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S2P(1)                 Perl Programmers Reference Guide                 S2P(1)



NAME
       psed - a stream editor

SYNOPSIS
          psed [-an] script [file ...]
          psed [-an] [-e script] [-f script-file] [file ...]

          s2p  [-an] [-e script] [-f script-file]

DESCRIPTION
       A stream editor reads the input stream consisting of the specified files (or standard input, if none are
       given), processes is line by line by applying a script consisting of edit commands, and writes resulting lines
       to standard output. The filename '"-"' may be used to read standard input.

       The edit script is composed from arguments of -e options and script-files, in the given order. A single script
       argument may be specified as the first parameter.

       If this program is invoked with the name s2p, it will act as a sed-to-Perl translator. See "sed Script Transla-
       tion".

       sed returns an exit code of 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

OPTIONS
       -a  A file specified as argument to the w edit command is by default opened before input processing starts.
           Using -a, opening of such files is delayed until the first line is actually written to the file.

       -e script
           The editing commands defined by script are appended to the script.  Multiple commands must be separated by
           newlines.

       -f script-file
           Editing commands from the specified script-file are read and appended to the script.

       -n  By default, a line is written to standard output after the editing script has been applied to it. The -n
           option suppresses automatic printing.

COMMANDS
       sed command syntax is defined as

          [address[,address]][!]function[argument]

       with whitespace being permitted before or after addresses, and between the function character and the argument.
       The addresses and the address inverter ("!") are used to restrict the application of a command to the selected
       line(s) of input.

       Each command must be on a line of its own, except where noted in the synopses below.

       The edit cycle performed on each input line consist of reading the line (without its trailing newline charac-
       ter) into the pattern space, applying the applicable commands of the edit script, writing the final contents of
       the pattern space and a newline to the standard output.  A hold space is provided for saving the contents of
       the pattern space for later use.

       Addresses

       A sed address is either a line number or a pattern, which may be combined arbitrarily to construct ranges.
       Lines are numbered across all input files.

       Any address may be followed by an exclamation mark ('"!"'), selecting all lines not matching that address.

       number
           The line with the given number is selected.

       $   A dollar sign ("$") is the line number of the last line of the input stream.

       /regular expression/
           A pattern address is a basic regular expression (see "Basic Regular Expressions"), between the delimiting
           character "/".  Any other character except "\" or newline may be used to delimit a pattern address when the
           initial delimiter is prefixed with a backslash ('"\"').

       If no address is given, the command selects every line.

       If one address is given, it selects the line (or lines) matching the address.

       Two addresses select a range that begins whenever the first address matches, and ends (including that line)
       when the second address matches.  If the first (second) address is a matching pattern, the second address is
       not applied to the very same line to determine the end of the range. Likewise, if the second address is a
       matching pattern, the first address is not applied to the very same line to determine the begin of another
       range. If both addresses are line numbers, and the second line number is less than the first line number, then
       only the first line is selected.

       Functions

       The maximum permitted number of addresses is indicated with each function synopsis below.

       The argument text consists of one or more lines following the command.  Embedded newlines in text must be pre-
       ceded with a backslash.  Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character is taken literally.

       [1addr]a\ text
           Write text (which must start on the line following the command) to standard output immediately before read-
           ing the next line of input, either by executing the N function or by beginning a new cycle.

       [2addr]b [label]
           Branch to the : function with the specified label. If no label is given, branch to the end of the script.

       [2addr]c\ text
           The line, or range of lines, selected by the address is deleted.  The text (which must start on the line
           following the command) is written to standard output. With an address range, this occurs at the end of the
           range.

       [2addr]d
           Deletes the pattern space and starts the next cycle.

       [2addr]D
           Deletes the pattern space through the first embedded newline or to the end.  If the pattern space becomes
           empty, a new cycle is started, otherwise execution of the script is restarted.

       [2addr]g
           Replace the contents of the pattern space with the hold space.

       [2addr]G
           Append a newline and the contents of the hold space to the pattern space.

       [2addr]h
           Replace the contents of the hold space with the pattern space.

       [2addr]H
           Append a newline and the contents of the pattern space to the hold space.

       [1addr]i\ text
           Write the text (which must start on the line following the command) to standard output.

       [2addr]l
           Print the contents of the pattern space: non-printable characters are shown in C-style escaped form; long
           lines are split and have a trailing '"\"' at the point of the split; the true end of a line is marked with
           a '"$"'. Escapes are: '\a', '\t', '\n', '\f', '\r', '\e' for BEL, HT, LF, FF, CR, ESC, respectively, and
           '\' followed by a three-digit octal number for all other non-printable characters.

       [2addr]n
           If automatic printing is enabled, write the pattern space to the standard output. Replace the pattern space
           with the next line of input. If there is no more input, processing is terminated.

       [2addr]N
           Append a newline and the next line of input to the pattern space. If there is no more input, processing is
           terminated.

       [2addr]p
           Print the pattern space to the standard output. (Use the -n option to suppress automatic printing at the
           end of a cycle if you want to avoid double printing of lines.)

       [2addr]P
           Prints the pattern space through the first embedded newline or to the end.

       [1addr]q
           Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle.

       [1addr]r file
           Copy the contents of the file to standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of
           input. Any error encountered while reading file is silently ignored.

       [2addr]s/regular expression/replacement/flags
           Substitute the replacement string for the first substring in the pattern space that matches the regular
           expression.  Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the
           regular expression and the replacement.  To use the delimiter as a literal character within the regular
           expression and the replacement, precede the character by a backslash ('"\"').

           Literal newlines may be embedded in the replacement string by preceding a newline with a backslash.

           Within the replacement, an ampersand ('"&"') is replaced by the string matching the regular expression. The
           strings '"\1"' through '"\9"' are replaced by the corresponding subpattern (see "Basic Regular Expres-
           sions").  To get a literal '"&"' or '"\"' in the replacement text, precede it by a backslash.

           The following flags modify the behaviour of the s command:

           g       The replacement is performed for all matching, non-overlapping substrings of the pattern space.

           1..9    Replace only the n-th matching substring of the pattern space.

           p       If the substitution was made, print the new value of the pattern space.

           w file  If the substitution was made, write the new value of the pattern space to the specified file.

       [2addr]t [label]
           Branch to the : function with the specified label if any s substitutions have been made since the most
           recent reading of an input line or execution of a t function. If no label is given, branch to the end of
           the script.

       [2addr]w file
           The contents of the pattern space are written to the file.

       [2addr]x
           Swap the contents of the pattern space and the hold space.

       [1addr]=
           Prints the current line number on the standard output.

       [0addr]: [label]
           The command specifies the position of the label. It has no other effect.

       [2addr]{ [command]
       [0addr]}
           These two commands begin and end a command list. The first command may be given on the same line as the
           opening { command. The commands within the list are jointly selected by the address(es) given on the { com-
           mand (but may still have individual addresses).

       [0addr]# [comment]
           The entire line is ignored (treated as a comment). If, however, the first two characters in the script are
           '"#n"', automatic printing of output is suppressed, as if the -n option were given on the command line.

BASIC REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       A Basic Regular Expression (BRE), as defined in POSIX 1003.2, consists of atoms, for matching parts of a
       string, and bounds, specifying repetitions of a preceding atom.

       Atoms

       The possible atoms of a BRE are: ., matching any single character; ^ and $, matching the null string at the
       beginning or end of a string, respectively; a bracket expressions, enclosed in [ and ] (see below); and any
       single character with no other significance (matching that character). A \ before one of: ., ^, $, [, *, \,
       matching the character after the backslash. A sequence of atoms enclosed in \( and \) becomes an atom and
       establishes the target for a backreference, consisting of the substring that actually matches the enclosed
       atoms.  Finally, \ followed by one of the digits 0 through 9 is a backreference.

       A ^ that is not first, or a $ that is not last does not have a special significance and need not be preceded by
       a backslash to become literal. The same is true for a ], that does not terminate a bracket expression.

       An unescaped backslash cannot be last in a BRE.

       Bounds

       The BRE bounds are: *, specifying 0 or more matches of the preceding atom; \{count\}, specifying that many rep-
       etitions; \{minimum,\}, giving a lower limit; and \{minimum,maximum\} finally defines a lower and upper bound.

       A bound appearing as the first item in a BRE is taken literally.

       Bracket Expressions

       A bracket expression is a list of characters, character ranges and character classes enclosed in [ and ] and
       matches any single character from the represented set of characters.

       A character range is written as two characters separated by - and represents all characters (according to the
       character collating sequence) that are not less than the first and not greater than the second.  (Ranges are
       very collating-sequence-dependent, and portable programs should avoid relying on them.)

       A character class is one of the class names

          alnum     digit     punct
          alpha     graph     space
          blank     lower     upper
          cntrl     print     xdigit

       enclosed in [: and :] and represents the set of characters as defined in ctype(3).

       If the first character after [ is ^, the sense of matching is inverted.

       To include a literal '"^"', place it anywhere else but first. To include a literal '"]"' place it first or
       immediately after an initial ^. To include a literal '"-"' make it the first (or second after ^) or last char-
       acter, or the second endpoint of a range.

       The special bracket expression constructs "[[:<:]]" and "[[:>:]]" match the null string at the beginning and
       end of a word respectively.  (Note that neither is identical to Perl's '\b' atom.)

       Additional Atoms

       Since some sed implementations provide additional regular expression atoms (not defined in POSIX 1003.2), psed
       is capable of translating the following backslash escapes:

       \< This is the same as "[[:>:]]".
       \> This is the same as "[[:<:]]".
       \w This is an abbreviation for "[[:alnum:]_]".
       \W This is an abbreviation for "[^[:alnum:]_]".
       \y Match the empty string at a word boundary.
       \B Match the empty string between any two either word or non-word characters.

       To enable this feature, the environment variable PSEDEXTBRE must be set to a string containing the requested
       characters, e.g.: "PSEDEXTBRE='<>wW'".

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variable "PSEDEXTBRE" may be set to extend BREs.  See "Additional Atoms".

DIAGNOSTICS
       ambiguous translation for character '%s' in 'y' command
           The indicated character appears twice, with different translations.

       '[' cannot be last in pattern
           A '[' in a BRE indicates the beginning of a bracket expression.

       '\' cannot be last in pattern
           A '\' in a BRE is used to make the subsequent character literal.

       '\' cannot be last in substitution
           A '\' in a subsitution string is used to make the subsequent character literal.

       conflicting flags '%s'
           In an s command, either the 'g' flag and an n-th occurrence flag, or multiple n-th occurrence flags are
           specified. Note that only the digits '1' through '9' are permitted.

       duplicate label %s (first defined at %s)
       excess address(es)
           The command has more than the permitted number of addresses.

       extra characters after command (%s)
       illegal option '%s'
       improper delimiter in s command
           The BRE and substitution may not be delimited with '\' or newline.

       invalid address after ','
       invalid backreference (%s)
           The specified backreference number exceeds the number of backreferences in the BRE.

       invalid repeat clause '\{%s\}'
           The repeat clause does not contain a valid integer value, or pair of values.

       malformed regex, 1st address
       malformed regex, 2nd address
       malformed regular expression
       malformed substitution expression
       malformed 'y' command argument
           The first or second string of a y command  is syntactically incorrect.

       maximum less than minimum in '\{%s\}'
       no script command given
           There must be at least one -e or one -f option specifying a script or script file.

       '\' not valid as delimiter in 'y' command
       option -e requires an argument
       option -f requires an argument
       's' command requires argument
       start of unterminated '{'
       string lengths in 'y' command differ
           The translation table strings in a y commanf must have equal lengths.

       undefined label '%s'
       unexpected '}'
           A } command without a preceding { command was encountered.

       unexpected end of script
           The end of the script was reached although a text line after a a, c or i command indicated another line.

       unknown command '%s'
       unterminated '['
           A BRE contains an unterminated bracket expression.

       unterminated '\('
           A BRE contains an unterminated backreference.

       '\{' without closing '\}'
           A BRE contains an unterminated bounds specification.

       '\)' without preceding '\('
       'y' command requires argument

EXAMPLE
       The basic material for the preceding section was generated by running the sed script

          #no autoprint
          s/^.*Warn( *"\([^"]*\)".*$/\1/
          t process
          b
          :process
          s/$!/%s/g
          s/$[_[:alnum:]]\{1,\}/%s/g
          s/\\\\/\\/g
          s/^/=item /
          p

       on the program's own text, and piping the output into "sort -u".

SED SCRIPT TRANSLATION
       If this program is invoked with the name s2p it will act as a sed-to-Perl translator. After option processing
       (all other arguments are ignored), a Perl program is printed on standard output, which will process the input
       stream (as read from all arguments) in the way defined by the sed script and the option setting used for the
       translation.

SEE ALSO
       perl(1), re_format(7)

BUGS
       The l command will show escape characters (ESC) as '"\e"', but a vertical tab (VT) in octal.

       Trailing spaces are truncated from labels in :, t and b commands.

       The meaning of an empty regular expression ('"//"'), as defined by sed, is "the last pattern used, at run
       time". This deviates from the Perl interpretation, which will re-use the "last last successfully executed regu-
       lar expression". Since keeping track of pattern usage would create terribly cluttered code, and differences
       would only appear in obscure context (where other sed implementations appear to deviate, too), the Perl seman-
       tics was adopted. Note that common usage of this feature, such as in "/abc/s//xyz/", will work as expected.

       Collating elements (of bracket expressions in BREs) are not implemented.

STANDARDS
       This sed implementation conforms to the IEEE Std1003.2-1992 ("POSIX.2") definition of sed, and is compatible
       with the OpenBSD implementation, except where otherwise noted (see "BUGS").

AUTHOR
       This Perl implementation of sed was written by Wolfgang Laun, Wolfgang.LaunATalcatel.at.

COPYRIGHT and LICENSE
       This program is free and open software. You may use, modify, distribute, and sell this program (and any modi-
       fied variants) in any way you wish, provided you do not restrict others from doing the same.



perl v5.8.8                       2012-01-22                            S2P(1)