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Pbmtext User Manual(0)                                  Pbmtext User Manual(0)

       pbmtext - render text into a PBM image

       pbmtext  [-font  fontfile]  [-builtin  fontname]  [-space pixels] [-lspace pixels] [-nomargins] [-width pixels]

       Minimum unique abbreviation of option is acceptable.  You may use double hyphens instead of  single  hyphen  to
       denote options.  You may use white space in place of the equals sign to separate an option name from its value.

       This program is part of Netpbm(1).

       pbmtext takes the specified text, either a single line from the command line or multiple  lines  from  standard
       input, and renders it into a PBM graphical image.

       In  the image, each line of input is a line of output.  Formatting characters such as newline have no effect on
       the formatting; like any unprintable character, they turn into spaces.

       The image is just wide enough for the longest line of text, plus margins, and just high enough to  contain  the
       lines of text, plus margins.

       The  left and right margins are twice the width of the widest character in the font; the top and bottom margins
       are the height of the tallest character in the font.  But if the text is only one line,  all  the  margins  are
       half of this.  You can use the -nomargins option to eliminate the margins.

       pbmtextps  does the same thing as pbmtext, but uses Ghostscript to generate the characters, which means you can
       use Postscript fonts.  But it also means you have to have Ghostscript installed and it isn't  as  fast.   Also,
       pbmtextps generates only one line of text, whereas pbmtext can create multiple lines.

       pbmtext  is  meant for small quantities of simple text.  If you're working with a document, you would be better
       off using a document formatting program to 'print' to a  Postscript  file,  then  feeding  that  Postscript  to


              -builtin selects a font among those built into Netpbm.

              -font selects a font that you supply yourself either as an X Window System BDF (Bitmap Distribution For-
              mat)  file or as a PBM file in a special form.

              The default is the built in font 'bdf.'

              'bdf' is Times-Roman 15 pixels high.  (That's about 14 point type printed at 75 dpi).

              'fixed' is a built in fixed width font.

              For information about other fonts, and how to make one of your own, see Fonts  below.

       -space pixels
               Add pixels pixels of space between characters.  This is in addition to whatever space surrounding char-
              acters is built into the font, which is usually enough to produce a reasonable string of text.

              pixels may be fractional, in which case the number of pixels added varies so as to achieve the specified
              average.  For example -space=1.5 causes half the spaces to be 1 pixel and half to be 2 pixels.

              pixels may be negative to crowd text together, but the author has not put much thought or  testing  into
              how this works in every possible case, so it might cause disastrous results.

       -lspace pixels
               Add  pixels pixels of space between lines.  This is in addition to whatever space above and below char-
              acters is built into the font, which is usually enough to produce a reasonable line spacing.

              pixels must be a whole number.

              pixels may be negative to crowd lines together, but the author has not put much thought or testing  into
              how this works in every possible case, so it might cause disastrous results.

              By  default,  pbmtext  adds margins all around the image as described above.  This option causes pbmtext
              not to add any margins.

              Note that there may still be space beyond the edges of the type because a character itself  may  include
              space  at its edges.  To eliminate all surrounding background, so the type touches all four edges of the
              image, use pnmcrop.

       -width pixels
              This specifies how much horizontal space the text is supposed to fit into.

              If the input is one line, pbmtext breaks it into multiple lines as needed to fit  the  specified  width.
              It  breaks  it between characters, but does not pay attention to white space; it may break in the middle
              of a word and a line may begin or end with white space.

              If the input is multiple lines, pbmtext assumes you already have line breaks where they make sense,  and
              pbmtext simply truncates each line as needed to fit the specified width.

       Often, you want to place text over another image.  One way to do this is with ppmlabel.  ppmlabel does not give
       you the font options that pbmtext does, though.

       Another way is to use pbmtext to create an image containing the text, then use  pamcomp  to  overlay  the  text
       image  onto your base image.  To make only the text (and not the entire rectangle containing it) cover the base
       image, you will need to give pamcomp a mask, via its -alpha option.  You can just use the text image itself  as
       the mask, as long as you also specify the -invert option to pamcomp.

       If  you  want  to  overlay  colored text instead of black, just use ppmchange to change all black pixels to the
       color of your choice before overlaying the text image.  But still use the original black and  white  image  for
       the alpha mask.

       If you want the text at an angle, use pnmrotate on the text image (and alpha mask) before overlaying.

       There are three kinds of fonts you an use with pbmtext:

       ?      built in

       ?      BDF

       ?      PBM

   BDF Font
       BDF  is  an  ancient  font format that at one time was standard for the X Window System.  Now, you don't see it
       very often, but you can find some BDF fonts on the Xfree86  web site.

       You can get the full package of the BDF fonts from XFree86 (see above) from the Netpbm web site .

   PBM Font
       To create a font as a PBM file (to use with the -font option), you just create a PBM image of the  text  matrix

       The first step is to display text matrix below on the screen, e.g. in an X11 window.

           M ',/^_['jpqy| M

           /  !'#$%&'()*+ /
           < ,-./01234567 <
           > 89:;<=>?@ABC >
           @ DEFGHIJKLMNO @
           _ PQRSTUVWXYZ[ _
           { \]^_'abcdefg {
           } hijklmnopqrs }
           ~ tuvwxyz{|}~  ~

           M ',/^_['jpqy| M

       Make sure it's a fixed width font -- This should display as a perfect rectangle.

       Also,  try  to  use  a simple display program.  Pbmtext divides this into a matrix of cells, all the same size,
       each containing one character, so it is important that whatever you use to display it display with uniform hor-
       izontal  and  vertical spacing.  Fancy word processing programs sometimes stretch characters in both directions
       to fit certain dimensions, and that won't work.  Sometimes a display program scales a font to show a  character
       larger or smaller than its natural size.  That too won't often work because the rounding involved in such scal-
       ing causes non-uniform distances between characters.

       If you display the text matrix improperly, the usual symptom is that when you try  to  use  the  font,  pbmtext
       fails with an error message telling you that the number of lines in the font isn't divisible by 11, or it can't
       find the blank band around the inner rectangle.  Sometimes the symptom is that one of the  characters  displays
       with  a  piece of the character that is next to it in the matrix.  For example, 'l' might display with a little
       piece of the 'm' attached on its right.

       Do a screen grab or window dump of that text, using for instance xwd,  xgrabsc,  or  screendump.   Convert  the
       result  into  a pbm file.  If necessary, use pamcut to remove anything you grabbed in addition to the text pic-
       tured above (or be a wimp and use a graphical editor such as ImageMagick).  Finally, run  it  through  pnmcrop.
       to make sure the edges are right up against the text.  pbmtext can figure out the sizes and spacings from that.

       pbmtextps(1), pamcut(1), pnmcrop(1), pamcomp(1), ppmchange(1), pnmrotate(1), ppmlabel(1), pstopnm(1), pbm(1)

       Copyright (C) 1993 by Jef Poskanzer and George Phillips

netpbm documentation             26 April 2007          Pbmtext User Manual(0)