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LINK(2)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   LINK(2)



NAME
       link - make a new name for a file

SYNOPSIS
       #include <unistd.h>

       int link(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

DESCRIPTION
       link() creates a new link (also known as a hard link) to an existing file.

       If newpath exists it will not be overwritten.

       This  new  name may be used exactly as the old one for any operation; both names refer to the same file (and so
       have the same permissions and ownership) and it is impossible to tell which name was the "original".

RETURN VALUE
       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS
       EACCES Write access to the directory containing newpath is denied, or search permission is denied  for  one  of
              the directories in the path prefix of oldpath or newpath.  (See also path_resolution(7).)

       EEXIST newpath already exists.

       EFAULT oldpath or newpath points outside your accessible address space.

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving oldpath or newpath.

       EMLINK The file referred to by oldpath already has the maximum number of links to it.

       ENAMETOOLONG
              oldpath or newpath was too long.

       ENOENT A directory component in oldpath or newpath does not exist or is a dangling symbolic link.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file has no room for the new directory entry.

       ENOTDIR
              A component used as a directory in oldpath or newpath is not, in fact, a directory.

       EPERM  oldpath is a directory.

       EPERM  The file system containing oldpath and newpath does not support the creation of hard links.

       EROFS  The file is on a read-only file system.

       EXDEV  oldpath and newpath are not on the same mounted file system.  (Linux permits a file system to be mounted
              at multiple points, but link() does not work across different mount points, even if the same file system
              is mounted on both.)

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001 (but see NOTES).

NOTES
       Hard links, as created by link(), cannot span file systems.  Use symlink(2) if this is required.

       POSIX.1-2001  says that link() should dereference oldpath if it is a symbolic link.  However, since kernel 2.0,
       Linux does not do so: if oldpath is a symbolic link, then newpath is created as a (hard) link to the same  sym-
       bolic  link  file  (i.e., newpath becomes a symbolic link to the same file that oldpath refers to).  Some other
       implementations behave in the same manner as Linux.  POSIX.1-2008 changes the specification of  link(),  making
       it  implementation-dependent whether or not oldpath is dereferenced if it is a symbolic link.  For precise con-
       trol over the treatment of symbolic links when creating a link, see linkat(2).

BUGS
       On NFS file systems, the return code may be wrong in case the NFS server performs the link  creation  and  dies
       before it can say so.  Use stat(2) to find out if the link got created.

SEE ALSO
       ln(1), linkat(2), open(2), rename(2), stat(2), symlink(2), unlink(2), path_resolution(7), symlink(7)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the project, and informa-
       tion about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2008-08-21                           LINK(2)