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REFER(1)                                                              REFER(1)



NAME
       refer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff

SYNOPSIS
       refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ] [ -ifields ] [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename ] [ -sfields ]
             [ -tn ] [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This file documents the GNU version of refer, which is part of the groff  document  formatting  system.   refer
       copies  the  contents  of  filename...  to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .]  are inter-
       preted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted as commands about how citations  are  to  be
       processed.

       Each citation specifies a reference.  The citation can specify a reference that is contained in a bibliographic
       database by giving a set of keywords that only that reference contains.  Alternatively it can specify a  refer-
       ence by supplying a database record in the citation.  A combination of these alternatives is also possible.

       For  each  citation, refer can produce a mark in the text.  This mark consists of some label which can be sepa-
       rated from the text and from other labels in various ways.  For each reference it also outputs  groff  commands
       that  can  be  used by a macro package to produce a formatted reference for each citation.  The output of refer
       must therefore be processed using a suitable macro package.  The -ms and -me macros  are  both  suitable.   The
       commands  to  format a citation's reference can be output immediately after the citation, or the references may
       be accumulated, and the commands output at some later point.  If the references are accumulated, then  multiple
       citations of the same reference will produce a single formatted reference.

       The  interpretation  of  lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands is a new feature of GNU refer.  Documents making
       use of this feature can still be processed by Unix refer just by adding the lines

              .de R1
              .ig R2
              ..
       to the beginning of the document.  This will cause troff to ignore everything between .R1 and .R2.  The  effect
       of  some  commands  can also be achieved by options.  These options are supported mainly for compatibility with
       Unix refer.  It is usually more convenient to use commands.

       refer generates .lf lines so that filenames and line numbers in messages produced by commands that  read  refer
       output  will  be correct; it also interprets lines beginning with .lf so that filenames and line numbers in the
       messages and .lf lines that it produces will be accurate even if the input has been preprocessed by  a  command
       such as soelim(1).

OPTIONS
       Most options are equivalent to commands (for a description of these commands see the Commands subsection):

       -b     no-label-in-text; no-label-in-reference

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) ', ' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "

       -an    reverse An

       -cfields
              capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

       -ifields
              search-ignore fields

       -k     label L~%a

       -kfield
              label field~%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

       -pfilename
              database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These  options  are  equivalent to the following commands with the addition that the filenames specified on the
       command line are processed as if they were arguments to the bibliography command instead of in the normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

       -Bfield.macro
              annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       The following options have no equivalent commands:

       -v     Print the version number.

       -R     Don't recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.

USAGE
   Bibliographic databases
       The bibliographic database is a text file consisting of records separated by one or more blank  lines.   Within
       each record fields start with a % at the beginning of a line.  Each field has a one character name that immedi-
       ately follows the %.  It is best to use only upper and lower case letters for the names of fields.  The name of
       the  field  should  be  followed by exactly one space, and then by the contents of the field.  Empty fields are
       ignored.  The conventional meaning of each field is as follows:

       A      The name of an author.  If the name contains a title such as Jr.  at the end,  it  should  be  separated
              from the last name by a comma.  There can be multiple occurrences of the A field.  The order is signifi-
              cant.  It is a good idea always to supply an A field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of the book

       C      The place (city) of publication.

       D      The date of publication.  The year should be specified in full.  If the month  is  specified,  the  name
              rather  than  the number of the month should be used, but only the first three letters are required.  It
              is a good idea always to supply a D field; if the date is unknown, a value such as in press  or  unknown
              can be used.

       E      For  an  article  that is part of a book, the name of an editor of the book.  Where the work has editors
              and no authors, the names of the editors should be given as A fields and , (ed)  or  , (eds)  should  be
              appended to the last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in a journal, the name of the journal.

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other information.  This is usually printed at the end of the reference.

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.

       Q      The name of the author, if the author is not a person.  This will only be used if there are no A fields.
              There can only be one Q field.

       R      Technical report number.

       S      Series name.

       T      Title.  For an article in a book or journal, this should be the title of the article.

       V      Volume number of the journal or book.

       X      Annotation.

       For all fields except A and E, if there is more than one occurrence of a particular field in a record, only the
       last such field will be used.

       If accent strings are used, they should follow the character to be accented.  This means that the AM macro must
       be used with the -ms macros.  Accent strings should not be quoted: use one \ rather than two.

   Citations
       The format of a citation is
              .[opening-text
              flags keywords
              fields
              .]closing-text

       The opening-text, closing-text and flags components are optional.  Only one of the keywords and  fields  compo-
       nents need be specified.

       The  keywords  component says to search the bibliographic databases for a reference that contains all the words
       in keywords.  It is an error if more than one reference if found.

       The fields components specifies additional fields to replace or supplement those specified  in  the  reference.
       When references are being accumulated and the keywords component is non-empty, then additional fields should be
       specified only on the first occasion that a particular reference is cited, and will apply to all  citations  of
       that reference.

       The  opening-text  and  closing-text component specifies strings to be used to bracket the label instead of the
       strings specified in the bracket-label command.  If either of these components is non-empty, the strings speci-
       fied  in  the  bracket-label  command  will not be used; this behaviour can be altered using the [ and ] flags.
       Note that leading and trailing spaces are significant for these components.

       The flags component is a list of non-alphanumeric characters each of which modifies the treatment of this  par-
       ticular citation.  Unix refer will treat these flags as part of the keywords and so will ignore them since they
       are non-alphanumeric.  The following flags are currently recognized:

       #      This says to use the label specified by the short-label command, instead of that specified by the  label
              command.   If  no  short  label  has been specified, the normal label will be used.  Typically the short
              label is used with author-date labels and consists of only the date and possibly a  disambiguating  let-
              ter; the # is supposed to be suggestive of a numeric type of label.

       [      Precede opening-text with the first string specified in the bracket-label command.

       ]      Follow closing-text with the second string specified in the bracket-label command.

       One  advantages  of using the [ and ] flags rather than including the brackets in opening-text and closing-text
       is that you can change the style of bracket used in the document just by changing  the  bracket-label  command.
       Another  advantage  is that sorting and merging of citations will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are
       used.

       If a label is to be inserted into the text, it will be attached to the line preceding the .[ line.  If there is
       no such line, then an extra line will be inserted before the .[ line and a warning will be given.

       There  is  no special notation for making a citation to multiple references.  Just use a sequence of citations,
       one for each reference.  Don't put anything between the citations.  The labels for all the  citations  will  be
       attached  to the line preceding the first citation.  The labels may also be sorted or merged.  See the descrip-
       tion of the <> label expression, and of the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-ranges command.  A  label
       will  not  be  merged  if its citation has a non-empty opening-text or closing-text.  However, the labels for a
       citation using the ] flag and without any closing-text immediately followed by a citation using the [ flag  and
       without  any  opening-text may be sorted and merged even though the first citation's opening-text or the second
       citation's closing-text is non-empty.  (If you wish to prevent this just make the first citation's closing-text
       \&.)

   Commands
       Commands are contained between lines starting with .R1 and .R2.  Recognition of these lines can be prevented by
       the -R option.  When a .R1 line is recognized any accumulated references are flushed out.  Neither .R1 nor  .R2
       lines, nor anything between them is output.

       Commands are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces a comment that extends to the end of the line (but does
       not conceal the newline).  Each command is broken up into words.  Words are separated by  spaces  or  tabs.   A
       word  that  begins  with  " extends to the next " that is not followed by another ".  If there is no such " the
       word extends to the end of the line.  Pairs of " in a word beginning with " collapse to a single ".  Neither  #
       nor  ;  are  recognized  inside  "s.  A line can be continued by ending it with \; this works everywhere except
       after a #.

       Each command name that is marked with * has an associated negative command no-name that undoes  the  effect  of
       name.   For example, the no-sort command specifies that references should not be sorted.  The negative commands
       take no arguments.

       In the following description each argument must be a single word; field is used for a  single  upper  or  lower
       case  letter naming a field; fields is used for a sequence of such letters; m and n are used for a non-negative
       numbers; string is used for an arbitrary string; filename is used for the name of a file.

       abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
                                Abbreviate the first names of fields.   An  initial  letter  will  be  separated  from
                                another  initial  letter  by string1, from the last name by string2, and from anything
                                else (such as a von or de) by string3.  These default to a period followed by a space.
                                In  a  hyphenated  first name, the initial of the first part of the name will be sepa-
                                rated from the hyphen by string4; this defaults to a period.  No attempt  is  made  to
                                handle  any  ambiguities  that  might result from abbreviation.  Names are abbreviated
                                before sorting and before label construction.

       abbreviate-label-ranges* string
                                Three or more adjacent labels that refer to consecutive references will be abbreviated
                                to  a  label  consisting  of  the first label, followed by string followed by the last
                                label.  This is mainly useful with numeric labels.  If string is omitted  it  defaults
                                to -.

       accumulate*              Accumulate  references  instead  of  writing  out each reference as it is encountered.
                                Accumulated references will be written out whenever a reference of the form

                                       .[
                                       $LIST$
                                       .]

                                is encountered, after all input files hve been processed, and  whenever  .R1  line  is
                                recognized.

       annotate* field string   field  is  an annotation; print it at the end of the reference as a paragraph preceded
                                by the line

                                       .string

                                If macro is omitted it will default to AP; if field is also omitted it will default to
                                X.  Only one field can be an annotation.

       articles string...       string...  are definite or indefinite articles, and should be ignored at the beginning
                                of T fields when sorting.  Initially, the, a and an are recognized as articles.

       bibliography filename... Write out all the references contained in the bibliographic databases filename...

       bracket-label string1 string2 string3
                                In the text, bracket each label with string1 and string2.  An  occurrence  of  string2
                                immediately followed by string1 will be turned into string3.  The default behaviour is

                                       bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "

       capitalize fields        Convert fields to caps and small caps.

       compatible*              Recognize .R1 and .R2 even when followed by a character other than space or newline.

       database filename...     Search the bibliographic databases filename...  For each filename if  an  index  file-
                                name.i  created by indxbib(1) exists, then it will be searched instead; each index can
                                cover multiple databases.

       date-as-label* string    string is a label expression that specifies a string with which to replace the D field
                                after  constructing the label.  See the Label expressions subsection for a description
                                of label expressions.  This command is useful if you do not want  explicit  labels  in
                                the  reference list, but instead want to handle any necessary disambiguation by quali-
                                fying the date in some way.  The label used in the text would typically be some combi-
                                nation of the author and date.  In most cases you should also use the no-label-in-ref-
                                erence command.  For example,

                                       date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y

                                would attach a disambiguating letter to the year part of the D field in the reference.

       default-database*        The  default database should be searched.  This is the default behaviour, so the nega-
                                tive version of this command is more useful.  refer  determines  whether  the  default
                                database  should be searched on the first occasion that it needs to do a search.  Thus
                                a no-default-database command must be given before then, in order to be effective.

       discard* fields          When the reference is read, fields should be  discarded;  no  string  definitions  for
                                fields will be output.  Initially, fields are XYZ.

       et-al* string m n        Control  use of et al in the evaluation of @ expressions in label expressions.  If the
                                number of authors needed to make the author sequence unambiguous is u  and  the  total
                                number  of  authors is t then the last t-u authors will be replaced by string provided
                                that t-u is not less than m and t is not less than n.  The default behaviour is

                                       et-al " et al" 2 3

       include filename         Include filename and interpret the contents as commands.

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
                                This says how authors should be joined together.  When there are exactly two  authors,
                                they  will  be joined with string1.  When there are more than two authors, all but the
                                last two will be joined with string2, and the last two authors  will  be  joined  with
                                string3.   If string3 is omitted, it will default to string1; if string2 is also omit-
                                ted it will also default to string1.  For example,

                                       join-authors " and " ", " ", and "

                                will restore the default method for joining authors.

       label-in-reference*      When outputting the reference, define the string [F to be the reference's label.  This
                                is the default behaviour; so the negative version of this command is more useful.

       label-in-text*           For  each  reference output a label in the text.  The label will be separated from the
                                surrounding text as described in the  bracket-label  command.   This  is  the  default
                                behaviour; so the negative version of this command is more useful.

       label string             string is a label expression describing how to label each reference.

       separate-label-second-parts string
                                When  merging  two-part  labels, separate the second part of the second label from the
                                first label with string.  See the description of the <> label expression.

       move-punctuation*        In the text, move any punctuation at the end of line past the label.  It is usually  a
                                good idea to give this command unless you are using superscripted numbers as labels.

       reverse* string          Reverse  the  fields  whose names are in string.  Each field name can be followed by a
                                number which says how many such fields should be reversed.  If no number is given  for
                                a field, all such fields will be reversed.

       search-ignore* fields    While  searching  for keys in databases for which no index exists, ignore the contents
                                of fields.  Initially, fields XYZ are ignored.

       search-truncate* n       Only require the first n characters of keys to be given.  In effect when searching for
                                a  given key words in the database are truncated to the maximum of n and the length of
                                the key.  Initially n is 6.

       short-label* string      string is a label expression that specifies an alternative (usually shorter) style  of
                                label.  This is used when the # flag is given in the citation.  When using author-date
                                style labels, the identity of the author or authors is sometimes clear from  the  con-
                                text,  and  so  it may be desirable to omit the author or authors from the label.  The
                                short-label command will typically be used to specify a label containing just  a  date
                                and possibly a disambiguating letter.

       sort* string             Sort  references  according  to string.  References will automatically be accumulated.
                                string should be a list of field names, each followed by a number, indicating how many
                                fields  with  the name should be used for sorting.  + can be used to indicate that all
                                the fields with the name should be used.  Also .  can be used to indicate  the  refer-
                                ences should be sorted using the (tentative) label.  (The Label expressions subsection
                                describes the concept of a tentative label.)

       sort-adjacent-labels*    Sort labels that are adjacent in the text according to their position in the reference
                                list.  This command should usually be given if the abbreviate-label-ranges command has
                                been given, or if the label expression contains a <> expression.  This  will  have  no
                                effect unless references are being accumulated.

   Label expressions
       Label  expressions can be evaluated both normally and tentatively.  The result of normal evaluation is used for
       output.  The result of tentative evaluation, called the tentative label, is used to gather the information that
       normal evaluation needs to disambiguate the label.  Label expressions specified by the date-as-label and short-
       label commands are not evaluated tentatively.  Normal and tentative evaluation are the same for  all  types  of
       expression  other  than  @,  *,  and % expressions.  The description below applies to normal evaluation, except
       where otherwise specified.

       field
       field n
              The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted, it defaults to 1.

       'string'
              The characters in string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as specified by the join-authors command.  The whole of each author's  name  will
              be  used.   However,  if the references are sorted by author (that is the sort specification starts with
              A+), then authors' last names will be used instead, provided that this does not introduce ambiguity, and
              also  an  initial subsequence of the authors may be used instead of all the authors, again provided that
              this does not introduce ambiguity.  The use of only the last name for the i-th author of some  reference
              is  considered  to be ambiguous if there is some other reference, such that the first i-1 authors of the
              references are the same, the i-th authors are not the same, but the i-th authors'  last  names  are  the
              same.   A  proper  initial subsequence of the sequence of authors for some reference is considered to be
              ambiguous if there is a reference with some other sequence of authors which also has that subsequence as
              a proper initial subsequence.  When an initial subsequence of authors is used, the remaining authors are
              replaced by the string specified by the et-al command; this command may also specify additional require-
              ments  that must be met before an initial subsequence can be used.  @ tentatively evaluates to a canoni-
              cal representation of the authors, such that authors that compare equally for sorting purpose will  have
              the same representation.

       %n
       %a
       %A
       %i
       %I     The  serial  number  of  the reference formatted according to the character following the %.  The serial
              number of a reference is 1 plus the number of earlier references with same tentative label as this  ref-
              erence.  These expressions tentatively evaluate to an empty string.

       expr*  If  there  is another reference with the same tentative label as this reference, then expr, otherwise an
              empty string.  It tentatively evaluates to an empty string.

       expr+n
       expr-n The first (+) or last (-) n upper or lower case letters or digits of  expr.   Troff  special  characters
              (such  as  \('a)  count  as  a  single letter.  Accent strings are retained but do not count towards the
              total.

       expr.l expr converted to lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.

       expr.a expr with first names abbreviated.  Note that fields specified in the abbreviate command are abbreviated
              before  any  labels  are evaluated.  Thus .a is useful only when you want a field to be abbreviated in a
              label but not in a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

       expr.+y
              The part of expr before the year, or the whole of expr if it does not contain a year.

       expr.-y
              The part of expr after the year, or an empty string if expr does not contain a year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

       expr1~expr2
              expr1 except that if the last character of expr1 is - then it will be replaced by expr2.

       expr1 expr2
              The concatenation of expr1 and expr2.

       expr1|expr2
              If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

       expr1&expr2
              If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty string.

       expr1?expr2:expr3
              If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The label is in two parts, which are separated by expr.  Two adjacent two-part  labels  which  have  the
              same  first  part  will  be merged by appending the second part of the second label onto the first label
              separated by the string specified in the separate-label-second-parts command (initially,  a  comma  fol-
              lowed  by a space); the resulting label will also be a two-part label with the same first part as before
              merging, and so additional labels can be merged into it.  Note that it is permissible for the first part
              to be empty; this maybe desirable for expressions used in the short-label command.

       (expr) The same as expr.  Used for grouping.

       The above expressions are listed in order of precedence (highest first); & and | have the same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each reference starts with a call to the macro ]-.  The string [F will be defined to be the label for this ref-
       erence, unless the no-label-in-reference command has been given.  There then follows a series of string defini-
       tions, one for each field: string [X corresponds to field X.  The number register [P is set to 1 if the P field
       contains a range of pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to 1 according as the T, A and O  fields
       end  with  one  of  the characters .?!.  The [E number register will be set to 1 if the [E string contains more
       than one name.  The reference is followed by a call to the ][ macro.  The first argument to this macro gives  a
       number  representing  the  type  of the reference.  If a reference contains a J field, it will be classified as
       type 1, otherwise if it contains a B field, it will type 3, otherwise if it contains a G or R field it will  be
       type 4, otherwise if contains a I field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be type 0.  The second argument is
       a symbolic name for the type: other, journal-article, book, article-in-book or tech-report.  Groups  of  refer-
       ences  that  have been accumulated or are produced by the bibliography command are preceded by a call to the ]<
       macro and followed by a call to the ]> macro.

FILES
       /usr/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i                Index files.

SEE ALSO
       indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)

BUGS
       In label expressions, <> expressions are ignored inside .char expressions.



Groff Version 1.18.1.4           27 June 2001                         REFER(1)