

Miscellaneous Functions
       fbm_compile
               Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using fbm_instr() -- the Boyer-Moore algo-
               rithm.

                       void    fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       fbm_instr
               Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by "str" and "strend".  It returns "Nullch" if
               the string can't be found.  The "sv" does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as
               fast then.

                       char*   fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlesv, U32 flags)

       form    Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional (non-SV) arguments and returns the formatted
               string.

                   (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)

               can be used any place a string (char *) is required:

                   char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);

               Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several strings you must explicitly copy the ear-
               lier strings away (and free the copies when you are done).

                       char*   form(const char* pat, ...)

       getcwd_sv
               Fill the sv with current working directory

                       int     getcwd_sv(SV* sv)

       strEQ   Test two strings to see if they are equal.  Returns true or false.

                       bool    strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than or equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true
               or false.

                       bool    strGE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

                       bool    strGT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than or equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true or
               false.

                       bool    strLE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

                       bool    strLT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strNE   Test two strings to see if they are different.  Returns true or false.

                       bool    strNE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strnEQ  Test two strings to see if they are equal.  The "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes to com-
               pare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

                       bool    strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       strnNE  Test two strings to see if they are different.  The "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes to
               compare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

                       bool    strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       sv_nolocking
               Dummy routine which "locks" an SV when there is no locking module present.  Exists to avoid test for a
               NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.

                       void    sv_nolocking(SV *)

       sv_nosharing
               Dummy routine which "shares" an SV when there is no sharing module present.  Exists to avoid test for a
               NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.

                       void    sv_nosharing(SV *)

       sv_nounlocking
               Dummy routine which "unlocks" an SV when there is no locking module present.  Exists to avoid test for
               a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level of strict-ness.

                       void    sv_nounlocking(SV *)

Numeric functions
       grok_bin
               converts a string representing a binary number to numeric form.

               On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be
               NULL or a pointer to an NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character.
               Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trig-
               ger a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned string, and *flags gives output
               flags.

               If the value is <= "UV_MAX" it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and nothing is written
               to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_bin" returns UV_MAX, sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in
               the output flags, and writes the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

               The binary number may optionally be prefixed with "0b" or "b" unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set
               in *flags on entry. If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the binary number may use
               '_' characters to separate digits.

                       UV      grok_bin(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_hex
               converts a string representing a hex number to numeric form.

               On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be
               NULL or a pointer to an NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character.
               Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trig-
               ger a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned string, and *flags gives output
               flags.

               If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and nothing is written to
               *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_hex" returns UV_MAX, sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in
               the output flags, and writes the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

               The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0x" or "x" unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set in
               *flags on entry. If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the hex number may use '_'
               characters to separate digits.

                       UV      grok_hex(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_number
               Recognise (or not) a number.  The type of the number is returned (0 if unrecognised), otherwise it is a
               bit-ORed combination of IS_NUMBER_IN_UV, IS_NUMBER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX, IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT, IS_NUM-
               BER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY, IS_NUMBER_NAN (defined in perl.h).

               If the value of the number can fit an in UV, it is returned in the *valuep IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set
               to indicate that *valuep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will never be set unless *valuep is valid, but *val-
               uep may have been assigned to during processing even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return.  If
               valuep is NULL, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the same cases as when valuep is non-NULL, but no
               actual assignment (or SEGV) will occur.

               IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV if trailing decimals were seen (in which case *val-
               uep gives the true value truncated to an integer), and IS_NUMBER_NEG if the number is negative (in
               which case *valuep holds the absolute value).  IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation was used or the
               number is larger than a UV.

                       int     grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len, UV *valuep)

       grok_numeric_radix
               Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator (radix).

                       bool    grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp, const char *send)

       grok_oct
               converts a string representing an octal number to numeric form.

               On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags, and result should be
               NULL or a pointer to an NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first invalid character.
               Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trig-
               ger a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned string, and *flags gives output
               flags.

               If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and nothing is written to
               *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_oct" returns UV_MAX, sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in
               the output flags, and writes the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

               If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the octal number may use '_' characters to sepa-
               rate digits.

                       UV      grok_oct(char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)

       scan_bin
               For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_bin" instead.

                       NV      scan_bin(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_hex
               For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_hex" instead.

                       NV      scan_hex(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_oct
               For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_oct" instead.

                       NV      scan_oct(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

Optree Manipulation Functions
       cv_const_sv
               If "cv" is a constant sub eligible for inlining. returns the constant value returned by the sub.  Oth-
               erwise, returns NULL.

               Constant subs can be created with "newCONSTSUB" or as described in "Constant Functions" in perlsub.

                       SV*     cv_const_sv(CV* cv)

       newCONSTSUB
               Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl "sub FOO () { 123 }" which is eligible for inlining at com-
               pile-time.

                       CV*     newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, char* name, SV* sv)

       newXS   Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.

Pad Data Structures
       pad_sv  Get the value at offset po in the current pad.  Use macro PAD_SV instead of calling this function
               directly.

                       SV*     pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)

Stack Manipulation Macros
       dMARK   Declare a stack marker variable, "mark", for the XSUB.  See "MARK" and "dORIGMARK".

                               dMARK;

       dORIGMARK
               Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "ORIGMARK".

                               dORIGMARK;

       dSP     Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for the XSUB, available via the "SP" macro.  See "SP".

                               dSP;

       EXTEND  Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's return values. Once used, guarantees that there is room
               for at least "nitems" to be pushed onto the stack.

                       void    EXTEND(SP, int nitems)

       MARK    Stack marker variable for the XSUB.  See "dMARK".

       mPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does
               not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHi", "mXPUSHi" and "XPUSHi".

                       void    mPUSHi(IV iv)

       mPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does
               not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHn", "mXPUSHn" and "XPUSHn".

                       void    mPUSHn(NV nv)

       mPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  The "len" indicates the
               length of the string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHp", "mXPUSHp" and
               "XPUSHp".

                       void    mPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       mPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles 'set'
               magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHu", "mXPUSHu" and "XPUSHu".

                       void    mPUSHu(UV uv)

       mXPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use
               "TARG".  See also "XPUSHi", "mPUSHi" and "PUSHi".

                       void    mXPUSHi(IV iv)

       mXPUSHn Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use
               "TARG".  See also "XPUSHn", "mPUSHn" and "PUSHn".

                       void    mXPUSHn(NV nv)

       mXPUSHp Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  The "len" indicates the length of the
               string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHp", "mPUSHp" and "PUSHp".

                       void    mXPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       mXPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does
               not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHu", "mPUSHu" and "PUSHu".

                       void    mXPUSHu(UV uv)

       ORIGMARK
               The original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "dORIGMARK".

       POPi    Pops an integer off the stack.

                       IV      POPi

       POPl    Pops a long off the stack.

                       long    POPl

       POPn    Pops a double off the stack.

                       NV      POPn

       POPp    Pops a string off the stack. Deprecated. New code should use POPpx.

                       char*   POPp

       POPpbytex
               Pops a string off the stack which must consist of bytes i.e. characters < 256.

                       char*   POPpbytex

       POPpx   Pops a string off the stack.

                       char*   POPpx

       POPs    Pops an SV off the stack.

                       SV*     POPs

       PUSHi   Push an integer onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
               "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
               macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHi" instead.  See also "XPUSHi" and "mXPUSHi".

                       void    PUSHi(IV iv)

       PUSHMARK
               Opening bracket for arguments on a callback.  See "PUTBACK" and perlcall.

                       void    PUSHMARK(SP)

       PUSHmortal
               Push a new mortal SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Does not handle 'set'
               magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHs", "XPUSHmortal" and "XPUSHs".

                       void    PUSHmortal()

       PUSHn   Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
               "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
               macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHn" instead.  See also "XPUSHn" and "mXPUSHn".

                       void    PUSHn(NV nv)

       PUSHp   Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  The "len" indicates the
               length of the string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to
               declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHp"
               instead.  See also "XPUSHp" and "mXPUSHp".

                       void    PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       PUSHs   Push an SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Does not handle 'set' magic.
               Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHmortal", "XPUSHs" and "XPUSHmortal".

                       void    PUSHs(SV* sv)

       PUSHu   Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles 'set'
               magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple
               "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mPUSHu" instead.  See also "XPUSHu" and
               "mXPUSHu".

                       void    PUSHu(UV uv)

       PUTBACK Closing bracket for XSUB arguments.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".  See "PUSHMARK" and perlcall
               for other uses.

                               PUTBACK;

       SP      Stack pointer.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".  See "dSP" and "SPAGAIN".

       SPAGAIN Refetch the stack pointer.  Used after a callback.  See perlcall.

                               SPAGAIN;

       XPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG",
               so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros
               to return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHi" instead.  See also "PUSHi" and "mPUSHi".

                       void    XPUSHi(IV iv)

       XPUSHmortal
               Push a new mortal SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.
               Does not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHs", "PUSHmortal" and "PUSHs".

                       void    XPUSHmortal()

       XPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so
               "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to
               return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHn" instead.  See also "PUSHn" and "mPUSHn".

                       void    XPUSHn(NV nv)

       XPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  The "len" indicates the length of the
               string.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.
               Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHp" instead.  See
               also "PUSHp" and "mPUSHp".

                       void    XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       XPUSHs  Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not
               use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHmortal", "PUSHs" and "PUSHmortal".

                       void    XPUSHs(SV* sv)

       XPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses
               "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented
               macros to return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHu" instead.  See also "PUSHu" and "mPUSHu".

                       void    XPUSHu(UV uv)

       XSRETURN
               Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the stack.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".

                       void    XSRETURN(int nitems)

       XSRETURN_EMPTY
               Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.

                               XSRETURN_EMPTY;

       XSRETURN_IV
               Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mIV".

                       void    XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)

       XSRETURN_NO
               Return &PL_sv_no from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNO".

                               XSRETURN_NO;

       XSRETURN_NV
               Return a double from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNV".

                       void    XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)

       XSRETURN_PV
               Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mPV".

                       void    XSRETURN_PV(char* str)

       XSRETURN_UNDEF
               Return &PL_sv_undef from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mUNDEF".

                               XSRETURN_UNDEF;

       XSRETURN_UV
               Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mUV".

                       void    XSRETURN_UV(IV uv)

       XSRETURN_YES
               Return &PL_sv_yes from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mYES".

                               XSRETURN_YES;

       XST_mIV Place an integer into the specified position "pos" on the stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal
               SV.

                       void    XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)

       XST_mNO Place &PL_sv_no into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

                       void    XST_mNO(int pos)

       XST_mNV Place a double into the specified position "pos" on the stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

                       void    XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)

       XST_mPV Place a copy of a string into the specified position "pos" on the stack.  The value is stored in a new
               mortal SV.

                       void    XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)

       XST_mUNDEF
               Place &PL_sv_undef into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

                       void    XST_mUNDEF(int pos)

       XST_mYES
               Place &PL_sv_yes into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

                       void    XST_mYES(int pos)

SV Flags
       svtype  An enum of flags for Perl types.  These are found in the file sv.h in the "svtype" enum.  Test these
               flags with the "SvTYPE" macro.

       SVt_IV  Integer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_NV  Double type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PV  Pointer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVAV
               Type flag for arrays.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVCV
               Type flag for code refs.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVHV
               Type flag for hashes.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVMG
               Type flag for blessed scalars.  See "svtype".

SV Manipulation Functions
       get_sv  Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar.  If "create" is set and the Perl variable does not exist
               then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and the variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

               NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

                       SV*     get_sv(const char* name, I32 create)

       looks_like_number
               Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).  "Inf" and "Infinity" are treated as
               numbers (so will not issue a non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them.

                       I32     looks_like_number(SV* sv)

       newRV_inc
               Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference count for the original SV is incremented.

                       SV*     newRV_inc(SV* sv)

       newRV_noinc
               Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference count for the original SV is not incremented.

                       SV*     newRV_noinc(SV *sv)

       NEWSV   Creates a new SV.  A non-zero "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes of preallocated string
               space the SV should have.  An extra byte for a tailing NUL is also reserved.  (SvPOK is not set for the
               SV even if string space is allocated.)  The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.  "id" is an
               integer id between 0 and 1299 (used to identify leaks).

                       SV*     NEWSV(int id, STRLEN len)

       newSV   Create a new null SV, or if len > 0, create a new empty SVt_PV type SV with an initial PV allocation of
               len+1. Normally accessed via the "NEWSV" macro.

                       SV*     newSV(STRLEN len)

       newSVhek
               Creates a new SV from the hash key structure.  It will generate scalars that point to the shared string
               table where possible. Returns a new (undefined) SV if the hek is NULL.

                       SV*     newSVhek(const HEK *hek)

       newSViv Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it.  The reference count for the SV is set to 1.

                       SV*     newSViv(IV i)

       newSVnv Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value into it.  The reference count for the SV is set to
               1.

                       SV*     newSVnv(NV n)

       newSVpv Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference count for the SV is set to 1.  If "len" is
               zero, Perl will compute the length using strlen().  For efficiency, consider using "newSVpvn" instead.

                       SV*     newSVpv(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvf
               Creates a new SV and initializes it with the string formatted like "sprintf".

                       SV*     newSVpvf(const char* pat, ...)

       newSVpvn
               Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference count for the SV is set to 1.  Note that
               if "len" is zero, Perl will create a zero length string.  You are responsible for ensuring that the
               source string is at least "len" bytes long.  If the "s" argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined.

                       SV*     newSVpvn(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvn_share
               Creates a new SV with its SvPVX_const pointing to a shared string in the string table. If the string
               does not already exist in the table, it is created first.  Turns on READONLY and FAKE.  The string's
               hash is stored in the UV slot of the SV; if the "hash" parameter is non-zero, that value is used; oth-
               erwise the hash is computed.  The idea here is that as the string table is used for shared hash keys
               these strings will have SvPVX_const == HeKEY and hash lookup will avoid string compare.

                       SV*     newSVpvn_share(const char* s, I32 len, U32 hash)

       newSVrv Creates a new SV for the RV, "rv", to point to.  If "rv" is not an RV then it will be upgraded to one.
               If "classname" is non-null then the new SV will be blessed in the specified package.  The new SV is
               returned and its reference count is 1.

                       SV*     newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname)

       newSVsv Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the original SV.  (Uses "sv_setsv").

                       SV*     newSVsv(SV* old)

       newSVuv Creates a new SV and copies an unsigned integer into it.  The reference count for the SV is set to 1.

                       SV*     newSVuv(UV u)

       SvCUR   Returns the length of the string which is in the SV.  See "SvLEN".

                       STRLEN  SvCUR(SV* sv)

       SvCUR_set
               Set the current length of the string which is in the SV.  See "SvCUR" and "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvEND   Returns a pointer to the last character in the string which is in the SV.  See "SvCUR".  Access the
               character as *(SvEND(sv)).

                       char*   SvEND(SV* sv)

       SvGROW  Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it has room for the indicated number of bytes (remember
               to reserve space for an extra trailing NUL character).  Calls "sv_grow" to perform the expansion if
               necessary.  Returns a pointer to the character buffer.

                       char *  SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvIOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer.

                       bool    SvIOK(SV* sv)

       SvIOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer.  Checks the private setting.  Use
               "SvIOK".

                       bool    SvIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_notUV
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a signed integer.

                       bool    SvIOK_notUV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_off
               Unsets the IV status of an SV.

                       void    SvIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_on
               Tells an SV that it is an integer.

                       void    SvIOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only
               Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all other OK bits.

                       void    SvIOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only_UV
               Tells and SV that it is an unsigned integer and disables all other OK bits.

                       void    SvIOK_only_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_UV
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an unsigned integer.

                       bool    SvIOK_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIsCOW Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write. (either shared hash key scalars, or full
               Copy On Write scalars if 5.9.0 is configured for COW)

                       bool    SvIsCOW(SV* sv)

       SvIsCOW_shared_hash
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write shared hash key scalar.

                       bool    SvIsCOW_shared_hash(SV* sv)

       SvIV    Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. See  "SvIVx" for a version which guarantees to eval-
               uate sv only once.

                       IV      SvIV(SV* sv)

       SvIVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's IV slot, without checks or conversions.  Only use when you are sure
               SvIOK is true. See also "SvIV()".

                       IV      SvIVX(SV* sv)

       SvIVx   Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use the more
               efficient "SvIV" otherwise.

                       IV      SvIVx(SV* sv)

       SvIV_set
               Set the value of the IV pointer in sv to val.  It is possible to perform the same function of this
               macro with an lvalue assignment to "SvIVX".  With future Perls, however, it will be more efficient to
               use "SvIV_set" instead of the lvalue assignment to "SvIVX".

                       void    SvIV_set(SV* sv, IV val)

       SvLEN   Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV, not including any part attributable to "SvOOK".  See
               "SvCUR".

                       STRLEN  SvLEN(SV* sv)

       SvLEN_set
               Set the actual length of the string which is in the SV.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvLEN_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvMAGIC_set
               Set the value of the MAGIC pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvMAGIC_set(SV* sv, MAGIC* val)

       SvNIOK  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or double.

                       bool    SvNIOK(SV* sv)

       SvNIOKp Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or double.  Checks the private
               setting.  Use "SvNIOK".

                       bool    SvNIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNIOK_off
               Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.

                       void    SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.

                       bool    SvNOK(SV* sv)

       SvNOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.  Checks the private setting.  Use
               "SvNOK".

                       bool    SvNOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_off
               Unsets the NV status of an SV.

                       void    SvNOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_on
               Tells an SV that it is a double.

                       void    SvNOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_only
               Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all other OK bits.

                       void    SvNOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvNV    Coerce the given SV to a double and return it. See  "SvNVx" for a version which guarantees to evaluate
               sv only once.

                       NV      SvNV(SV* sv)

       SvNVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's NV slot, without checks or conversions.  Only use when you are sure
               SvNOK is true. See also "SvNV()".

                       NV      SvNVX(SV* sv)

       SvNVx   Coerces the given SV to a double and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use the more
               efficient "SvNV" otherwise.

                       NV      SvNVx(SV* sv)

       SvNV_set
               Set the value of the NV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvNV_set(SV* sv, NV val)

       SvOK    Returns a boolean indicating whether the value is an SV. It also tells whether the value is defined or
               not.

                       bool    SvOK(SV* sv)

       SvOOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SvIVX is a valid offset value for the SvPVX.  This hack is
               used internally to speed up removal of characters from the beginning of a SvPV.  When SvOOK is true,
               then the start of the allocated string buffer is really (SvPVX - SvIVX).

                       bool    SvOOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a character string.

                       bool    SvPOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a character string.  Checks the private setting.
               Use "SvPOK".

                       bool    SvPOKp(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_off
               Unsets the PV status of an SV.

                       void    SvPOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_on
               Tells an SV that it is a string.

                       void    SvPOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only
               Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits.  Will also turn off the UTF-8 status.

                       void    SvPOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only_UTF8
               Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits, and leaves the UTF-8 status as it was.

                       void    SvPOK_only_UTF8(SV* sv)

       SvPV    Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV if the SV does not contain a
               string.  The SV may cache the stringified version becoming "SvPOK".  Handles 'get' magic. See also
               "SvPVx" for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

                       char*   SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte
               Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.

                       char*   SvPVbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex
               Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only
               once; use the more efficient "SvPVbyte" otherwise.

                       char*   SvPVbytex(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex_force
               Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate
               sv only once; use the more efficient "SvPVbyte_force" otherwise.

                       char*   SvPVbytex_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_force
               Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.

                       char*   SvPVbyte_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_nolen
               Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.

                       char*   SvPVbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVutf8
               Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

                       char*   SvPVutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x
               Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the
               more efficient "SvPVutf8" otherwise.

                       char*   SvPVutf8x(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x_force
               Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only once;
               use the more efficient "SvPVutf8_force" otherwise.

                       char*   SvPVutf8x_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_force
               Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

                       char*   SvPVutf8_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_nolen
               Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

                       char*   SvPVutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVX   Returns a pointer to the physical string in the SV.  The SV must contain a string.

                       char*   SvPVX(SV* sv)

       SvPVx   A version of "SvPV" which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

                       char*   SvPVx(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force
               Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string ("SvPOK_only").  You want force if you
               are going to update the "SvPVX" directly.

                       char*   SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force_nomg
               Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string ("SvPOK_only").  You want force if you
               are going to update the "SvPVX" directly. Doesn't process magic.

                       char*   SvPV_force_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_nolen
               Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV if the SV does not contain a
               string.  The SV may cache the stringified form becoming "SvPOK".  Handles 'get' magic.

                       char*   SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPV_set
               Set the value of the PV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvPV_set(SV* sv, char* val)

       SvREFCNT
               Returns the value of the object's reference count.

                       U32     SvREFCNT(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_dec
               Decrements the reference count of the given SV.

                       void    SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc
               Increments the reference count of the given SV.

                       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)

       SvROK   Tests if the SV is an RV.

                       bool    SvROK(SV* sv)

       SvROK_off
               Unsets the RV status of an SV.

                       void    SvROK_off(SV* sv)

       SvROK_on
               Tells an SV that it is an RV.

                       void    SvROK_on(SV* sv)

       SvRV    Dereferences an RV to return the SV.

                       SV*     SvRV(SV* sv)

       SvRV_set
               Set the value of the RV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvRV_set(SV* sv, SV* val)

       SvSTASH Returns the stash of the SV.

                       HV*     SvSTASH(SV* sv)

       SvSTASH_set
               Set the value of the STASH pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvSTASH_set(SV* sv, STASH* val)

       SvTAINT Taints an SV if tainting is enabled.

                       void    SvTAINT(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED
               Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if it is, FALSE if not.

                       bool    SvTAINTED(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_off
               Untaints an SV. Be very careful with this routine, as it short-circuits some of Perl's fundamental
               security features. XS module authors should not use this function unless they fully understand all the
               implications of unconditionally untainting the value. Untainting should be done in the standard perl
               fashion, via a carefully crafted regexp, rather than directly untainting variables.

                       void    SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_on
               Marks an SV as tainted if tainting is enabled.

                       void    SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)

       SvTRUE  Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV as true or false, defined or undefined.
               Does not handle 'get' magic.

                       bool    SvTRUE(SV* sv)

       SvTYPE  Returns the type of the SV.  See "svtype".

                       svtype  SvTYPE(SV* sv)

       SvUOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an unsigned integer.

                       void    SvUOK(SV* sv)

       SvUPGRADE
               Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Uses "sv_upgrade" to perform the upgrade if necessary.
               See "svtype".

                       void    SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)

       SvUTF8  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains UTF-8 encoded data.

                       bool    SvUTF8(SV* sv)

       SvUTF8_off
               Unsets the UTF-8 status of an SV.

                       void    SvUTF8_off(SV *sv)

       SvUTF8_on
               Turn on the UTF-8 status of an SV (the data is not changed, just the flag).  Do not use frivolously.

                       void    SvUTF8_on(SV *sv)

       SvUV    Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.  See "SvUVx" for a version which guarantees
               to evaluate sv only once.

                       UV      SvUV(SV* sv)

       SvUVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's UV slot, without checks or conversions.  Only use when you are sure
               SvIOK is true. See also "SvUV()".

                       UV      SvUVX(SV* sv)

       SvUVx   Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use
               the more efficient "SvUV" otherwise.

                       UV      SvUVx(SV* sv)

       SvUV_set
               Set the value of the UV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

                       void    SvUV_set(SV* sv, UV val)

       sv_2bool
               This function is only called on magical items, and is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent.

                       bool    sv_2bool(SV* sv)

       sv_2cv  Using various gambits, try to get a CV from an SV; in addition, try if possible to set *st and *gvp to
               the stash and GV associated with it.

                       CV*     sv_2cv(SV* sv, HV** st, GV** gvp, I32 lref)

       sv_2io  Using various gambits, try to get an IO from an SV: the IO slot if its a GV; or the recursive result if
               we're an RV; or the IO slot of the symbol named after the PV if we're a string.

                       IO*     sv_2io(SV* sv)

       sv_2iv  Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string conversion, magic etc. Normally used via
               the "SvIV(sv)" and "SvIVx(sv)" macros.

                       IV      sv_2iv(SV* sv)

       sv_2mortal
               Marks an existing SV as mortal.  The SV will be destroyed "soon", either by an explicit call to
               FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.  SvTEMP() is turned on which
               means that the SV's string buffer can be "stolen" if this SV is copied. See also "sv_newmortal" and
               "sv_mortalcopy".

                       SV*     sv_2mortal(SV* sv)

       sv_2nv  Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer conversion, magic etc. Normally
               used via the "SvNV(sv)" and "SvNVx(sv)" macros.

                       NV      sv_2nv(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvbyte
               Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp to its length.  May cause
               the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

               Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte" macro.

                       char*   sv_2pvbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvbyte_nolen
               Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV.  May cause the SV to be downgraded from
               UTF-8 as a side-effect.

               Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte_nolen" macro.

                       char*   sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvutf8
               Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp to its length.  May cause
               the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

               Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8" macro.

                       char*   sv_2pvutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvutf8_nolen
               Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV.  May cause the SV to be upgraded to
               UTF-8 as a side-effect.

               Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro.

                       char*   sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pv_flags
               Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.  If flags includes
               SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string if necessary.  Normally invoked via the
               "SvPV_flags" macro. "sv_2pv()" and "sv_2pv_nomg" usually end up here too.

                       char*   sv_2pv_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_2pv_nolen
               Like "sv_2pv()", but doesn't return the length too. You should usually use the macro wrapper
               "SvPV_nolen(sv)" instead.       char*     sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2uv  Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string conversion, magic etc. Normally
               used via the "SvUV(sv)" and "SvUVx(sv)" macros.

                       UV      sv_2uv(SV* sv)

       sv_backoff
               Remove any string offset. You should normally use the "SvOOK_off" macro wrapper instead.

                       int     sv_backoff(SV* sv)

       sv_bless
               Blesses an SV into a specified package.  The SV must be an RV.  The package must be designated by its
               stash (see "gv_stashpv()").  The reference count of the SV is unaffected.

                       SV*     sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash)

       sv_catpv
               Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.  If the SV has the UTF-8 status
               set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See
               "sv_catpv_mg".

                       void    sv_catpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_catpvf
               Processes its arguments like "sprintf" and appends the formatted output to an SV.  If the appended data
               contains "wide" characters (including, but not limited to, SVs with a UTF-8 PV formatted with %s, and
               characters >255 formatted with %c), the original SV might get upgraded to UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic,
               but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catpvf_mg". If the original SV was UTF-8, the pattern should be valid
               UTF-8; if the original SV was bytes, the pattern should be too.

                       void    sv_catpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvf_mg
               Like "sv_catpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_catpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvn
               Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.  The "len" indicates number of
               bytes to copy.  If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8.
               Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catpvn_mg".

                       void    sv_catpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpvn_flags
               Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.  The "len" indicates number of
               bytes to copy.  If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF-8.  If
               "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "dsv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_catpvn" and
               "sv_catpvn_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

                       void    sv_catpvn_flags(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len, I32 flags)

       sv_catpvn_mg
               Like "sv_catpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpvn_nomg
               Like "sv_catpvn" but doesn't process magic.

                       void    sv_catpvn_nomg(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpv_mg
               Like "sv_catpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_catpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_catsv
               Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not
               "ssv".  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catsv_mg".

                       void    sv_catsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_catsv_flags
               Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not
               "ssv".  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on the SVs if appropriate, else not.
               "sv_catsv" and "sv_catsv_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

                       void    sv_catsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_catsv_mg
               Like "sv_catsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_catsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_catsv_nomg
               Like "sv_catsv" but doesn't process magic.

                       void    sv_catsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_chop Efficient removal of characters from the beginning of the string buffer.  SvPOK(sv) must be true and
               the "ptr" must be a pointer to somewhere inside the string buffer.  The "ptr" becomes the first charac-
               ter of the adjusted string. Uses the "OOK hack".  Beware: after this function returns, "ptr" and
               SvPVX_const(sv) may no longer refer to the same chunk of data.

                       void    sv_chop(SV* sv, char* ptr)

       sv_clear
               Clear an SV: call any destructors, free up any memory used by the body, and free the body itself. The
               SV's head is not freed, although its type is set to all 1's so that it won't inadvertently be assumed
               to be live during global destruction etc.  This function should only be called when REFCNT is zero.
               Most of the time you'll want to call "sv_free()" (or its macro wrapper "SvREFCNT_dec") instead.

                       void    sv_clear(SV* sv)

       sv_cmp  Compares the strings in two SVs.  Returns -1, 0, or 1 indicating whether the string in "sv1" is less
               than, equal to, or greater than the string in "sv2". Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get magic,
               and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".

                       I32     sv_cmp(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_cmp_locale
               Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware manner. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get
               magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".  See also "sv_cmp".

                       I32     sv_cmp_locale(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_collxfrm
               Add Collate Transform magic to an SV if it doesn't already have it.

               Any scalar variable may carry PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic that contains the scalar data of the variable,
               but transformed to such a format that a normal memory comparison can be used to compare the data
               according to the locale settings.

                       char*   sv_collxfrm(SV* sv, STRLEN* nxp)

       sv_copypv
               Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the destination SV.  Automatically performs
               any necessary mg_get and coercion of numeric values into strings.  Guaranteed to preserve UTF-8 flag
               even from overloaded objects.  Similar in nature to sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV
               instead of just the string.  Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that would lose the
               UTF-8'ness of the PV.

                       void    sv_copypv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_dec  Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles 'get'
               magic.

                       void    sv_dec(SV* sv)

       sv_derived_from
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is derived from the specified class.  This is the function
               that implements "UNIVERSAL::isa".  It works for class names as well as for objects.

                       bool    sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_eq   Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs are identical. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes'
               aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.

                       I32     sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_force_normal
               Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared string, make a private copy; if we're a
               ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg. See also "sv_force_normal_flags".

                       void    sv_force_normal(SV *sv)

       sv_force_normal_flags
               Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared string, make a private copy; if we're a
               ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg. The "flags" parameter gets passed to
               "sv_unref_flags()" when unrefing. "sv_force_normal" calls this function with flags set to 0.

                       void    sv_force_normal_flags(SV *sv, U32 flags)

       sv_free Decrement an SV's reference count, and if it drops to zero, call "sv_clear" to invoke destructors and
               free up any memory used by the body; finally, deallocate the SV's head itself.  Normally called via a
               wrapper macro "SvREFCNT_dec".

                       void    sv_free(SV* sv)

       sv_gets Get a line from the filehandle and store it into the SV, optionally appending to the currently-stored
               string.

                       char*   sv_gets(SV* sv, PerlIO* fp, I32 append)

       sv_grow Expands the character buffer in the SV.  If necessary, uses "sv_unref" and upgrades the SV to "SVt_PV".
               Returns a pointer to the character buffer.  Use the "SvGROW" wrapper instead.

                       char*   sv_grow(SV* sv, STRLEN newlen)

       sv_inc  Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if necessary. Handles 'get'
               magic.

                       void    sv_inc(SV* sv)

       sv_insert
               Inserts a string at the specified offset/length within the SV. Similar to the Perl substr() function.

                       void    sv_insert(SV* bigsv, STRLEN offset, STRLEN len, char* little, STRLEN littlelen)

       sv_isa  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is blessed into the specified class.  This does not check
               for subtypes; use "sv_derived_from" to verify an inheritance relationship.

                       int     sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_isobject
               Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV pointing to a blessed object.  If the SV is not an
               RV, or if the object is not blessed, then this will return false.

                       int     sv_isobject(SV* sv)

       sv_iv   A private implementation of the "SvIVx" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro expres-
               sions. Always use the macro instead.

                       IV      sv_iv(SV* sv)

       sv_len  Returns the length of the string in the SV. Handles magic and type coercion.  See also "SvCUR", which
               gives raw access to the xpv_cur slot.

                       STRLEN  sv_len(SV* sv)

       sv_len_utf8
               Returns the number of characters in the string in an SV, counting wide UTF-8 bytes as a single charac-
               ter. Handles magic and type coercion.

                       STRLEN  sv_len_utf8(SV* sv)

       sv_magic
               Adds magic to an SV. First upgrades "sv" to type "SVt_PVMG" if necessary, then adds a new magic item of
               type "how" to the head of the magic list.

               See "sv_magicext" (which "sv_magic" now calls) for a description of the handling of the "name" and
               "namlen" arguments.

               You need to use "sv_magicext" to add magic to SvREADONLY SVs and also to add more than one instance of
               the same 'how'.

                       void    sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_magicext
               Adds magic to an SV, upgrading it if necessary. Applies the supplied vtable and returns a pointer to
               the magic added.

               Note that "sv_magicext" will allow things that "sv_magic" will not.  In particular, you can add magic
               to SvREADONLY SVs, and add more than one instance of the same 'how'.

               If "namlen" is greater than zero then a "savepvn" copy of "name" is stored, if "namlen" is zero then
               "name" is stored as-is and - as another special case - if "(name && namlen == HEf_SVKEY)" then "name"
               is assumed to contain an "SV*" and is stored as-is with its REFCNT incremented.

               (This is now used as a subroutine by "sv_magic".)

                       MAGIC * sv_magicext(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, MGVTBL *vtbl, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_mortalcopy
               Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV (using "sv_setsv").  The new SV is marked as mor-
               tal. It will be destroyed "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at
               places such as statement boundaries.  See also "sv_newmortal" and "sv_2mortal".

                       SV*     sv_mortalcopy(SV* oldsv)

       sv_newmortal
               Creates a new null SV which is mortal.  The reference count of the SV is set to 1. It will be destroyed
               "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement
               boundaries.  See also "sv_mortalcopy" and "sv_2mortal".

                       SV*     sv_newmortal()

       sv_newref
               Increment an SV's reference count. Use the "SvREFCNT_inc()" wrapper instead.

                       SV*     sv_newref(SV* sv)

       sv_nv   A private implementation of the "SvNVx" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro expres-
               sions. Always use the macro instead.

                       NV      sv_nv(SV* sv)

       sv_pos_b2u
               Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of bytes from the start of the string, to a count
               of the equivalent number of UTF-8 chars.  Handles magic and type coercion.

                       void    sv_pos_b2u(SV* sv, I32* offsetp)

       sv_pos_u2b
               Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of UTF-8 chars from the start of the string, to a
               count of the equivalent number of bytes; if lenp is non-zero, it does the same to lenp, but this time
               starting from the offset, rather than from the start of the string. Handles magic and type coercion.

                       void    sv_pos_u2b(SV* sv, I32* offsetp, I32* lenp)

       sv_pv   Use the "SvPV_nolen" macro instead

                       char*   sv_pv(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyte
               Use "SvPVbyte_nolen" instead.

                       char*   sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyten
               A private implementation of the "SvPVbyte" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro
               expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                       char*   sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvbyten_force
               A private implementation of the "SvPVbytex_force" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex
               macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                       char*   sv_pvbyten_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn  A private implementation of the "SvPV" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro expres-
               sions. Always use the macro instead.

                       char*   sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvn_force
               Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  A private implementation of the "SvPV_force" macro for
               compilers which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                       char*   sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn_force_flags
               Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "sv"
               if appropriate, else not. "sv_pvn_force" and "sv_pvn_force_nomg" are implemented in terms of this func-
               tion.  You normally want to use the various wrapper macros instead: see "SvPV_force" and
               "SvPV_force_nomg"

                       char*   sv_pvn_force_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_pvutf8
               Use the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro instead

                       char*   sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)

       sv_pvutf8n
               A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro
               expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                       char*   sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvutf8n_force
               A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8_force" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex
               macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

                       char*   sv_pvutf8n_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_reftype
               Returns a string describing what the SV is a reference to.

                       char*   sv_reftype(SV* sv, int ob)

       sv_replace
               Make the first argument a copy of the second, then delete the original.  The target SV physically takes
               over ownership of the body of the source SV and inherits its flags; however, the target keeps any magic
               it owns, and any magic in the source is discarded.  Note that this is a rather specialist SV copying
               operation; most of the time you'll want to use "sv_setsv" or one of its many macro front-ends.

                       void    sv_replace(SV* sv, SV* nsv)

       sv_report_used
               Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).

                       void    sv_report_used()

       sv_reset
               Underlying implementation for the "reset" Perl function.  Note that the perl-level function is vaguely
               deprecated.

                       void    sv_reset(char* s, HV* stash)

       sv_rvweaken
               Weaken a reference: set the "SvWEAKREF" flag on this RV; give the referred-to SV "PERL_MAGIC_backref"
               magic if it hasn't already; and push a back-reference to this RV onto the array of backreferences asso-
               ciated with that magic.

                       SV*     sv_rvweaken(SV *sv)

       sv_setiv
               Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
               also "sv_setiv_mg".

                       void    sv_setiv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setiv_mg
               Like "sv_setiv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setiv_mg(SV *sv, IV i)

       sv_setnv
               Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
               also "sv_setnv_mg".

                       void    sv_setnv(SV* sv, NV num)

       sv_setnv_mg
               Like "sv_setnv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setnv_mg(SV *sv, NV num)

       sv_setpv
               Copies a string into an SV.  The string must be null-terminated.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
               "sv_setpv_mg".

                       void    sv_setpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_setpvf
               Works like "sv_catpvf" but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it.  Does not handle 'set'
               magic.  See "sv_setpvf_mg".

                       void    sv_setpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpvf_mg
               Like "sv_setpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpviv
               Copies an integer into the given SV, also updating its string value.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
               "sv_setpviv_mg".

                       void    sv_setpviv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setpviv_mg
               Like "sv_setpviv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setpviv_mg(SV *sv, IV iv)

       sv_setpvn
               Copies a string into an SV.  The "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes to be copied.  If the
               "ptr" argument is NULL the SV will become undefined.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpvn_mg".

                       void    sv_setpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpvn_mg
               Like "sv_setpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpv_mg
               Like "sv_setpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_setref_iv
               Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an
               RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package
               for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference
               count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

                       SV*     sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv)

       sv_setref_nv
               Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an
               RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package
               for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference
               count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

                       SV*     sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV nv)

       sv_setref_pv
               Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an
               RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  If the "pv" argument is NULL then "PL_sv_undef"
               will be placed into the SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set
               "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV
               will be returned.

               Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV, CV, because those objects will become corrupted by
               the pointer copy process.

               Note that "sv_setref_pvn" copies the string while this copies the pointer.

                       SV*     sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, void* pv)

       sv_setref_pvn
               Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The length of the string must be specified
               with "n".  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new
               SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to
               avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

               Note that "sv_setref_pv" copies the pointer while this copies the string.

                       SV*     sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, char* pv, STRLEN n)

       sv_setref_uv
               Copies an unsigned integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument will be
               upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argument indi-
               cates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV
               will have a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

                       SV*     sv_setref_uv(SV* rv, const char* classname, UV uv)

       sv_setsv
               Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination SV "dsv".  The source SV may be
               destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not
               handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content
               of the destination.

               You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal",
               "SvSetMagicSV" and "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

                       void    sv_setsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_setsv_flags
               Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination SV "dsv".  The source SV may be
               destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not
               handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content
               of the destination.  If the "flags" parameter has the "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "ssv" if
               appropriate, else not. If the "flags" parameter has the "NOSTEAL" bit set then the buffers of temps
               will not be stolen. <sv_setsv> and "sv_setsv_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

               You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal",
               "SvSetMagicSV" and "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

               This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other copy-ish functions and macros use this
               underneath.

                       void    sv_setsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_setsv_mg
               Like "sv_setsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_setsv_nomg
               Like "sv_setsv" but doesn't process magic.

                       void    sv_setsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_setuv
               Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.  Does not handle 'set'
               magic.  See also "sv_setuv_mg".

                       void    sv_setuv(SV* sv, UV num)

       sv_setuv_mg
               Like "sv_setuv", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_setuv_mg(SV *sv, UV u)

       sv_taint
               Taint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_on" instead.       void sv_taint(SV* sv)

       sv_tainted
               Test an SV for taintedness. Use "SvTAINTED" instead.       bool sv_tainted(SV* sv)

       sv_true Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl's rules.  Use the "SvTRUE" macro instead, which may
               call "sv_true()" or may instead use an in-line version.

                       I32     sv_true(SV *sv)

       sv_unmagic
               Removes all magic of type "type" from an SV.

                       int     sv_unmagic(SV* sv, int type)

       sv_unref
               Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of whatever was being referenced by
               the RV.  This can almost be thought of as a reversal of "newSVrv".  This is "sv_unref_flags" with the
               "flag" being zero.  See "SvROK_off".

                       void    sv_unref(SV* sv)

       sv_unref_flags
               Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of whatever was being referenced by
               the RV.  This can almost be thought of as a reversal of "newSVrv".  The "cflags" argument can contain
               "SV_IMMEDIATE_UNREF" to force the reference count to be decremented (otherwise the decrementing is con-
               ditional on the reference count being different from one or the reference being a readonly SV).  See
               "SvROK_off".

                       void    sv_unref_flags(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       sv_untaint
               Untaint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_off" instead.       void sv_untaint(SV* sv)

       sv_upgrade
               Upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Generally adds a new body type to the SV, then copies across as
               much information as possible from the old body.  You generally want to use the "SvUPGRADE" macro wrap-
               per. See also "svtype".

                       bool    sv_upgrade(SV* sv, U32 mt)

       sv_usepvn
               Tells an SV to use "ptr" to find its string value.  Normally the string is stored inside the SV but
               sv_usepvn allows the SV to use an outside string.  The "ptr" should point to memory that was allocated
               by "malloc".  The string length, "len", must be supplied.  This function will realloc the memory
               pointed to by "ptr", so that pointer should not be freed or used by the programmer after giving it to
               sv_usepvn.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_usepvn_mg".

                       void    sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_usepvn_mg
               Like "sv_usepvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

                       void    sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_utf8_decode
               If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8 and contains a multiple-byte character, the "SvUTF8"
               flag is turned on so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte characters,
               the "SvUTF8" flag stays being off.  Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.

               NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

                       bool    sv_utf8_decode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_downgrade
               Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.  If the PV contains a character beyond
               byte, this conversion will fail; in this case, either returns false or, if "fail_ok" is not true,
               croaks.

               This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface: use the Encode extension for that.

               NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

                       bool    sv_utf8_downgrade(SV *sv, bool fail_ok)

       sv_utf8_encode
               Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the "SvUTF8" flag off so that it looks like octets
               again.

                       void    sv_utf8_encode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade
               Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.  Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
               Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even if all the bytes have hibit clear.

               This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface: use the Encode extension for that.

                       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
               Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.  Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
               Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even if all the bytes have hibit clear. If
               "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "sv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_utf8_upgrade" and
               "sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

               This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface: use the Encode extension for that.

                       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)

       sv_uv   A private implementation of the "SvUVx" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro expres-
               sions. Always use the macro instead.

                       UV      sv_uv(SV* sv)

       sv_vcatpvf
               Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the formatted output to an SV.  Does not handle
               'set' magic.  See "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

               Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf".

                       void    sv_vcatpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vcatpvfn
               Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the formatted output to an SV.  Uses an array of
               SVs if the C style variable argument list is missing (NULL).  When running with taint checks enabled,
               indicates via "maybe_tainted" if results are untrustworthy (often due to the use of locales).

               XXX Except that it maybe_tainted is never assigned to.

               Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vcatpvf" and "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

                       void    sv_vcatpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vcatpvf_mg
               Like "sv_vcatpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

               Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf_mg".

                       void    sv_vcatpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vsetpvf
               Works like "sv_vcatpvf" but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it.  Does not handle 'set'
               magic.  See "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

               Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf".

                       void    sv_vsetpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vsetpvfn
               Works like "sv_vcatpvfn" but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it.

               Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vsetpvf" and "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

                       void    sv_vsetpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vsetpvf_mg
               Like "sv_vsetpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

               Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf_mg".

                       void    sv_vsetpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

Unicode Support
       bytes_from_utf8
               Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8 into byte encoding.  Unlike "utf8_to_bytes" but like
               "bytes_to_utf8", returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and updates "len" to contain the new
               length.  Returns the original string if no conversion occurs, "len" is unchanged. Do nothing if
               "is_utf8" points to 0. Sets "is_utf8" to 0 if "s" is converted or contains all 7bit characters.

               NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

                       U8*     bytes_from_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)

       bytes_to_utf8
               Converts a string "s" of length "len" from ASCII into UTF-8 encoding.  Returns a pointer to the newly-
               created string, and sets "len" to reflect the new length.

               If you want to convert to UTF-8 from other encodings than ASCII, see sv_recode_to_utf8().

               NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

                       U8*     bytes_to_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       ibcmp_utf8
               Return true if the strings s1 and s2 differ case-insensitively, false if not (if they are equal
               case-insensitively).  If u1 is true, the string s1 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.  If u2 is
               true, the string s2 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.  If u1 or u2 are false, the respective
               string is assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding.

               If the pe1 and pe2 are non-NULL, the scanning pointers will be copied in there (they will point at the
               beginning of the next character).  If the pointers behind pe1 or pe2 are non-NULL, they are the end
               pointers beyond which scanning will not continue under any circumstances.  If the byte lengths l1 and
               l2 are non-zero, s1+l1 and s2+l2 will be used as goal end pointers that will also stop the scan, and
               which qualify towards defining a successful match: all the scans that define an explicit length must
               reach their goal pointers for a match to succeed).

               For case-insensitiveness, the "casefolding" of Unicode is used instead of upper/lowercasing both the
               characters, see http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/ (Case Mappings).

                       I32     ibcmp_utf8(const char* a, char **pe1, UV l1, bool u1, const char* b, char **pe2, UV l2, bool u2)

       is_utf8_char
               Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8 character.  Note that an INVARIANT
               (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid UTF-8 character.  The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8 character
               will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.

                       STRLEN  is_utf8_char(U8 *p)

       is_utf8_string
               Returns true if first "len" bytes of the given string form a valid UTF-8 string, false otherwise.  Note
               that 'a valid UTF-8 string' does not mean 'a string that contains code points above 0x7F encoded in
               UTF-8' because a valid ASCII string is a valid UTF-8 string.

               See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string_loc().

                       bool    is_utf8_string(U8 *s, STRLEN len)

       is_utf8_string_loc
               Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the
               location s+len (in the case of "utf8ness success") in the "ep".

               See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string().

                       bool    is_utf8_string_loc(U8 *s, STRLEN len, U8 **p)

       is_utf8_string_loclen
               Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the
               location s+len (in the case of "utf8ness success") in the "ep", and the number of UTF-8 encoded charac-
               ters in the "el".

               See also is_utf8_string_loc() and is_utf8_string().

                       bool    is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)

       pv_uni_display
               Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the string spv, length len, the displayable version
               being at most pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be appended).

               The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set to display isPRINT()able characters as themselves,
               UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH to display the \\[nrfta\\] as the backslashed versions (like '\n') (UNI_DIS-
               PLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT for \\).  UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its alias UNI_DIS-
               PLAY_REGEX) have both UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT turned on.

               The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

                       char*   pv_uni_display(SV *dsv, U8 *spv, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       sv_cat_decode
               The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, the PV of the ssv is assumed to be octets in that
               encoding and decoding the input starts from the position which (PV + *offset) pointed to.  The dsv will
               be concatenated the decoded UTF-8 string from ssv.  Decoding will terminate when the string tstr
               appears in decoding output or the input ends on the PV of the ssv. The value which the offset points
               will be modified to the last input position on the ssv.

               Returns TRUE if the terminator was found, else returns FALSE.

                       bool    sv_cat_decode(SV* dsv, SV *encoding, SV *ssv, int *offset, char* tstr, int tlen)

       sv_recode_to_utf8
               The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, on entry the PV of the sv is assumed to be octets in
               that encoding, and the sv will be converted into Unicode (and UTF-8).

               If the sv already is UTF-8 (or if it is not POK), or if the encoding is not a reference, nothing is
               done to the sv.  If the encoding is not an "Encode::XS" Encoding object, bad things will happen.  (See
               lib/encoding.pm and Encode).

               The PV of the sv is returned.

                       char*   sv_recode_to_utf8(SV* sv, SV *encoding)

       sv_uni_display
               Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the scalar sv, the displayable version being at most
               pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be appended).

               The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().

               The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

                       char*   sv_uni_display(SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       to_utf8_case
               The "p" contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding the character that is being converted.

               The "ustrp" is a pointer to the character buffer to put the conversion result to.  The "lenp" is a
               pointer to the length of the result.

               The "swashp" is a pointer to the swash to use.

               Both the special and normal mappings are stored lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl, and loaded by SWASHGET, using
               lib/utf8_heavy.pl.  The special (usually, but not always, a multicharacter mapping), is tried first.

               The "special" is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the hash %utf8::ToSpecLower.  The
               access to the hash is through Perl_to_utf8_case().

               The "normal" is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash %utf8::ToLower.

                       UV      to_utf8_case(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, SV **swashp, char *normal, char *special)

       to_utf8_fold
               Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its foldcase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and
               its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
               the foldcase version may be longer than the original character (up to three characters).

               The first character of the foldcased version is returned (but note, as explained above, that there may
               be more.)

                       UV      to_utf8_fold(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_lower
               Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its lowercase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and
               its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
               the lowercase version may be longer than the original character.

               The first character of the lowercased version is returned (but note, as explained above, that there may
               be more.)

                       UV      to_utf8_lower(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_title
               Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its titlecase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and
               its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
               the titlecase version may be longer than the original character.

               The first character of the titlecased version is returned (but note, as explained above, that there may
               be more.)

                       UV      to_utf8_title(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_upper
               Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its uppercase version and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and
               its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
               the uppercase version may be longer than the original character.

               The first character of the uppercased version is returned (but note, as explained above, that there may
               be more.)

                       UV      to_utf8_upper(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       utf8n_to_uvchr
               Returns the native character value of the first character in the string "s" which is assumed to be in
               UTF-8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

               Allows length and flags to be passed to low level routine.

                       UV      utf8n_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8n_to_uvuni
               Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.  Returns the unicode code point value of the first character in the
               string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding and no longer than "curlen"; "retlen" will be set
               to the length, in bytes, of that character.

               If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, the behaviour is dependent on the value of
               "flags": if it contains UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, it is assumed that the caller will raise a warning, and this
               function will silently just set "retlen" to "-1" and return zero.  If the "flags" does not contain
               UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, warnings about malformations will be given, "retlen" will be set to the expected
               length of the UTF-8 character in bytes, and zero will be returned.

               The "flags" can also contain various flags to allow deviations from the strict UTF-8 encoding (see
               utf8.h).

               Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr() rather than call this directly.

                       UV      utf8n_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8_distance
               Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers "a" and "b".

               WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the same UTF-8 buffer.

                       IV      utf8_distance(U8 *a, U8 *b)

       utf8_hop
               Return the UTF-8 pointer "s" displaced by "off" characters, either forward or backward.

               WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* "off" is within the UTF-8 data pointed to by "s"
               *and* that on entry "s" is aligned on the first byte of character or just after the last byte of a
               character.

                       U8*     utf8_hop(U8 *s, I32 off)

       utf8_length
               Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string "s" in characters.  Stops at "e" (inclusive).  If "e
               < s" or if the scan would end up past "e", croaks.

                       STRLEN  utf8_length(U8* s, U8 *e)

       utf8_to_bytes
               Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8 into byte encoding.  Unlike "bytes_to_utf8", this
               over-writes the original string, and updates len to contain the new length.  Returns zero on failure,
               setting "len" to -1.

               NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

                       U8*     utf8_to_bytes(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       utf8_to_uvchr
               Returns the native character value of the first character in the string "s" which is assumed to be in
               UTF-8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

               If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is returned and retlen is set, if
               possible, to -1.

                       UV      utf8_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       utf8_to_uvuni
               Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8
               encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

               This function should only be used when returned UV is considered an index into the Unicode semantic
               tables (e.g. swashes).

               If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is returned and retlen is set, if possi-
               ble, to -1.

                       UV      utf8_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       uvchr_to_utf8
               Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Native codepoint "uv" to the end of the string "d"; "d" should be
               have at least "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after
               the end of the new character. In other words,

                   d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);

               is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying

                   *(d++) = uv;

                       U8*     uvchr_to_utf8(U8 *d, UV uv)

       uvuni_to_utf8_flags
               Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Unicode codepoint "uv" to the end of the string "d"; "d" should be
               have at least "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to the byte after
               the end of the new character. In other words,

                   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);

               or, in most cases,

                   d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);

               (which is equivalent to)

                   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);

               is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying

                   *(d++) = uv;

                       U8*     uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)

Variables created by "xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions
       ax      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the stack base offset, used by the "ST", "XSprePUSH"
               and "XSRETURN" macros.  The "dMARK" macro must be called prior to setup the "MARK" variable.

                       I32     ax

       CLASS   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the class name for a C++ XS constructor.  This is
               always a "char*".  See "THIS".

                       char*   CLASS

       dAX     Sets up the "ax" variable.  This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

                               dAX;

       dAXMARK Sets up the "ax" variable and stack marker variable "mark".  This is usually handled automatically by
               "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

                               dAXMARK;

       dITEMS  Sets up the "items" variable.  This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

                               dITEMS;

       dXSARGS Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling dSP and dMARK.  Sets up the "ax" and "items" vari-
               ables by calling "dAX" and "dITEMS".  This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp".

                               dXSARGS;

       dXSI32  Sets up the "ix" variable for an XSUB which has aliases.  This is usually handled automatically by
               "xsubpp".

                               dXSI32;

       items   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the number of items on the stack.  See "Variable-length
               Parameter Lists" in perlxs.

                       I32     items

       ix      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate which of an XSUB's aliases was used to invoke it.  See
               "The ALIAS: Keyword" in perlxs.

                       I32     ix

       newXSproto
               Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.  Adds Perl prototypes to the subs.

       RETVAL  Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to hold the return value for an XSUB. This is always the proper
               type for the XSUB. See "The RETVAL Variable" in perlxs.

                       (whatever)      RETVAL

       ST      Used to access elements on the XSUB's stack.

                       SV*     ST(int ix)

       THIS    Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to designate the object in a C++ XSUB.  This is always the proper
               type for the C++ object.  See "CLASS" and "Using XS With C++" in perlxs.

                       (whatever)      THIS

       XS      Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list.  This is handled by "xsubpp".

       XS_VERSION
               The version identifier for an XS module.  This is usually handled automatically by "ExtUtils::Make-
               Maker".  See "XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK".

       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK
               Macro to verify that a PM module's $VERSION variable matches the XS module's "XS_VERSION" variable.
               This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp".  See "The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword" in perlxs.

                               XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;

Warning and Dieing
       croak   This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "die" function.  Normally call this function the same way
               you call the C "printf" function.  Calling "croak" returns control directly to Perl, sidestepping the
               normal C order of execution. See "warn".

               If you want to throw an exception object, assign the object to $@ and then pass "Nullch" to croak():

                  errsv = get_sv("@", TRUE);
                  sv_setsv(errsv, exception_object);
                  croak(Nullch);

                       void    croak(const char* pat, ...)

       warn    This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "warn" function.  Call this function the same way you
               call the C "printf" function.  See "croak".

                       void    warn(const char* pat, ...)

AUTHORS
       Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto <okamotoATcorp.com>.  It is now maintained as
       part of Perl itself.

       With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Malcolm Beattie, Andreas Koenig, Paul Hudson, Ilya
       Zakharevich, Paul Marquess, Neil Bowers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spider Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer, Stephen
       McCamant, and Gurusamy Sarathy.

       API Listing originally by Dean Roehrich <roehrichATcray.com>.

       Updated to be autogenerated from comments in the source by Benjamin Stuhl.

SEE ALSO
       perlguts(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlintern(1)



perl v5.8.8                       2006-01-07                        PERLAPI(1)