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PERLXS(1)              Perl Programmers Reference Guide              PERLXS(1)



NAME
       perlxs - XS language reference manual

DESCRIPTION
       Introduction

       XS is an interface description file format used to create an extension interface between Perl and C code (or a
       C library) which one wishes to use with Perl.  The XS interface is combined with the library to create a new
       library which can then be either dynamically loaded or statically linked into perl.  The XS interface descrip-
       tion is written in the XS language and is the core component of the Perl extension interface.

       An XSUB forms the basic unit of the XS interface.  After compilation by the xsubpp compiler, each XSUB amounts
       to a C function definition which will provide the glue between Perl calling conventions and C calling conven-
       tions.

       The glue code pulls the arguments from the Perl stack, converts these Perl values to the formats expected by a
       C function, call this C function, transfers the return values of the C function back to Perl.  Return values
       here may be a conventional C return value or any C function arguments that may serve as output parameters.
       These return values may be passed back to Perl either by putting them on the Perl stack, or by modifying the
       arguments supplied from the Perl side.

       The above is a somewhat simplified view of what really happens.  Since Perl allows more flexible calling con-
       ventions than C, XSUBs may do much more in practice, such as checking input parameters for validity, throwing
       exceptions (or returning undef/empty list) if the return value from the C function indicates failure, calling
       different C functions based on numbers and types of the arguments, providing an object-oriented interface, etc.

       Of course, one could write such glue code directly in C.  However, this would be a tedious task, especially if
       one needs to write glue for multiple C functions, and/or one is not familiar enough with the Perl stack disci-
       pline and other such arcana.  XS comes to the rescue here: instead of writing this glue C code in long-hand,
       one can write a more concise short-hand description of what should be done by the glue, and let the XS compiler
       xsubpp handle the rest.

       The XS language allows one to describe the mapping between how the C routine is used, and how the corresponding
       Perl routine is used.  It also allows creation of Perl routines which are directly translated to C code and
       which are not related to a pre-existing C function.  In cases when the C interface coincides with the Perl
       interface, the XSUB declaration is almost identical to a declaration of a C function (in K&R style).  In such
       circumstances, there is another tool called "h2xs" that is able to translate an entire C header file into a
       corresponding XS file that will provide glue to the functions/macros described in the header file.

       The XS compiler is called xsubpp.  This compiler creates the constructs necessary to let an XSUB manipulate
       Perl values, and creates the glue necessary to let Perl call the XSUB.  The compiler uses typemaps to determine
       how to map C function parameters and output values to Perl values and back.  The default typemap (which comes
       with Perl) handles many common C types.  A supplementary typemap may also be needed to handle any special
       structures and types for the library being linked.

       A file in XS format starts with a C language section which goes until the first "MODULE =" directive.  Other XS
       directives and XSUB definitions may follow this line.  The "language" used in this part of the file is usually
       referred to as the XS language.  xsubpp recognizes and skips POD (see perlpod) in both the C and XS language
       sections, which allows the XS file to contain embedded documentation.

       See perlxstut for a tutorial on the whole extension creation process.

       Note: For some extensions, Dave Beazley's SWIG system may provide a significantly more convenient mechanism for
       creating the extension glue code.  See http://www.swig.org/ for more information.

       On The Road

       Many of the examples which follow will concentrate on creating an interface between Perl and the ONC+ RPC bind
       library functions.  The rpcb_gettime() function is used to demonstrate many features of the XS language.  This
       function has two parameters; the first is an input parameter and the second is an output parameter.  The func-
       tion also returns a status value.

               bool_t rpcb_gettime(const char *host, time_t *timep);

       From C this function will be called with the following statements.

            #include <rpc/rpc.h>
            bool_t status;
            time_t timep;
            status = rpcb_gettime( "localhost", &timep );

       If an XSUB is created to offer a direct translation between this function and Perl, then this XSUB will be used
       from Perl with the following code.  The $status and $timep variables will contain the output of the function.

            use RPC;
            $status = rpcb_gettime( "localhost", $timep );

       The following XS file shows an XS subroutine, or XSUB, which demonstrates one possible interface to the
       rpcb_gettime() function.  This XSUB represents a direct translation between C and Perl and so preserves the
       interface even from Perl.  This XSUB will be invoked from Perl with the usage shown above.  Note that the first
       three #include statements, for "EXTERN.h", "perl.h", and "XSUB.h", will always be present at the beginning of
       an XS file.  This approach and others will be expanded later in this document.

            #include "EXTERN.h"
            #include "perl.h"
            #include "XSUB.h"
            #include <rpc/rpc.h>

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPC

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       Any extension to Perl, including those containing XSUBs, should have a Perl module to serve as the bootstrap
       which pulls the extension into Perl.  This module will export the extension's functions and variables to the
       Perl program and will cause the extension's XSUBs to be linked into Perl.  The following module will be used
       for most of the examples in this document and should be used from Perl with the "use" command as shown earlier.
       Perl modules are explained in more detail later in this document.

            package RPC;

            require Exporter;
            require DynaLoader;
            @ISA = qw(Exporter DynaLoader);
            @EXPORT = qw( rpcb_gettime );

            bootstrap RPC;
            1;

       Throughout this document a variety of interfaces to the rpcb_gettime() XSUB will be explored.  The XSUBs will
       take their parameters in different orders or will take different numbers of parameters.  In each case the XSUB
       is an abstraction between Perl and the real C rpcb_gettime() function, and the XSUB must always ensure that the
       real rpcb_gettime() function is called with the correct parameters.  This abstraction will allow the programmer
       to create a more Perl-like interface to the C function.

       The Anatomy of an XSUB

       The simplest XSUBs consist of 3 parts: a description of the return value, the name of the XSUB routine and the
       names of its arguments, and a description of types or formats of the arguments.

       The following XSUB allows a Perl program to access a C library function called sin().  The XSUB will imitate
       the C function which takes a single argument and returns a single value.

            double
            sin(x)
              double x

       Optionally, one can merge the description of types and the list of argument names, rewriting this as

            double
            sin(double x)

       This makes this XSUB look similar to an ANSI C declaration.  An optional semicolon is allowed after the argu-
       ment list, as in

            double
            sin(double x);

       Parameters with C pointer types can have different semantic: C functions with similar declarations

            bool string_looks_as_a_number(char *s);
            bool make_char_uppercase(char *c);

       are used in absolutely incompatible manner.  Parameters to these functions could be described xsubpp like this:

            char *  s
            char    &c

       Both these XS declarations correspond to the "char*" C type, but they have different semantics, see "The &
       Unary Operator".

       It is convenient to think that the indirection operator "*" should be considered as a part of the type and the
       address operator "&" should be considered part of the variable.  See "The Typemap" for more info about handling
       qualifiers and unary operators in C types.

       The function name and the return type must be placed on separate lines and should be flush left-adjusted.

         INCORRECT                        CORRECT

         double sin(x)                    double
           double x                       sin(x)
                                            double x

       The rest of the function description may be indented or left-adjusted. The following example shows a function
       with its body left-adjusted.  Most examples in this document will indent the body for better readability.

         CORRECT

         double
         sin(x)
         double x

       More complicated XSUBs may contain many other sections.  Each section of an XSUB starts with the corresponding
       keyword, such as INIT: or CLEANUP:.  However, the first two lines of an XSUB always contain the same data:
       descriptions of the return type and the names of the function and its parameters.  Whatever immediately follows
       these is considered to be an INPUT: section unless explicitly marked with another keyword.  (See "The INPUT:
       Keyword".)

       An XSUB section continues until another section-start keyword is found.

       The Argument Stack

       The Perl argument stack is used to store the values which are sent as parameters to the XSUB and to store the
       XSUB's return value(s).  In reality all Perl functions (including non-XSUB ones) keep their values on this
       stack all the same time, each limited to its own range of positions on the stack.  In this document the first
       position on that stack which belongs to the active function will be referred to as position 0 for that func-
       tion.

       XSUBs refer to their stack arguments with the macro ST(x), where x refers to a position in this XSUB's part of
       the stack.  Position 0 for that function would be known to the XSUB as ST(0).  The XSUB's incoming parameters
       and outgoing return values always begin at ST(0).  For many simple cases the xsubpp compiler will generate the
       code necessary to handle the argument stack by embedding code fragments found in the typemaps.  In more complex
       cases the programmer must supply the code.

       The RETVAL Variable

       The RETVAL variable is a special C variable that is declared automatically for you.  The C type of RETVAL
       matches the return type of the C library function.  The xsubpp compiler will declare this variable in each XSUB
       with non-"void" return type.  By default the generated C function will use RETVAL to hold the return value of
       the C library function being called.  In simple cases the value of RETVAL will be placed in ST(0) of the argu-
       ment stack where it can be received by Perl as the return value of the XSUB.

       If the XSUB has a return type of "void" then the compiler will not declare a RETVAL variable for that function.
       When using a PPCODE: section no manipulation of the RETVAL variable is required, the section may use direct
       stack manipulation to place output values on the stack.

       If PPCODE: directive is not used, "void" return value should be used only for subroutines which do not return a
       value, even if CODE: directive is used which sets ST(0) explicitly.

       Older versions of this document recommended to use "void" return value in such cases. It was discovered that
       this could lead to segfaults in cases when XSUB was truly "void". This practice is now deprecated, and may be
       not supported at some future version. Use the return value "SV *" in such cases. (Currently "xsubpp" contains
       some heuristic code which tries to disambiguate between "truly-void" and "old-practice-declared-as-void" func-
       tions. Hence your code is at mercy of this heuristics unless you use "SV *" as return value.)

       Returning SVs, AVs and HVs through RETVAL

       When you're using RETVAL to return an "SV *", there's some magic going on behind the scenes that should be men-
       tioned. When you're manipulating the argument stack using the ST(x) macro, for example, you usually have to pay
       special attention to reference counts. (For more about reference counts, see perlguts.) To make your life eas-
       ier, the typemap file automatically makes "RETVAL" mortal when you're returning an "SV *". Thus, the following
       two XSUBs are more or less equivalent:

         void
         alpha()
             PPCODE:
                 ST(0) = newSVpv("Hello World",0);
                 sv_2mortal(ST(0));
                 XSRETURN(1);

         SV *
         beta()
             CODE:
                 RETVAL = newSVpv("Hello World",0);
             OUTPUT:
                 RETVAL

       This is quite useful as it usually improves readability. While this works fine for an "SV *", it's unfortu-
       nately not as easy to have "AV *" or "HV *" as a return value. You should be able to write:

         AV *
         array()
             CODE:
                 RETVAL = newAV();
                 /* do something with RETVAL */
             OUTPUT:
                 RETVAL

       But due to an unfixable bug (fixing it would break lots of existing CPAN modules) in the typemap file, the ref-
       erence count of the "AV *" is not properly decremented. Thus, the above XSUB would leak memory whenever it is
       being called. The same problem exists for "HV *".

       When you're returning an "AV *" or a "HV *", you have make sure their reference count is decremented by making
       the AV or HV mortal:

         AV *
         array()
             CODE:
                 RETVAL = newAV();
                 sv_2mortal((SV*)RETVAL);
                 /* do something with RETVAL */
             OUTPUT:
                 RETVAL

       And also remember that you don't have to do this for an "SV *".

       The MODULE Keyword

       The MODULE keyword is used to start the XS code and to specify the package of the functions which are being
       defined.  All text preceding the first MODULE keyword is considered C code and is passed through to the output
       with POD stripped, but otherwise untouched.  Every XS module will have a bootstrap function which is used to
       hook the XSUBs into Perl.  The package name of this bootstrap function will match the value of the last MODULE
       statement in the XS source files.  The value of MODULE should always remain constant within the same XS file,
       though this is not required.

       The following example will start the XS code and will place all functions in a package named RPC.

            MODULE = RPC

       The PACKAGE Keyword

       When functions within an XS source file must be separated into packages the PACKAGE keyword should be used.
       This keyword is used with the MODULE keyword and must follow immediately after it when used.

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPC

            [ XS code in package RPC ]

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPCB

            [ XS code in package RPCB ]

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPC

            [ XS code in package RPC ]

       The same package name can be used more than once, allowing for non-contiguous code. This is useful if you have
       a stronger ordering principle than package names.

       Although this keyword is optional and in some cases provides redundant information it should always be used.
       This keyword will ensure that the XSUBs appear in the desired package.

       The PREFIX Keyword

       The PREFIX keyword designates prefixes which should be removed from the Perl function names.  If the C function
       is "rpcb_gettime()" and the PREFIX value is "rpcb_" then Perl will see this function as "gettime()".

       This keyword should follow the PACKAGE keyword when used.  If PACKAGE is not used then PREFIX should follow the
       MODULE keyword.

            MODULE = RPC  PREFIX = rpc_

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPCB  PREFIX = rpcb_

       The OUTPUT: Keyword

       The OUTPUT: keyword indicates that certain function parameters should be updated (new values made visible to
       Perl) when the XSUB terminates or that certain values should be returned to the calling Perl function.  For
       simple functions which have no CODE: or PPCODE: section, such as the sin() function above, the RETVAL variable
       is automatically designated as an output value.  For more complex functions the xsubpp compiler will need help
       to determine which variables are output variables.

       This keyword will normally be used to complement the CODE:  keyword.  The RETVAL variable is not recognized as
       an output variable when the CODE: keyword is present.  The OUTPUT:  keyword is used in this situation to tell
       the compiler that RETVAL really is an output variable.

       The OUTPUT: keyword can also be used to indicate that function parameters are output variables.  This may be
       necessary when a parameter has been modified within the function and the programmer would like the update to be
       seen by Perl.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       The OUTPUT: keyword will also allow an output parameter to be mapped to a matching piece of code rather than to
       a typemap.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep sv_setnv(ST(1), (double)timep);

       xsubpp emits an automatic "SvSETMAGIC()" for all parameters in the OUTPUT section of the XSUB, except RETVAL.
       This is the usually desired behavior, as it takes care of properly invoking 'set' magic on output parameters
       (needed for hash or array element parameters that must be created if they didn't exist).  If for some reason,
       this behavior is not desired, the OUTPUT section may contain a "SETMAGIC: DISABLE" line to disable it for the
       remainder of the parameters in the OUTPUT section.  Likewise,  "SETMAGIC: ENABLE" can be used to reenable it
       for the remainder of the OUTPUT section.  See perlguts for more details about 'set' magic.

       The NO_OUTPUT Keyword

       The NO_OUTPUT can be placed as the first token of the XSUB.  This keyword indicates that while the C subroutine
       we provide an interface to has a non-"void" return type, the return value of this C subroutine should not be
       returned from the generated Perl subroutine.

       With this keyword present "The RETVAL Variable" is created, and in the generated call to the subroutine this
       variable is assigned to, but the value of this variable is not going to be used in the auto-generated code.

       This keyword makes sense only if "RETVAL" is going to be accessed by the user-supplied code.  It is especially
       useful to make a function interface more Perl-like, especially when the C return value is just an error condi-
       tion indicator.  For example,

         NO_OUTPUT int
         delete_file(char *name)
           POSTCALL:
             if (RETVAL != 0)
                 croak("Error %d while deleting file '%s'", RETVAL, name);

       Here the generated XS function returns nothing on success, and will die() with a meaningful error message on
       error.

       The CODE: Keyword

       This keyword is used in more complicated XSUBs which require special handling for the C function.  The RETVAL
       variable is still declared, but it will not be returned unless it is specified in the OUTPUT: section.

       The following XSUB is for a C function which requires special handling of its parameters.  The Perl usage is
       given first.

            $status = rpcb_gettime( "localhost", $timep );

       The XSUB follows.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t timep
               CODE:
                      RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       The INIT: Keyword

       The INIT: keyword allows initialization to be inserted into the XSUB before the compiler generates the call to
       the C function.  Unlike the CODE: keyword above, this keyword does not affect the way the compiler handles RET-
       VAL.

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               INIT:
                 printf("# Host is %s\n", host );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       Another use for the INIT: section is to check for preconditions before making a call to the C function:

           long long
           lldiv(a,b)
               long long a
               long long b
             INIT:
               if (a == 0 && b == 0)
                   XSRETURN_UNDEF;
               if (b == 0)
                   croak("lldiv: cannot divide by 0");

       The NO_INIT Keyword

       The NO_INIT keyword is used to indicate that a function parameter is being used only as an output value.  The
       xsubpp compiler will normally generate code to read the values of all function parameters from the argument
       stack and assign them to C variables upon entry to the function.  NO_INIT will tell the compiler that some
       parameters will be used for output rather than for input and that they will be handled before the function ter-
       minates.

       The following example shows a variation of the rpcb_gettime() function.  This function uses the timep variable
       only as an output variable and does not care about its initial contents.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep = NO_INIT
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       Initializing Function Parameters

       C function parameters are normally initialized with their values from the argument stack (which in turn con-
       tains the parameters that were passed to the XSUB from Perl).  The typemaps contain the code segments which are
       used to translate the Perl values to the C parameters.  The programmer, however, is allowed to override the
       typemaps and supply alternate (or additional) initialization code.  Initialization code starts with the first
       "=", ";" or "+" on a line in the INPUT: section.  The only exception happens if this ";" terminates the line,
       then this ";" is quietly ignored.

       The following code demonstrates how to supply initialization code for function parameters.  The initialization
       code is eval'd within double quotes by the compiler before it is added to the output so anything which should
       be interpreted literally [mainly "$", "@", or "\\"] must be protected with backslashes.  The variables $var,
       $arg, and $type can be used as in typemaps.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host = (char *)SvPV($arg,PL_na);
                 time_t &timep = 0;
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       This should not be used to supply default values for parameters.  One would normally use this when a function
       parameter must be processed by another library function before it can be used.  Default parameters are covered
       in the next section.

       If the initialization begins with "=", then it is output in the declaration for the input variable, replacing
       the initialization supplied by the typemap.  If the initialization begins with ";" or "+", then it is performed
       after all of the input variables have been declared.  In the ";" case the initialization normally supplied by
       the typemap is not performed.  For the "+" case, the declaration for the variable will include the initializa-
       tion from the typemap.  A global variable, %v, is available for the truly rare case where information from one
       initialization is needed in another initialization.

       Here's a truly obscure example:

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 time_t &timep; /* \$v{timep}=@{[$v{timep}=$arg]} */
                 char *host + SvOK($v{timep}) ? SvPV($arg,PL_na) : NULL;
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       The construct "\$v{timep}=@{[$v{timep}=$arg]}" used in the above example has a two-fold purpose: first, when
       this line is processed by xsubpp, the Perl snippet "$v{timep}=$arg" is evaluated.  Second, the text of the
       evaluated snippet is output into the generated C file (inside a C comment)!  During the processing of "char
       *host" line, $arg will evaluate to ST(0), and $v{timep} will evaluate to ST(1).

       Default Parameter Values

       Default values for XSUB arguments can be specified by placing an assignment statement in the parameter list.
       The default value may be a number, a string or the special string "NO_INIT".  Defaults should always be used on
       the right-most parameters only.

       To allow the XSUB for rpcb_gettime() to have a default host value the parameters to the XSUB could be rear-
       ranged.  The XSUB will then call the real rpcb_gettime() function with the parameters in the correct order.
       This XSUB can be called from Perl with either of the following statements:

            $status = rpcb_gettime( $timep, $host );

            $status = rpcb_gettime( $timep );

       The XSUB will look like the code  which  follows.   A  CODE: block  is used to call the real rpcb_gettime()
       function with the parameters in the correct order for that function.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(timep,host="localhost")
                 char *host
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
               CODE:
                      RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       The PREINIT: Keyword

       The PREINIT: keyword allows extra variables to be declared immediately before or after the declarations of the
       parameters from the INPUT: section are emitted.

       If a variable is declared inside a CODE: section it will follow any typemap code that is emitted for the input
       parameters.  This may result in the declaration ending up after C code, which is C syntax error.  Similar
       errors may happen with an explicit ";"-type or "+"-type initialization of parameters is used (see "Initializing
       Function Parameters").  Declaring these variables in an INIT: section will not help.

       In such cases, to force an additional variable to be declared together with declarations of other variables,
       place the declaration into a PREINIT: section.  The PREINIT: keyword may be used one or more times within an
       XSUB.

       The following examples are equivalent, but if the code is using complex typemaps then the first example is
       safer.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(timep)
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
               PREINIT:
                 char *host = "localhost";
               CODE:
                 RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       For this particular case an INIT: keyword would generate the same C code as the PREINIT: keyword.  Another cor-
       rect, but error-prone example:

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(timep)
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
               CODE:
                 char *host = "localhost";
                 RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       Another way to declare "host" is to use a C block in the CODE: section:

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(timep)
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
               CODE:
                 {
                   char *host = "localhost";
                   RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
                 }
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       The ability to put additional declarations before the typemap entries are processed is very handy in the cases
       when typemap conversions manipulate some global state:

           MyObject
           mutate(o)
               PREINIT:
                   MyState st = global_state;
               INPUT:
                   MyObject o;
               CLEANUP:
                   reset_to(global_state, st);

       Here we suppose that conversion to "MyObject" in the INPUT: section and from MyObject when processing RETVAL
       will modify a global variable "global_state".  After these conversions are performed, we restore the old value
       of "global_state" (to avoid memory leaks, for example).

       There is another way to trade clarity for compactness: INPUT sections allow declaration of C variables which do
       not appear in the parameter list of a subroutine.  Thus the above code for mutate() can be rewritten as

           MyObject
           mutate(o)
                 MyState st = global_state;
                 MyObject o;
               CLEANUP:
                 reset_to(global_state, st);

       and the code for rpcb_gettime() can be rewritten as

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(timep)
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
                 char *host = "localhost";
               C_ARGS:
                 host, &timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       The SCOPE: Keyword

       The SCOPE: keyword allows scoping to be enabled for a particular XSUB. If enabled, the XSUB will invoke ENTER
       and LEAVE automatically.

       To support potentially complex type mappings, if a typemap entry used by an XSUB contains a comment like
       "/*scope*/" then scoping will be automatically enabled for that XSUB.

       To enable scoping:

           SCOPE: ENABLE

       To disable scoping:

           SCOPE: DISABLE

       The INPUT: Keyword

       The XSUB's parameters are usually evaluated immediately after entering the XSUB.  The INPUT: keyword can be
       used to force those parameters to be evaluated a little later.  The INPUT: keyword can be used multiple times
       within an XSUB and can be used to list one or more input variables.  This keyword is used with the PREINIT:
       keyword.

       The following example shows how the input parameter "timep" can be evaluated late, after a PREINIT.

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t tt;
               INPUT:
                 time_t timep
               CODE:
                      RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &tt );
                      timep = tt;
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       The next example shows each input parameter evaluated late.

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
               PREINIT:
                 time_t tt;
               INPUT:
                 char *host
               PREINIT:
                 char *h;
               INPUT:
                 time_t timep
               CODE:
                      h = host;
                      RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( h, &tt );
                      timep = tt;
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       Since INPUT sections allow declaration of C variables which do not appear in the parameter list of a subrou-
       tine, this may be shortened to:

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 time_t tt;
                 char *host;
                 char *h = host;
                 time_t timep;
               CODE:
                 RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( h, &tt );
                 timep = tt;
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       (We used our knowledge that input conversion for "char *" is a "simple" one, thus "host" is initialized on the
       declaration line, and our assignment "h = host" is not performed too early.  Otherwise one would need to have
       the assignment "h = host" in a CODE: or INIT: section.)

       The IN/OUTLIST/IN_OUTLIST/OUT/IN_OUT Keywords

       In the list of parameters for an XSUB, one can precede parameter names by the "IN"/"OUTLIST"/"IN_OUT-
       LIST"/"OUT"/"IN_OUT" keywords.  "IN" keyword is the default, the other keywords indicate how the Perl interface
       should differ from the C interface.

       Parameters preceded by "OUTLIST"/"IN_OUTLIST"/"OUT"/"IN_OUT" keywords are considered to be used by the C sub-
       routine via pointers.  "OUTLIST"/"OUT" keywords indicate that the C subroutine does not inspect the memory
       pointed by this parameter, but will write through this pointer to provide additional return values.

       Parameters preceded by "OUTLIST" keyword do not appear in the usage signature of the generated Perl function.

       Parameters preceded by "IN_OUTLIST"/"IN_OUT"/"OUT" do appear as parameters to the Perl function.  With the
       exception of "OUT"-parameters, these parameters are converted to the corresponding C type, then pointers to
       these data are given as arguments to the C function.  It is expected that the C function will write through
       these pointers.

       The return list of the generated Perl function consists of the C return value from the function (unless the
       XSUB is of "void" return type or "The NO_OUTPUT Keyword" was used) followed by all the "OUTLIST" and "IN_OUT-
       LIST" parameters (in the order of appearance).  On the return from the XSUB the "IN_OUT"/"OUT" Perl parameter
       will be modified to have the values written by the C function.

       For example, an XSUB

         void
         day_month(OUTLIST day, IN unix_time, OUTLIST month)
           int day
           int unix_time
           int month

       should be used from Perl as

         my ($day, $month) = day_month(time);

       The C signature of the corresponding function should be

         void day_month(int *day, int unix_time, int *month);

       The "IN"/"OUTLIST"/"IN_OUTLIST"/"IN_OUT"/"OUT" keywords can be mixed with ANSI-style declarations, as in

         void
         day_month(OUTLIST int day, int unix_time, OUTLIST int month)

       (here the optional "IN" keyword is omitted).

       The "IN_OUT" parameters are identical with parameters introduced with "The & Unary Operator" and put into the
       "OUTPUT:" section (see "The OUTPUT: Keyword").  The "IN_OUTLIST" parameters are very similar, the only differ-
       ence being that the value C function writes through the pointer would not modify the Perl parameter, but is put
       in the output list.

       The "OUTLIST"/"OUT" parameter differ from "IN_OUTLIST"/"IN_OUT" parameters only by the initial value of the
       Perl parameter not being read (and not being given to the C function - which gets some garbage instead).  For
       example, the same C function as above can be interfaced with as

         void day_month(OUT int day, int unix_time, OUT int month);

       or

         void
         day_month(day, unix_time, month)
             int &day = NO_INIT
             int  unix_time
             int &month = NO_INIT
           OUTPUT:
             day
             month

       However, the generated Perl function is called in very C-ish style:

         my ($day, $month);
         day_month($day, time, $month);

       The "length(NAME)" Keyword

       If one of the input arguments to the C function is the length of a string argument "NAME", one can substitute
       the name of the length-argument by "length(NAME)" in the XSUB declaration.  This argument must be omitted when
       the generated Perl function is called.  E.g.,

         void
         dump_chars(char *s, short l)
         {
           short n = 0;
           while (n < l) {
               printf("s[%d] = \"\\%#03o\"\n", n, (int)s[n]);
               n++;
           }
         }

         MODULE = x            PACKAGE = x

         void dump_chars(char *s, short length(s))

       should be called as "dump_chars($string)".

       This directive is supported with ANSI-type function declarations only.

       Variable-length Parameter Lists

       XSUBs can have variable-length parameter lists by specifying an ellipsis "(...)" in the parameter list.  This
       use of the ellipsis is similar to that found in ANSI C.  The programmer is able to determine the number of
       arguments passed to the XSUB by examining the "items" variable which the xsubpp compiler supplies for all
       XSUBs.  By using this mechanism one can create an XSUB which accepts a list of parameters of unknown length.

       The host parameter for the rpcb_gettime() XSUB can be optional so the ellipsis can be used to indicate that the
       XSUB will take a variable number of parameters.  Perl should be able to call this XSUB with either of the fol-
       lowing statements.

            $status = rpcb_gettime( $timep, $host );

            $status = rpcb_gettime( $timep );

       The XS code, with ellipsis, follows.

            bool_t
            rpcb_gettime(timep, ...)
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
               PREINIT:
                 char *host = "localhost";
                 STRLEN n_a;
               CODE:
                 if( items > 1 )
                      host = (char *)SvPV(ST(1), n_a);
                 RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       The C_ARGS: Keyword

       The C_ARGS: keyword allows creating of XSUBS which have different calling sequence from Perl than from C, with-
       out a need to write CODE: or PPCODE: section.  The contents of the C_ARGS: paragraph is put as the argument to
       the called C function without any change.

       For example, suppose that a C function is declared as

           symbolic nth_derivative(int n, symbolic function, int flags);

       and that the default flags are kept in a global C variable "default_flags".  Suppose that you want to create an
       interface which is called as

           $second_deriv = $function->nth_derivative(2);

       To do this, declare the XSUB as

           symbolic
           nth_derivative(function, n)
               symbolic        function
               int             n
             C_ARGS:
               n, function, default_flags

       The PPCODE: Keyword

       The PPCODE: keyword is an alternate form of the CODE: keyword and is used to tell the xsubpp compiler that the
       programmer is supplying the code to control the argument stack for the XSUBs return values.  Occasionally one
       will want an XSUB to return a list of values rather than a single value.  In these cases one must use PPCODE:
       and then explicitly push the list of values on the stack.  The PPCODE: and CODE:  keywords should not be used
       together within the same XSUB.

       The actual difference between PPCODE: and CODE: sections is in the initialization of "SP" macro (which stands
       for the current Perl stack pointer), and in the handling of data on the stack when returning from an XSUB.  In
       CODE: sections SP preserves the value which was on entry to the XSUB: SP is on the function pointer (which
       follows the last parameter).  In PPCODE: sections SP is moved backward to the beginning of the parameter list,
       which allows "PUSH*()" macros to place output values in the place Perl expects them to be when the XSUB returns
       back to Perl.

       The generated trailer for a CODE: section ensures that the number of return values Perl will see is either 0 or
       1 (depending on the "void"ness of the return value of the C function, and heuristics mentioned in "The RETVAL
       Variable").  The trailer generated for a PPCODE: section is based on the number of return values and on the
       number of times "SP" was updated by "[X]PUSH*()" macros.

       Note that macros ST(i), "XST_m*()" and "XSRETURN*()" work equally well in CODE: sections and PPCODE: sections.

       The following XSUB will call the C rpcb_gettime() function and will return its two output values, timep and
       status, to Perl as a single list.

            void
            rpcb_gettime(host)
                 char *host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t  timep;
                 bool_t  status;
               PPCODE:
                 status = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
                 EXTEND(SP, 2);
                 PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(status)));
                 PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(timep)));

       Notice that the programmer must supply the C code necessary to have the real rpcb_gettime() function called and
       to have the return values properly placed on the argument stack.

       The "void" return type for this function tells the xsubpp compiler that the RETVAL variable is not needed or
       used and that it should not be created.  In most scenarios the void return type should be used with the PPCODE:
       directive.

       The EXTEND() macro is used to make room on the argument stack for 2 return values.  The PPCODE: directive
       causes the xsubpp compiler to create a stack pointer available as "SP", and it is this pointer which is being
       used in the EXTEND() macro.  The values are then pushed onto the stack with the PUSHs() macro.

       Now the rpcb_gettime() function can be used from Perl with the following statement.

            ($status, $timep) = rpcb_gettime("localhost");

       When handling output parameters with a PPCODE section, be sure to handle 'set' magic properly.  See perlguts
       for details about 'set' magic.

       Returning Undef And Empty Lists

       Occasionally the programmer will want to return simply "undef" or an empty list if a function fails rather than
       a separate status value.  The rpcb_gettime() function offers just this situation.  If the function succeeds we
       would like to have it return the time and if it fails we would like to have undef returned.  In the following
       Perl code the value of $timep will either be undef or it will be a valid time.

            $timep = rpcb_gettime( "localhost" );

       The following XSUB uses the "SV *" return type as a mnemonic only, and uses a CODE: block to indicate to the
       compiler that the programmer has supplied all the necessary code.  The sv_newmortal() call will initialize the
       return value to undef, making that the default return value.

            SV *
            rpcb_gettime(host)
                 char *  host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t  timep;
                 bool_t x;
               CODE:
                 ST(0) = sv_newmortal();
                 if( rpcb_gettime( host, &timep ) )
                      sv_setnv( ST(0), (double)timep);

       The next example demonstrates how one would place an explicit undef in the return value, should the need arise.

            SV *
            rpcb_gettime(host)
                 char *  host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t  timep;
                 bool_t x;
               CODE:
                 ST(0) = sv_newmortal();
                 if( rpcb_gettime( host, &timep ) ){
                      sv_setnv( ST(0), (double)timep);
                 }
                 else{
                      ST(0) = &PL_sv_undef;
                 }

       To return an empty list one must use a PPCODE: block and then not push return values on the stack.

            void
            rpcb_gettime(host)
                 char *host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t  timep;
               PPCODE:
                 if( rpcb_gettime( host, &timep ) )
                      PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(timep)));
                 else{
                     /* Nothing pushed on stack, so an empty
                      * list is implicitly returned. */
                 }

       Some people may be inclined to include an explicit "return" in the above XSUB, rather than letting control fall
       through to the end.  In those situations "XSRETURN_EMPTY" should be used, instead.  This will ensure that the
       XSUB stack is properly adjusted.  Consult perlapi for other "XSRETURN" macros.

       Since "XSRETURN_*" macros can be used with CODE blocks as well, one can rewrite this example as:

            int
            rpcb_gettime(host)
                 char *host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t  timep;
               CODE:
                 RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
                 if (RETVAL == 0)
                       XSRETURN_UNDEF;
               OUTPUT:
                 RETVAL

       In fact, one can put this check into a POSTCALL: section as well.  Together with PREINIT: simplifications, this
       leads to:

            int
            rpcb_gettime(host)
                 char *host
                 time_t  timep;
               POSTCALL:
                 if (RETVAL == 0)
                       XSRETURN_UNDEF;

       The REQUIRE: Keyword

       The REQUIRE: keyword is used to indicate the minimum version of the xsubpp compiler needed to compile the XS
       module.  An XS module which contains the following statement will compile with only xsubpp version 1.922 or
       greater:

               REQUIRE: 1.922

       The CLEANUP: Keyword

       This keyword can be used when an XSUB requires special cleanup procedures before it terminates.  When the
       CLEANUP:  keyword is used it must follow any CODE:, PPCODE:, or OUTPUT: blocks which are present in the XSUB.
       The code specified for the cleanup block will be added as the last statements in the XSUB.

       The POSTCALL: Keyword

       This keyword can be used when an XSUB requires special procedures executed after the C subroutine call is per-
       formed.  When the POSTCALL: keyword is used it must precede OUTPUT: and CLEANUP: blocks which are present in
       the XSUB.

       See examples in "The NO_OUTPUT Keyword" and "Returning Undef And Empty Lists".

       The POSTCALL: block does not make a lot of sense when the C subroutine call is supplied by user by providing
       either CODE: or PPCODE: section.

       The BOOT: Keyword

       The BOOT: keyword is used to add code to the extension's bootstrap function.  The bootstrap function is gener-
       ated by the xsubpp compiler and normally holds the statements necessary to register any XSUBs with Perl.  With
       the BOOT: keyword the programmer can tell the compiler to add extra statements to the bootstrap function.

       This keyword may be used any time after the first MODULE keyword and should appear on a line by itself.  The
       first blank line after the keyword will terminate the code block.

            BOOT:
            # The following message will be printed when the
            # bootstrap function executes.
            printf("Hello from the bootstrap!\n");

       The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword

       The VERSIONCHECK: keyword corresponds to xsubpp's "-versioncheck" and "-noversioncheck" options.  This keyword
       overrides the command line options.  Version checking is enabled by default.  When version checking is enabled
       the XS module will attempt to verify that its version matches the version of the PM module.

       To enable version checking:

           VERSIONCHECK: ENABLE

       To disable version checking:

           VERSIONCHECK: DISABLE

       The PROTOTYPES: Keyword

       The PROTOTYPES: keyword corresponds to xsubpp's "-prototypes" and "-noprototypes" options.  This keyword over-
       rides the command line options.  Prototypes are enabled by default.  When prototypes are enabled XSUBs will be
       given Perl prototypes.  This keyword may be used multiple times in an XS module to enable and disable proto-
       types for different parts of the module.

       To enable prototypes:

           PROTOTYPES: ENABLE

       To disable prototypes:

           PROTOTYPES: DISABLE

       The PROTOTYPE: Keyword

       This keyword is similar to the PROTOTYPES: keyword above but can be used to force xsubpp to use a specific pro-
       totype for the XSUB.  This keyword overrides all other prototype options and keywords but affects only the cur-
       rent XSUB.  Consult "Prototypes" in perlsub for information about Perl prototypes.

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(timep, ...)
                 time_t timep = NO_INIT
               PROTOTYPE: $;$
               PREINIT:
                 char *host = "localhost";
                 STRLEN n_a;
               CODE:
                         if( items > 1 )
                              host = (char *)SvPV(ST(1), n_a);
                         RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( host, &timep );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep
                 RETVAL

       If the prototypes are enabled, you can disable it locally for a given XSUB as in the following example:

           void
           rpcb_gettime_noproto()
               PROTOTYPE: DISABLE
           ...

       The ALIAS: Keyword

       The ALIAS: keyword allows an XSUB to have two or more unique Perl names and to know which of those names was
       used when it was invoked.  The Perl names may be fully-qualified with package names.  Each alias is given an
       index.  The compiler will setup a variable called "ix" which contain the index of the alias which was used.
       When the XSUB is called with its declared name "ix" will be 0.

       The following example will create aliases "FOO::gettime()" and "BAR::getit()" for this function.

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               ALIAS:
                   FOO::gettime = 1
                   BAR::getit = 2
               INIT:
                 printf("# ix = %d\n", ix );
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       The OVERLOAD: Keyword

       Instead of writing an overloaded interface using pure Perl, you can also use the OVERLOAD keyword to define
       additional Perl names for your functions (like the ALIAS: keyword above).  However, the overloaded functions
       must be defined with three parameters (except for the nomethod() function which needs four parameters).  If any
       function has the OVERLOAD: keyword, several additional lines will be defined in the c file generated by xsubpp
       in order to register with the overload magic.

       Since blessed objects are actually stored as RV's, it is useful to use the typemap features to preprocess
       parameters and extract the actual SV stored within the blessed RV. See the sample for T_PTROBJ_SPECIAL below.

       To use the OVERLOAD: keyword, create an XS function which takes three input parameters ( or use the c style
       '...' definition) like this:

           SV *
           cmp (lobj, robj, swap)
           My_Module_obj    lobj
           My_Module_obj    robj
           IV               swap
           OVERLOAD: cmp <=>
           { /* function defined here */}

       In this case, the function will overload both of the three way comparison operators.  For all overload opera-
       tions using non-alpha characters, you must type the parameter without quoting, seperating multiple overloads
       with whitespace.  Note that "" (the stringify overload) should be entered as \"\" (i.e. escaped).

       The FALLBACK: Keyword

       In addition to the OVERLOAD keyword, if you need to control how Perl autogenerates missing overloaded opera-
       tors, you can set the FALLBACK keyword in the module header section, like this:

           MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPC

           FALLBACK: TRUE
           ...

       where FALLBACK can take any of the three values TRUE, FALSE, or UNDEF.  If you do not set any FALLBACK value
       when using OVERLOAD, it defaults to UNDEF.  FALLBACK is not used except when one or more functions using OVER-
       LOAD have been defined.  Please see "Fallback" in overload for more details.

       The INTERFACE: Keyword

       This keyword declares the current XSUB as a keeper of the given calling signature.  If some text follows this
       keyword, it is considered as a list of functions which have this signature, and should be attached to the cur-
       rent XSUB.

       For example, if you have 4 C functions multiply(), divide(), add(), subtract() all having the signature:

           symbolic f(symbolic, symbolic);

       you can make them all to use the same XSUB using this:

           symbolic
           interface_s_ss(arg1, arg2)
               symbolic        arg1
               symbolic        arg2
           INTERFACE:
               multiply divide
               add subtract

       (This is the complete XSUB code for 4 Perl functions!)  Four generated Perl function share names with corre-
       sponding C functions.

       The advantage of this approach comparing to ALIAS: keyword is that there is no need to code a switch statement,
       each Perl function (which shares the same XSUB) knows which C function it should call.  Additionally, one can
       attach an extra function remainder() at runtime by using

           CV *mycv = newXSproto("Symbolic::remainder",
                                 XS_Symbolic_interface_s_ss, __FILE__, "$$");
           XSINTERFACE_FUNC_SET(mycv, remainder);

       say, from another XSUB.  (This example supposes that there was no INTERFACE_MACRO: section, otherwise one needs
       to use something else instead of "XSINTERFACE_FUNC_SET", see the next section.)

       The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword

       This keyword allows one to define an INTERFACE using a different way to extract a function pointer from an
       XSUB.  The text which follows this keyword should give the name of macros which would extract/set a function
       pointer.  The extractor macro is given return type, "CV*", and "XSANY.any_dptr" for this "CV*".  The setter
       macro is given cv, and the function pointer.

       The default value is "XSINTERFACE_FUNC" and "XSINTERFACE_FUNC_SET".  An INTERFACE keyword with an empty list of
       functions can be omitted if INTERFACE_MACRO keyword is used.

       Suppose that in the previous example functions pointers for multiply(), divide(), add(), subtract() are kept in
       a global C array "fp[]" with offsets being "multiply_off", "divide_off", "add_off", "subtract_off".  Then one
       can use

           #define XSINTERFACE_FUNC_BYOFFSET(ret,cv,f) \
               ((XSINTERFACE_CVT(ret,))fp[CvXSUBANY(cv).any_i32])
           #define XSINTERFACE_FUNC_BYOFFSET_set(cv,f) \
               CvXSUBANY(cv).any_i32 = CAT2( f, _off )

       in C section,

           symbolic
           interface_s_ss(arg1, arg2)
               symbolic        arg1
               symbolic        arg2
             INTERFACE_MACRO:
               XSINTERFACE_FUNC_BYOFFSET
               XSINTERFACE_FUNC_BYOFFSET_set
             INTERFACE:
               multiply divide
               add subtract

       in XSUB section.

       The INCLUDE: Keyword

       This keyword can be used to pull other files into the XS module.  The other files may have XS code.  INCLUDE:
       can also be used to run a command to generate the XS code to be pulled into the module.

       The file Rpcb1.xsh contains our "rpcb_gettime()" function:

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       The XS module can use INCLUDE: to pull that file into it.

           INCLUDE: Rpcb1.xsh

       If the parameters to the INCLUDE: keyword are followed by a pipe ("|") then the compiler will interpret the
       parameters as a command.

           INCLUDE: cat Rpcb1.xsh |

       The CASE: Keyword

       The CASE: keyword allows an XSUB to have multiple distinct parts with each part acting as a virtual XSUB.
       CASE: is greedy and if it is used then all other XS keywords must be contained within a CASE:.  This means
       nothing may precede the first CASE: in the XSUB and anything following the last CASE: is included in that case.

       A CASE: might switch via a parameter of the XSUB, via the "ix" ALIAS: variable (see "The ALIAS: Keyword"), or
       maybe via the "items" variable (see "Variable-length Parameter Lists").  The last CASE: becomes the default
       case if it is not associated with a conditional.  The following example shows CASE switched via "ix" with a
       function "rpcb_gettime()" having an alias "x_gettime()".  When the function is called as "rpcb_gettime()" its
       parameters are the usual "(char *host, time_t *timep)", but when the function is called as "x_gettime()" its
       parameters are reversed, "(time_t *timep, char *host)".

           long
           rpcb_gettime(a,b)
             CASE: ix == 1
               ALIAS:
                 x_gettime = 1
               INPUT:
                 # 'a' is timep, 'b' is host
                 char *b
                 time_t a = NO_INIT
               CODE:
                      RETVAL = rpcb_gettime( b, &a );
               OUTPUT:
                 a
                 RETVAL
             CASE:
                 # 'a' is host, 'b' is timep
                 char *a
                 time_t &b = NO_INIT
               OUTPUT:
                 b
                 RETVAL

       That function can be called with either of the following statements.  Note the different argument lists.

               $status = rpcb_gettime( $host, $timep );

               $status = x_gettime( $timep, $host );

       The & Unary Operator

       The "&" unary operator in the INPUT: section is used to tell xsubpp that it should convert a Perl value to/from
       C using the C type to the left of "&", but provide a pointer to this value when the C function is called.

       This is useful to avoid a CODE: block for a C function which takes a parameter by reference.  Typically, the
       parameter should be not a pointer type (an "int" or "long" but not an "int*" or "long*").

       The following XSUB will generate incorrect C code.  The xsubpp compiler will turn this into code which calls
       "rpcb_gettime()" with parameters "(char *host, time_t timep)", but the real "rpcb_gettime()" wants the "timep"
       parameter to be of type "time_t*" rather than "time_t".

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       That problem is corrected by using the "&" operator.  The xsubpp compiler will now turn this into code which
       calls "rpcb_gettime()" correctly with parameters "(char *host, time_t *timep)".  It does this by carrying the
       "&" through, so the function call looks like "rpcb_gettime(host, &timep)".

           bool_t
           rpcb_gettime(host,timep)
                 char *host
                 time_t &timep
               OUTPUT:
                 timep

       Inserting POD, Comments and C Preprocessor Directives

       C preprocessor directives are allowed within BOOT:, PREINIT: INIT:, CODE:, PPCODE:, POSTCALL:, and CLEANUP:
       blocks, as well as outside the functions.  Comments are allowed anywhere after the MODULE keyword.  The com-
       piler will pass the preprocessor directives through untouched and will remove the commented lines. POD documen-
       tation is allowed at any point, both in the C and XS language sections. POD must be terminated with a "=cut"
       command; "xsubpp" will exit with an error if it does not. It is very unlikely that human generated C code will
       be mistaken for POD, as most indenting styles result in whitespace in front of any line starting with "=".
       Machine generated XS files may fall into this trap unless care is taken to ensure that a space breaks the
       sequence "\n=".

       Comments can be added to XSUBs by placing a "#" as the first non-whitespace of a line.  Care should be taken to
       avoid making the comment look like a C preprocessor directive, lest it be interpreted as such.  The simplest
       way to prevent this is to put whitespace in front of the "#".

       If you use preprocessor directives to choose one of two versions of a function, use

           #if ... version1
           #else /* ... version2  */
           #endif

       and not

           #if ... version1
           #endif
           #if ... version2
           #endif

       because otherwise xsubpp will believe that you made a duplicate definition of the function.  Also, put a blank
       line before the #else/#endif so it will not be seen as part of the function body.

       Using XS With C++

       If an XSUB name contains "::", it is considered to be a C++ method.  The generated Perl function will assume
       that its first argument is an object pointer.  The object pointer will be stored in a variable called THIS.
       The object should have been created by C++ with the new() function and should be blessed by Perl with the
       sv_setref_pv() macro.  The blessing of the object by Perl can be handled by a typemap.  An example typemap is
       shown at the end of this section.

       If the return type of the XSUB includes "static", the method is considered to be a static method.  It will call
       the C++ function using the class::method() syntax.  If the method is not static the function will be called
       using the THIS->method() syntax.

       The next examples will use the following C++ class.

            class color {
                 public:
                 color();
                 ~color();
                 int blue();
                 void set_blue( int );

                 private:
                 int c_blue;
            };

       The XSUBs for the blue() and set_blue() methods are defined with the class name but the parameter for the
       object (THIS, or "self") is implicit and is not listed.

            int
            color::blue()

            void
            color::set_blue( val )
                 int val

       Both Perl functions will expect an object as the first parameter.  In the generated C++ code the object is
       called "THIS", and the method call will be performed on this object.  So in the C++ code the blue() and
       set_blue() methods will be called as this:

            RETVAL = THIS->blue();

            THIS->set_blue( val );

       You could also write a single get/set method using an optional argument:

            int
            color::blue( val = NO_INIT )
                int val
                PROTOTYPE $;$
                CODE:
                    if (items > 1)
                        THIS->set_blue( val );
                    RETVAL = THIS->blue();
                OUTPUT:
                    RETVAL

       If the function's name is DESTROY then the C++ "delete" function will be called and "THIS" will be given as its
       parameter.  The generated C++ code for

            void
            color::DESTROY()

       will look like this:

            color *THIS = ...; // Initialized as in typemap

            delete THIS;

       If the function's name is new then the C++ "new" function will be called to create a dynamic C++ object.  The
       XSUB will expect the class name, which will be kept in a variable called "CLASS", to be given as the first
       argument.

            color *
            color::new()

       The generated C++ code will call "new".

            RETVAL = new color();

       The following is an example of a typemap that could be used for this C++ example.

           TYPEMAP
           color *             O_OBJECT

           OUTPUT
           # The Perl object is blessed into 'CLASS', which should be a
           # char* having the name of the package for the blessing.
           O_OBJECT
               sv_setref_pv( $arg, CLASS, (void*)$var );

           INPUT
           O_OBJECT
               if( sv_isobject($arg) && (SvTYPE(SvRV($arg)) == SVt_PVMG) )
                       $var = ($type)SvIV((SV*)SvRV( $arg ));
               else{
                       warn( \"${Package}::$func_name() -- $var is not a blessed SV reference\" );
                       XSRETURN_UNDEF;
               }

       Interface Strategy

       When designing an interface between Perl and a C library a straight translation from C to XS (such as created
       by "h2xs -x") is often sufficient.  However, sometimes the interface will look very C-like and occasionally
       nonintuitive, especially when the C function modifies one of its parameters, or returns failure inband (as in
       "negative return values mean failure").  In cases where the programmer wishes to create a more Perl-like inter-
       face the following strategy may help to identify the more critical parts of the interface.

       Identify the C functions with input/output or output parameters.  The XSUBs for these functions may be able to
       return lists to Perl.

       Identify the C functions which use some inband info as an indication of failure.  They may be candidates to
       return undef or an empty list in case of failure.  If the failure may be detected without a call to the C func-
       tion, you may want to use an INIT: section to report the failure.  For failures detectable after the C function
       returns one may want to use a POSTCALL: section to process the failure.  In more complicated cases use CODE: or
       PPCODE: sections.

       If many functions use the same failure indication based on the return value, you may want to create a special
       typedef to handle this situation.  Put

         typedef int negative_is_failure;

       near the beginning of XS file, and create an OUTPUT typemap entry for "negative_is_failure" which converts neg-
       ative values to "undef", or maybe croak()s.  After this the return value of type "negative_is_failure" will
       create more Perl-like interface.

       Identify which values are used by only the C and XSUB functions themselves, say, when a parameter to a function
       should be a contents of a global variable.  If Perl does not need to access the contents of the value then it
       may not be necessary to provide a translation for that value from C to Perl.

       Identify the pointers in the C function parameter lists and return values.  Some pointers may be used to imple-
       ment input/output or output parameters, they can be handled in XS with the "&" unary operator, and, possibly,
       using the NO_INIT keyword.  Some others will require handling of types like "int *", and one needs to decide
       what a useful Perl translation will do in such a case.  When the semantic is clear, it is advisable to put the
       translation into a typemap file.

       Identify the structures used by the C functions.  In many cases it may be helpful to use the T_PTROBJ typemap
       for these structures so they can be manipulated by Perl as blessed objects.  (This is handled automatically by
       "h2xs -x".)

       If the same C type is used in several different contexts which require different translations, "typedef" sev-
       eral new types mapped to this C type, and create separate typemap entries for these new types.  Use these types
       in declarations of return type and parameters to XSUBs.

       Perl Objects And C Structures

       When dealing with C structures one should select either T_PTROBJ or T_PTRREF for the XS type.  Both types are
       designed to handle pointers to complex objects.  The T_PTRREF type will allow the Perl object to be unblessed
       while the T_PTROBJ type requires that the object be blessed.  By using T_PTROBJ one can achieve a form of type-
       checking because the XSUB will attempt to verify that the Perl object is of the expected type.

       The following XS code shows the getnetconfigent() function which is used with ONC+ TIRPC.  The getnetconfi-
       gent() function will return a pointer to a C structure and has the C prototype shown below.  The example will
       demonstrate how the C pointer will become a Perl reference.  Perl will consider this reference to be a pointer
       to a blessed object and will attempt to call a destructor for the object.  A destructor will be provided in the
       XS source to free the memory used by getnetconfigent().  Destructors in XS can be created by specifying an XSUB
       function whose name ends with the word DESTROY.  XS destructors can be used to free memory which may have been
       malloc'd by another XSUB.

            struct netconfig *getnetconfigent(const char *netid);

       A "typedef" will be created for "struct netconfig".  The Perl object will be blessed in a class matching the
       name of the C type, with the tag "Ptr" appended, and the name should not have embedded spaces if it will be a
       Perl package name.  The destructor will be placed in a class corresponding to the class of the object and the
       PREFIX keyword will be used to trim the name to the word DESTROY as Perl will expect.

            typedef struct netconfig Netconfig;

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPC

            Netconfig *
            getnetconfigent(netid)
                 char *netid

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = NetconfigPtr  PREFIX = rpcb_

            void
            rpcb_DESTROY(netconf)
                 Netconfig *netconf
               CODE:
                 printf("Now in NetconfigPtr::DESTROY\n");
                 free( netconf );

       This example requires the following typemap entry.  Consult the typemap section for more information about
       adding new typemaps for an extension.

            TYPEMAP
            Netconfig *  T_PTROBJ

       This example will be used with the following Perl statements.

            use RPC;
            $netconf = getnetconfigent("udp");

       When Perl destroys the object referenced by $netconf it will send the object to the supplied XSUB DESTROY func-
       tion.  Perl cannot determine, and does not care, that this object is a C struct and not a Perl object.  In this
       sense, there is no difference between the object created by the getnetconfigent() XSUB and an object created by
       a normal Perl subroutine.

       The Typemap

       The typemap is a collection of code fragments which are used by the xsubpp compiler to map C function parame-
       ters and values to Perl values.  The typemap file may consist of three sections labelled "TYPEMAP", "INPUT",
       and "OUTPUT".  An unlabelled initial section is assumed to be a "TYPEMAP" section.  The INPUT section tells the
       compiler how to translate Perl values into variables of certain C types.  The OUTPUT section tells the compiler
       how to translate the values from certain C types into values Perl can understand.  The TYPEMAP section tells
       the compiler which of the INPUT and OUTPUT code fragments should be used to map a given C type to a Perl value.
       The section labels "TYPEMAP", "INPUT", or "OUTPUT" must begin in the first column on a line by themselves, and
       must be in uppercase.

       The default typemap in the "lib/ExtUtils" directory of the Perl source contains many useful types which can be
       used by Perl extensions.  Some extensions define additional typemaps which they keep in their own directory.
       These additional typemaps may reference INPUT and OUTPUT maps in the main typemap.  The xsubpp compiler will
       allow the extension's own typemap to override any mappings which are in the default typemap.

       Most extensions which require a custom typemap will need only the TYPEMAP section of the typemap file.  The
       custom typemap used in the getnetconfigent() example shown earlier demonstrates what may be the typical use of
       extension typemaps.  That typemap is used to equate a C structure with the T_PTROBJ typemap.  The typemap used
       by getnetconfigent() is shown here.  Note that the C type is separated from the XS type with a tab and that the
       C unary operator "*" is considered to be a part of the C type name.

               TYPEMAP
               Netconfig *<tab>T_PTROBJ

       Here's a more complicated example: suppose that you wanted "struct netconfig" to be blessed into the class
       "Net::Config".  One way to do this is to use underscores (_) to separate package names, as follows:

               typedef struct netconfig * Net_Config;

       And then provide a typemap entry "T_PTROBJ_SPECIAL" that maps underscores to double-colons (::), and declare
       "Net_Config" to be of that type:

               TYPEMAP
               Net_Config      T_PTROBJ_SPECIAL

               INPUT
               T_PTROBJ_SPECIAL
                       if (sv_derived_from($arg, \"${(my $ntt=$ntype)=~s/_/::/g;\$ntt}\")) {
                               IV tmp = SvIV((SV*)SvRV($arg));
                               $var = INT2PTR($type, tmp);
                       }
                       else
                               croak(\"$var is not of type ${(my $ntt=$ntype)=~s/_/::/g;\$ntt}\")

               OUTPUT
               T_PTROBJ_SPECIAL
                       sv_setref_pv($arg, \"${(my $ntt=$ntype)=~s/_/::/g;\$ntt}\",
                       (void*)$var);

       The INPUT and OUTPUT sections substitute underscores for double-colons on the fly, giving the desired effect.
       This example demonstrates some of the power and versatility of the typemap facility.

       The INT2PTR macro (defined in perl.h) casts an integer to a pointer, of a given type, taking care of the possi-
       ble different size of integers and pointers.  There are also PTR2IV, PTR2UV, PTR2NV macros, to map the other
       way, which may be useful in OUTPUT sections.

       Safely Storing Static Data in XS

       Starting with Perl 5.8, a macro framework has been defined to allow static data to be safely stored in XS mod-
       ules that will be accessed from a multi-threaded Perl.

       Although primarily designed for use with multi-threaded Perl, the macros have been designed so that they will
       work with non-threaded Perl as well.

       It is therefore strongly recommended that these macros be used by all XS modules that make use of static data.

       The easiest way to get a template set of macros to use is by specifying the "-g" ("--global") option with h2xs
       (see h2xs).

       Below is an example module that makes use of the macros.

           #include "EXTERN.h"
           #include "perl.h"
           #include "XSUB.h"

           /* Global Data */

           #define MY_CXT_KEY "BlindMice::_guts" XS_VERSION

           typedef struct {
               int count;
               char name[3][100];
           } my_cxt_t;

           START_MY_CXT

           MODULE = BlindMice           PACKAGE = BlindMice

           BOOT:
           {
               MY_CXT_INIT;
               MY_CXT.count = 0;
               strcpy(MY_CXT.name[0], "None");
               strcpy(MY_CXT.name[1], "None");
               strcpy(MY_CXT.name[2], "None");
           }

           int
           newMouse(char * name)
               char * name;
               PREINIT:
                 dMY_CXT;
               CODE:
                 if (MY_CXT.count >= 3) {
                     warn("Already have 3 blind mice");
                     RETVAL = 0;
                 }
                 else {
                     RETVAL = ++ MY_CXT.count;
                     strcpy(MY_CXT.name[MY_CXT.count - 1], name);
                 }

           char *
           get_mouse_name(index)
             int index
             CODE:
               dMY_CXT;
               RETVAL = MY_CXT.lives ++;
               if (index > MY_CXT.count)
                 croak("There are only 3 blind mice.");
               else
                 RETVAL = newSVpv(MY_CXT.name[index - 1]);

       REFERENCE

       MY_CXT_KEY
            This macro is used to define a unique key to refer to the static data for an XS module. The suggested nam-
            ing scheme, as used by h2xs, is to use a string that consists of the module name, the string "::_guts" and
            the module version number.

                #define MY_CXT_KEY "MyModule::_guts" XS_VERSION

       typedef my_cxt_t
            This struct typedef must always be called "my_cxt_t" -- the other "CXT*" macros assume the existence of
            the "my_cxt_t" typedef name.

            Declare a typedef named "my_cxt_t" that is a structure that contains all the data that needs to be inter-
            preter-local.

                typedef struct {
                    int some_value;
                } my_cxt_t;

       START_MY_CXT
            Always place the START_MY_CXT macro directly after the declaration of "my_cxt_t".

       MY_CXT_INIT
            The MY_CXT_INIT macro initialises storage for the "my_cxt_t" struct.

            It must be called exactly once -- typically in a BOOT: section.

       dMY_CXT
            Use the dMY_CXT macro (a declaration) in all the functions that access MY_CXT.

       MY_CXT
            Use the MY_CXT macro to access members of the "my_cxt_t" struct. For example, if "my_cxt_t" is

                typedef struct {
                    int index;
                } my_cxt_t;

            then use this to access the "index" member

                dMY_CXT;
                MY_CXT.index = 2;

EXAMPLES
       File "RPC.xs": Interface to some ONC+ RPC bind library functions.

            #include "EXTERN.h"
            #include "perl.h"
            #include "XSUB.h"

            #include <rpc/rpc.h>

            typedef struct netconfig Netconfig;

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = RPC

            SV *
            rpcb_gettime(host="localhost")
                 char *host
               PREINIT:
                 time_t  timep;
               CODE:
                 ST(0) = sv_newmortal();
                 if( rpcb_gettime( host, &timep ) )
                      sv_setnv( ST(0), (double)timep );

            Netconfig *
            getnetconfigent(netid="udp")
                 char *netid

            MODULE = RPC  PACKAGE = NetconfigPtr  PREFIX = rpcb_

            void
            rpcb_DESTROY(netconf)
                 Netconfig *netconf
               CODE:
                 printf("NetconfigPtr::DESTROY\n");
                 free( netconf );

       File "typemap": Custom typemap for RPC.xs.

            TYPEMAP
            Netconfig *  T_PTROBJ

       File "RPC.pm": Perl module for the RPC extension.

            package RPC;

            require Exporter;
            require DynaLoader;
            @ISA = qw(Exporter DynaLoader);
            @EXPORT = qw(rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent);

            bootstrap RPC;
            1;

       File "rpctest.pl": Perl test program for the RPC extension.

            use RPC;

            $netconf = getnetconfigent();
            $a = rpcb_gettime();
            print "time = $a\n";
            print "netconf = $netconf\n";

            $netconf = getnetconfigent("tcp");
            $a = rpcb_gettime("poplar");
            print "time = $a\n";
            print "netconf = $netconf\n";

XS VERSION
       This document covers features supported by "xsubpp" 1.935.

AUTHOR
       Originally written by Dean Roehrich <roehrichATcray.com>.

       Maintained since 1996 by The Perl Porters <perlbugATperl.org>.



perl v5.8.8                       2006-01-07                         PERLXS(1)