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TROFF(1)                                                              TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -mname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ]
             [ -Tname ] [ -wname ] [ -Wname ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the groff document formatting  system.   It
       is  functionally  compatible with UNIX troff, but has many extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it should be
       invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run preprocessors  and  postprocessors  in  the  appropriate
       order and with the appropriate options.

       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a  backtrace  with  each  warning or error message.  This backtrace should help track down the
                 cause of the error.  The line numbers given in the backtrace may not always be correct,  for  troff's
                 idea of line numbers gets confused by as or am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one letter name.

       -E        Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't affect messages output to standard error
                 by macro packages using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories devname  (name  is  the  name  of  the
                 device)  and  there  for the DESC file and font files.  dir is scanned before all other font directo-

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files have been processed.

       -mname    Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try instead.  It will be first searched for
                 in   directories  given  with  the  -M  command  line  option,  then  in  directories  given  in  the
                 GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current directory (only if  in  unsafe  mode),  the
                 home        directory,        /usr/lib64/groff/site-tmac,       /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,       and

       -Mdir     Search directory (or directory path) dir for macro files.  This is scanned  before  all  other  macro

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output  only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of page ranges; n means print page n, m-n
                 means print every page between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means print every  page
                 from n.  troff will exit after printing the last page in the list.

       -rname=n  Set  number  register  c  or  name  to  n; c must be a one character name; n can be any troff numeric

       -R        Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps.

       -U        Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open, opena, pso, sy, and  pi.   For  security
                 reasons,  these  potentially dangerous requests are disabled otherwise.  It will also add the current
                 directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the section WARNINGS below.   For  example,
                 to enable all warnings, use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.

       The  warnings  that  can be given by troff are divided into the following categories.  The name associated with
       each warning is used by the -w and -W options; the number is used by the warn request, and by the .warn  regis-
       ter; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

                                     |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning   |
                                     |  0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg         |
                                     |  1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab         |
                                     |  2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace |
                                     |  3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing     |
                                     |  4     16   el      |  14    16384   input       |
                                     |  5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape      |
                                     |  6     64   range   |  16    65536   space       |
                                     |  7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font        |
                                     |  8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig          |
                                     |  9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color       |

       break           4   In  fill  mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was less than the line
                           length.  This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent characters.  This is enabled by default.

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use of di or da without an argument when there is no current diversion.

       el             16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized escape sequences.  When an unrecognized escape sequence  is  encountered,  the
                           escape character is ignored.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid  escapes in text ignored with the ig request.  These are conditions that are errors
                           when they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions.  When an undefined string, macro or diver-
                           sion  is  used,  that string is automatically defined as empty.  So, in most cases, at most
                           one warning will be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This is enabled by default.

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When an undefined number register is used, that  regis-
                           ter  is automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in most cases, at most one warning
                           will be given for use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing space between a request or macro and its argument.  This warning will be given when
                           an  undefined  name longer than two characters is encountered, and the first two characters
                           of the name make a defined name.  The request or macro will  not  be  invoked.   When  this
                           warning  is  given,  no  macro is automatically defined.  This is enabled by default.  This
                           warning will never occur in compatibility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate use of a tab character.  Either use of a tab character  where  a  number  was
                           expected, or use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this covers all warnings that are useful with
              traditional macro packages.

       w      All warnings.

              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for macro files.  troff will  scan  directories
              given  in  the -M option before these, and in standard directories (current directory if in unsafe mode,
              home directory, /usr/lib64/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,  /usr/share/groff/
              after these.

              Default device.

              A  colon  separated  list  of directories in which to search for the devname directory.  troff will scan
              directories given in the -F option before these, and  in  standard  directories  (/usr/share/groff/site-
              font, /usr/share/groff/, /usr/lib/font) after these.

       /usr/share/groff/        Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/    Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/      Macro files

       /usr/share/groff/   Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff/      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current nor in the home directory by default for
       security reasons (even if the -U option is given).  Use the -M command line option or the GROFF_TMAC_PATH envi-
       ronment variable to add these directories to the search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.
       You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line  at  the  GNU  copyleft
       site <>;.  This document was written by James Clark, with modifications from
       Werner Lemberg <> and Bernd Warken <>

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

              A description of the groff language,  including  a  short  but  complete  reference  of  all  predefined
              requests, registers, and escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this is called by

                     man 7 groff

              The  differences  of  the  groff language and the classical troff language.  Currently, this is the most
              actual document of the groff system.

              An overview over groff and other roff systems, including pointers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf. info(1), presents all groff documentation within a single document.

Groff Version         16 September 2002                      TROFF(1)