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SHRED(1)                         User Commands                        SHRED(1)

       shred - overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it

       shred [OPTION]... FILE...

       Overwrite the specified FILE(s) repeatedly, in order to make it harder for even very expensive hardware probing
       to recover the data.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -f, --force
              change permissions to allow writing if necessary

       -n, --iterations=N
              overwrite N times instead of the default (3)

              get random bytes from FILE

       -s, --size=N
              shred this many bytes (suffixes like K, M, G accepted)

       -u, --remove
              truncate and remove file after overwriting

       -v, --verbose
              show progress

       -x, --exact
              do not round file sizes up to the next full block;

              this is the default for non-regular files

       -z, --zero
              add a final overwrite with zeros to hide shredding

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       If FILE is -, shred standard output.

       Delete FILE(s) if --remove (-u) is specified.  The default is not to remove the files because it is  common  to
       operate  on device files like /dev/hda, and those files usually should not be removed.  When operating on regu-
       lar files, most people use the --remove option.

       CAUTION: Note that shred relies on a very important assumption: that the file system overwrites data in  place.
       This  is  the traditional way to do things, but many modern file system designs do not satisfy this assumption.
       The following are examples of file systems on which shred is not effective, or is not guaranteed to  be  effec-
       tive in all file system modes:

       *  log-structured  or  journaled  file systems, such as those supplied with AIX and Solaris (and JFS, ReiserFS,
       XFS, Ext3, etc.)

       * file systems that write redundant data and carry on even if some writes fail, such as RAID-based file systems

       * file systems that make snapshots, such as Network Appliance's NFS server

       * file systems that cache in temporary locations, such as NFS version 3 clients

       * compressed file systems

       In  the  case  of  ext3 file systems, the above disclaimer applies (and shred is thus of limited effectiveness)
       only in data=journal mode, which journals file data in addition to just metadata.   In  both  the  data=ordered
       (default)  and  data=writeback modes, shred works as usual.  Ext3 journaling modes can be changed by adding the
       data=something option to the mount options for a particular file system in the /etc/fstab file,  as  documented
       in the mount man page (man mount).

       In  addition, file system backups and remote mirrors may contain copies of the file that cannot be removed, and
       that will allow a shredded file to be recovered later.

       Written by Colin Plumb.

       Report shred bugs to
       GNU coreutils home page: <>;
       General help using GNU software: <>;
       Report shred translation bugs to <>;

       Copyright  (C)  2010  Free  Software  Foundation,  Inc.   License  GPLv3+:   GNU   GPL   version   3   or   later
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permit-
       ted by law.

       The full documentation for shred is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and shred programs  are  prop-
       erly installed at your site, the command

              info coreutils 'shred invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.4                 March 2017                          SHRED(1)