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PYTHON(1)                                                            PYTHON(1)



NAME
       python - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language

SYNOPSIS
       python [ -B ] [ -d ] [ -E ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -m module-name ]
              [ -O ] [ -O0 ] [ -R ] [ -Q argument ] [ -s ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u ]
              [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -W argument ] [ -x ] [ -3 ] [ -?  ]
              [ -c command | script | - ] [ arguments ]

DESCRIPTION
       Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language that combines remarkable power with
       very clear syntax.  For an introduction to programming in Python you are referred to the Python Tutorial.   The
       Python Library Reference documents built-in and standard types, constants, functions and modules.  Finally, the
       Python Reference Manual describes the syntax and semantics of the core language in (perhaps too)  much  detail.
       (These  documents  may  be  located  via  the INTERNET RESOURCES below; they may be installed on your system as
       well.)

       Python's basic power can be extended with your own modules written in C or C++.  On most systems  such  modules
       may  be  dynamically loaded.  Python is also adaptable as an extension language for existing applications.  See
       the internal documentation for hints.

       Documentation for installed Python modules and packages can be viewed by running the pydoc program.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
       -B     Don't write .py[co] files on import. See also PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE.

       -c command
              Specify the command to execute (see next section).  This terminates the option list  (following  options
              are passed as arguments to the command).

       -d     Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards only, depending on compilation options).

       -E     Ignore environment variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that modify the behavior of the interpreter.

       -h ,  -? ,  --help
              Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -i     When a script is passed as first argument or the -c option is used, enter interactive mode after execut-
              ing the script or the command.  It does not read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file.  This can be useful to inspect
              global variables or a stack trace when a script raises an exception.

       -m module-name
              Searches sys.path for the named module and runs the corresponding .py file as a script.

       -O     Turn on basic optimizations.  This changes the filename extension for  compiled  (bytecode)  files  from
              .pyc to .pyo.  Given twice, causes docstrings to be discarded.

       -O0    Discard docstrings in addition to the -O optimizations.

       -R     Turn on "hash randomization", so that the hash() values of str, unicode, buffer and datetime objects are
              "salted" with an unpredictable pseudo-random value. Although they remain constant within  an  individual
              Python process, they are not predictable between repeated invocations of Python.

              This  is  intended  to  provide protection against a denial of service caused by carefully-chosen inputs
              that  exploit  the  worst  case  performance  of  a   dict   construction,   O(n^2)   complexity.    See
              http://www.ocert.org/advisories/ocert-2011-003.html for details.

       -Q argument
              Division  control;  see  PEP 238.  The argument must be one of "old" (the default, int/int and long/long
              return an int or long), "new" (new division semantics, i.e. int/int  and  long/long  returns  a  float),
              "warn"  (old  division  semantics  with a warning for int/int and long/long), or "warnall" (old division
              semantics with a warning for all use of the division  operator).   For  a  use  of  "warnall",  see  the
              Tools/scripts/fixdiv.py script.

       -s     Don't add user site directory to sys.path.

       -S     Disable  the import of the module site and the site-dependent manipulations of sys.path that it entails.

       -t     Issue a warning when a source file mixes tabs and spaces for indentation in a way that makes  it  depend
              on the worth of a tab expressed in spaces.  Issue an error when the option is given twice.

       -u     Force  stdin,  stdout and stderr to be totally unbuffered.  On systems where it matters, also put stdin,
              stdout and stderr in binary mode.  Note that there is internal buffering  in  xreadlines(),  readlines()
              and  file-object  iterators  ("for  line in sys.stdin") which is not influenced by this option.  To work
              around this, you will want to use "sys.stdin.readline()" inside a "while 1:" loop.

       -v     Print a message each time a module is initialized, showing the place (filename or built-in module)  from
              which  it is loaded.  When given twice, print a message for each file that is checked for when searching
              for a module.  Also provides information on module cleanup at exit.

       -V ,  --version
              Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits.

       -W argument
              Warning control.  Python sometimes prints warning message to sys.stderr.  A typical warning message  has
              the  following  form:  file:line:  category: message.  By default, each warning is printed once for each
              source line where it occurs.  This option controls how often warnings are printed.  Multiple -W  options
              may  be  given;  when a warning matches more than one option, the action for the last matching option is
              performed.  Invalid -W options are ignored (a warning message is printed about invalid options when  the
              first  warning is issued).  Warnings can also be controlled from within a Python program using the warn-
              ings module.

              The simplest form of argument is one of the following action strings (or a unique abbreviation):  ignore
              to  ignore  all warnings; default to explicitly request the default behavior (printing each warning once
              per source line); all to print a warning each time it occurs (this may generate many messages if a warn-
              ing is triggered repeatedly for the same source line, such as inside a loop); module to print each warn-
              ing only the first time it occurs in each module; once to print each warning  only  the  first  time  it
              occurs in the program; or error to raise an exception instead of printing a warning message.

              The  full  form  of argument is action:message:category:module:line.  Here, action is as explained above
              but only applies to messages that match the remaining fields.  Empty fields match all  values;  trailing
              empty  fields  may be omitted.  The message field matches the start of the warning message printed; this
              match is case-insensitive.  The category field matches the warning category.  This must be a class name;
              the match test whether the actual warning category of the message is a subclass of the specified warning
              category.  The full class name must be given.  The module field  matches  the  (fully-qualified)  module
              name; this match is case-sensitive.  The line field matches the line number, where zero matches all line
              numbers and is thus equivalent to an omitted line number.

       -x     Skip the first line of the source.  This is intended for a DOS specific hack only.   Warning:  the  line
              numbers in error messages will be off by one!

       -3     Warn about Python 3.x incompatibilities that 2to3 cannot trivially fix.

INTERPRETER INTERFACE
       The  interpreter interface resembles that of the UNIX shell: when called with standard input connected to a tty
       device, it prompts for commands and executes them until an EOF is read; when called with a file  name  argument
       or  with  a file as standard input, it reads and executes a script from that file; when called with -c command,
       it executes the Python statement(s) given as command.  Here command may contain multiple  statements  separated
       by  newlines.   Leading  whitespace  is  significant in Python statements!  In non-interactive mode, the entire
       input is parsed before it is executed.

       If available, the script name and additional arguments thereafter are passed to the script in the Python  vari-
       able  sys.argv  , which is a list of strings (you must first import sys to be able to access it).  If no script
       name is given, sys.argv[0] is an empty string; if -c is used, sys.argv[0] contains the string '-c'.  Note  that
       options interpreted by the Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In  interactive  mode, the primary prompt is '>>>'; the second prompt (which appears when a command is not com-
       plete) is '...'.  The prompts can be changed by assignment to sys.ps1 or sys.ps2.  The interpreter  quits  when
       it  reads an EOF at a prompt.  When an unhandled exception occurs, a stack trace is printed and control returns
       to the primary prompt; in non-interactive mode, the interpreter exits after  printing  the  stack  trace.   The
       interrupt signal raises the KeyboardInterrupt exception; other UNIX signals are not caught (except that SIGPIPE
       is sometimes ignored, in favor of the IOError exception).  Error messages are written to stderr.

FILES AND DIRECTORIES
       These are subject to difference depending on local installation conventions; ${prefix} and  ${exec_prefix}  are
       installation-dependent  and  should  be interpreted as for GNU software; they may be the same.  The default for
       both is /usr/local.

       ${exec_prefix}/bin/python
              Recommended location of the interpreter.

       ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>
              Recommended locations of the directories containing the standard modules.

       ${prefix}/include/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/include/python<version>
              Recommended locations of the directories containing the  include  files  needed  for  developing  Python
              extensions and embedding the interpreter.

       ~/.pythonrc.py
              User-specific  initialization  file  loaded  by the user module; not used by default or by most applica-
              tions.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       PYTHONHOME
              Change the location of the standard Python libraries.  By default, the libraries are searched in  ${pre-
              fix}/lib/python<version>  and ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>, where ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix} are
              installation-dependent directories, both defaulting to /usr/local.  When $PYTHONHOME is set to a  single
              directory, its value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.  To specify different values for these,
              set $PYTHONHOME to ${prefix}:${exec_prefix}.

       PYTHONPATH
              Augments the default search path for module files.  The format is the same as the shell's $PATH: one  or
              more  directory  pathnames  separated  by  colons.   Non-existent directories are silently ignored.  The
              default search path is installation dependent, but generally begins  with  ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
              (see  PYTHONHOME  above).  The default search path is always appended to $PYTHONPATH.  If a script argu-
              ment is given, the directory containing the script is inserted in the path in front of $PYTHONPATH.  The
              search path can be manipulated from within a Python program as the variable sys.path .

       PYTHONSTARTUP
              If  this  is the name of a readable file, the Python commands in that file are executed before the first
              prompt is displayed in interactive mode.  The file is executed in the same name space where  interactive
              commands are executed so that objects defined or imported in it can be used without qualification in the
              interactive session.  You can also change the prompts sys.ps1 and sys.ps2 in this file.

       PYTHONY2K
              Set this to a non-empty string to cause the time module to require dates specified as strings to include
              4-digit  years,  otherwise 2-digit years are converted based on rules described in the time module docu-
              mentation.

       PYTHONOPTIMIZE
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -O option. If set to an integer,
              it is equivalent to specifying -O multiple times.

       PYTHONDEBUG
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -d option. If set to an integer,
              it is equivalent to specifying -d multiple times.

       PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -B option (don't  try  to  write
              .py[co] files).

       PYTHONINSPECT
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -i option.

       PYTHONNOUSERSITE
              If  this  is  set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -s option (Don't add the user
              site directory to sys.path).

       PYTHONUNBUFFERED
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -u option.

       PYTHONVERBOSE
              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -v option. If set to an integer,
              it is equivalent to specifying -v multiple times.

       PYTHONHASHSEED
              If  this variable is set to "random", the effect is the same as specifying the -R option: a random value
              is used to seed the hashes of str, unicode, buffer and datetime objects.

              If PYTHONHASHSEED is set to an integer value, it is used as a fixed seed for generating  the  hash()  of
              the  types  covered  by the hash randomization.  Its purpose is to allow repeatable hashing, such as for
              selftests for the interpreter itself, or to allow a cluster of python processes to share hash values.

              The integer must be a decimal number in the range [0,4294967295].  Specifying the value 0 will  lead  to
              the same hash values as when hash randomization is disabled.

AUTHOR
       The Python Software Foundation: http://www.python.org/psf

INTERNET RESOURCES
       Main website:  http://www.python.org/
       Documentation:  http://docs.python.org/
       Developer resources:  http://www.python.org/dev/
       Downloads:  http://python.org/download/
       Module repository:  http://pypi.python.org/
       Newsgroups:  comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

LICENSING
       Python  is  distributed under an Open Source license.  See the file "LICENSE" in the Python source distribution
       for information on terms & conditions for accessing and otherwise using Python and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WAR-
       RANTIES.



             $Date: 2010-01-31 11:09:16 -0500 (Sun, 31 Jan 2010) $   PYTHON(1)