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TEX(1)                                                                  TEX(1)



NAME
       tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

SYNOPSIS
       tex [options] [& format ] [ file | \ commands ]

DESCRIPTION
       Run  the TeX typesetter on file, usually creating file.dvi.  If the file argument has no extension, ".tex" will
       be appended to it.  Instead of a filename, a set of TeX commands can be given, the first of  which  must  start
       with  a backslash.  With a &format argument TeX uses a different set of precompiled commands, contained in for-
       mat.fmt; it is usually better to use the -fmt format option instead.

       TeX formats the interspersed text and commands contained in the named files and outputs a  typesetter  indepen-
       dent  file  (called DVI, which is short for DeVice Independent).  TeX's capabilities and language are described
       in The TeX for nroffbook.  TeX is normally used with a large body of precompiled macros, and there are  several
       specific formatting systems, such as LaTeX, which require the support of several macro files.

       This  version  of TeX looks at its command line to see what name it was called under.  If they exist, then both
       initex and virtex are symbolic links to the tex executable.  When called as initex (or when the -ini option  is
       given)  it can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt file.  When called as virtex it will use the plain for-
       mat.  When called under any other name, TeX will use that name as the name of the format to use.  For  example,
       when called as tex the tex format is used, which is identical to the plain format.  The commands defined by the
       plain format are documented in The TeX for nroffbook.  Other formats that are often available include latex and
       amstex.

       The  non-option command line arguments to the TeX program are passed to it as the first input line.  (But it is
       often easier to type extended arguments as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up or  misin-
       terpret  TeX's  favorite symbols, like backslashes, unless you quote them.)  As described in The TeX for nroff-
       book, that first line should begin with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

       The normal usage is to say
       tex paper
       to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ''jobname'', and is used  in  forming  output  file-
       names.   If  TeX doesn't get a filename in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX
       looks for the name with and without the default extension (.tex) appended, unless  the  name  already  contains
       that  extension.   If  paper is the ''jobname'', a log of error messages, with rather more detail than normally
       appears on the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the output file will be in paper.dvi.

       This version of TeX can look in the first line of the file paper.tex  to  see  if  it  begins  with  the  magic
       sequence %&.  If the first line begins with %&format -translate-file tcxname then TeX will use the named format
       and transation table tcxname to process the source file.  Either the format name or the -translate-file  speci-
       fication may be omitted, but not both.  This overrides the format selection based on the name by which the pro-
       gram is invoked.  The -parse-first-line option or the parse_first_line configuration variable controls  whether
       this behaviour is enabled.

       The  e  response  to TeX's error prompt causes the system default editor to start up at the current line of the
       current file.  The environment variable TEXEDIT can be used to change the editor used.  It may contain a string
       with  "%s"  indicating where the filename goes and "%d" indicating where the decimal line number (if any) goes.
       For example, a TEXEDIT string for emacs can be set with the sh command
       TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

       A convenient file in the library is null.tex, containing nothing.  When TeX can't find a  file  it  thinks  you
       want  to  input,  it  keeps  asking you for another filename; responding 'null' gets you out of the loop if you
       don't want to input anything.  You can also type your EOF character (usually control-D).


OPTIONS
       This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

       -enc   Enable the encTeX extensions.  This option is only effective in combination with -ini.   For  documenta-
              tion of the encTeX extensions see http://www.olsak.net/enctex.html.

       -file-line-error
              Print error messages in the form file:line:error which is similar to the way many compilers format them.

       -no-file-line-error
              Disable printing error messages in the file:line:error style.

       -file-line-error-style
              This is the old name of the -file-line-error option.

       -fmt format
              Use format as the name of the format to be used, instead of the name by which TeX was  called  or  a  %&
              line.

       -halt-on-error
              Exit with an error code when an error is encountered during processing.

       -help  Print help message and exit.

       -ini   Start in INI mode, which is used to dump formats.  The INI mode can be used for typesetting, but no for-
              mat is preloaded, and basic initializations like setting catcodes may be required.

       -interaction mode
              Sets the interaction mode.  The mode can be either batchmode, nonstopmode,  scrollmode,  and  errorstop-
              mode.  The meaning of these modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

       -ipc   Send  DVI  output to a socket as well as the usual output file.  Whether this option is available is the
              choice of the installer.

       -ipc-start
              As -ipc, and starts the server at the other end as well.  Whether this option is available is the choice
              of the installer.

       -jobname name
              Use name for the job name, instead of deriving it from the name of the input file.

       -kpathsea-debug bitmask
              Sets path searching debugging flags according to the bitmask.  See the Kpathsea manual for details.

       -mktex fmt
              Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

       -mltex Enable MLTeX extensions.  Only effective in combination with -ini.

       -no-mktex fmt
              Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

       -output-comment string
              Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

       -output-directory directory
              Write  output  files  in  directory  instead of the current directory.  Look up input files in directory
              first, then along the normal search path.  See also description of the TEXMFOUTPUT environment variable.

       -parse-first-line
              If  the  first  line of the main input file begins with %& parse it to look for a dump name or a -trans-
              late-file option.

       -no-parse-first-line
              Disable parsing of the first line of the main input file.

       -progname name
              Pretend to be program name.  This affects both the format used and the search paths.

       -recorder
              Enable the filename recorder.  This leaves a trace of the files opened for input and output  in  a  file
              with extension .fls.

       -shell-escape
              Enable  the  \write18{command} construct.  The command can be any shell command.  This construct is nor-
              mally disallowed for security reasons.

       -no-shell-escape
              Disable the \write18{command} construct, even if it is enabled in the texmf.cnf file.

       -src-specials
              Insert source specials into the DVI file.

       -src-specials where
              Insert source specials in certain places of the DVI file.  where is a comma-separated  value  list:  cr,
              display, hbox, math, par, parent, or vbox.

       -translate-file tcxname
              Use  the tcxname translation table to set the mapping of input characters and re-mapping of output char-
              acters.

       -default-translate-file tcxname
              Like -translate-file except that a %& line can overrule this setting.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
       See the Kpathsearch library documentation (the 'Path specifications' node) for precise details of how the envi-
       ronment variables are used.  The kpsewhich utility can be used to query the values of the variables.

       One  caveat:  In  most  TeX  formats,  you cannot use ~ in a filename you give directly to TeX, because ~ is an
       active character, and hence is expanded, not taken as part of the filename.  Other programs, such as  Metafont,
       do not have this problem.


       TEXMFOUTPUT
              Normally,  TeX  puts  its  output  files  in the current directory.  If any output file cannot be opened
              there, it tries to open it in the directory specified in the environment variable TEXMFOUTPUT.  There is
              no  default value for that variable.  For example, if you say tex paper and the current directory is not
              writable, if TEXMFOUTPUT has the value /tmp, TeX attempts to create /tmp/paper.log (and  /tmp/paper.dvi,
              if any output is produced.)

       TEXINPUTS
              Search path for \input and \openin files.  This should probably start with ''.'', so that user files are
              found before system files.  An empty path component will be replaced  with  the  paths  defined  in  the
              texmf.cnf  file.   For  example, set TEXINPUTS to ".:/home/usr/tex:" to prepend the current direcory and
              ''/home/user/tex'' to the standard search path.

       TEXFORMATS
              Search path for format files.

       TEXPOOL
              search path for tex internal strings.

       TEXEDIT
              Command template for switching to editor.  The default, usually vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

       TFMFONTS
              Search path for font metric (.tfm) files.

FILES
       The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.  Use  the  kpsewhich  utility  to  find
       their locations.

       texmf.cnf
              Configuration file.  This contains definitions of search paths as well as other configuration parameters
              like parse_first_line.

       tex.pool
              Text file containing TeX's internal strings.

       texfonts.map
              Filename mapping definitions.

       *.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

       *.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

       $TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
              The basic macro package described in the TeX for nroffbook.

NOTES
       This manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.  The complete documentation for this  version  of  TeX  can  be
       found in the info manual Web2C: A TeX implementation.

BUGS
       This  version of TeX implements a number of optional extensions.  In fact, many of these extensions conflict to
       a greater or lesser extent with the definition of TeX.  When such extensions are enabled,  the  banner  printed
       when TeX starts is changed to print TeXk instead of TeX.

       This  version  of  TeX  fails to trap arithmetic overflow when dimensions are added or subtracted.  Cases where
       this occurs are rare, but when it does the generated DVI file will be invalid.

SEE ALSO
       mf(1),
       Donald E. Knuth, The TeX for nroffbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13447-0.
       Leslie Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System, Addison-Wesley, 1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
       K. Berry, Eplain: Expanded plain TeX, ftp://ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/eplain/doc.
       Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX for nroff, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990, ISBN 0-8218-2997-1.
       TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

TRIVIA
       TeX, pronounced properly, rhymes with ''blecchhh.''  The proper spelling in typewriter-like  fonts  is  ''TeX''
       and not ''TEX'' or ''tex.''

AUTHORS
       TeX  was  designed  by  Donald  E.  Knuth, who implemented it using his Web system for Pascal programs.  It was
       ported to Unix at Stanford by Howard Trickey, and at Cornell by Pavel Curtis.  The version now offered with the
       Unix TeX distribution is that generated by the Web to C system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and
       Tim Morgan.

       The encTeX extensions were written by Petr Olsak.



Web2C 7.5.6                     6 December 2006                         TEX(1)