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LOGIN(1)                   Linux Programmer's Manual                  LOGIN(1)

       login - sign on

       login [ name ]
       login -p
       login -h hostname
       login -f name

       login is used when signing onto a system.

       If an argument is not given, login prompts for the username.

       If  the  user is not root, and if /etc/nologin exists, the contents of this file are printed to the screen, and
       the login is terminated.  This is typically used to prevent logins when the system is being taken down.

       If special access restrictions are specified for the user in /etc/usertty, these must be met,  or  the  log  in
       attempt  will  be  denied  and  a syslog message will be generated. See the section on "Special Access Restric-

       If the user is root, then the login must be occurring on a tty listed  in  /etc/securetty.   Failures  will  be
       logged with the syslog facility.

       After these conditions have been checked, the password will be requested and checked (if a password is required
       for this username).  Ten attempts are allowed before login dies, but after the first three, the response starts
       to  get  very slow.  Login failures are reported via the syslog facility.  This facility is also used to report
       any successful root logins.

       If the file ~/.hushlogin or /etc/hushlogins exists, then a "quiet" login is performed (this disables the check-
       ing  of  mail  and the printing of the last login time and message of the day).  Otherwise, if /var/log/lastlog
       exists, the last login time is printed (and the current login is recorded).

       Note that if the /etc/hushlogins file exists then the last login message could be generated by PAM, for example

        session required noupdate showfailed

       setting  in  the  /etc/pam.d/login  file. The PAM library provides more detailed information about failed login

       Random administrative things, such as setting the UID and GID of the tty are performed.  The  TERM  environment
       variable is preserved, if it exists (other environment variables are preserved if the -p option is used).  Then
       the  HOME,  PATH,  SHELL,  TERM,  MAIL,  and  LOGNAME  environment  variables  are  set.   PATH   defaults   to
       /usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin             for             normal             users,            and            to
       /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin for root.  Last, if this is not a  "quiet"  login,
       the  message  of the day is printed and the file with the user's name in /var/spool/mail will be checked, and a
       message printed if it has non-zero length.

       The user's shell is then started.  If no shell is specified for the user in /etc/passwd, then /bin/sh is  used.
       If  there  is  no  directory  specified  in  /etc/passwd, then / is used (the home directory is checked for the
       .hushlogin file described above).

       -p     Used by getty(8) to tell login not to destroy the environment

       -f     Used to skip a second login authentication.  This specifically does not work  for  root,  and  does  not
              appear to work well under Linux.

       -h     Used  by other servers (i.e., telnetd(8)) to pass the name of the remote host to login so that it may be
              placed in utmp and wtmp.  Only the superuser may use this option.

              Note that the -h option has impact on the PAM service name. The standard service name is  "login",  with
              the  -h  option  the  name  is  "remote".  It's  necessary  to  create  a  proper PAM config files (e.g.
              /etc/pam.d/login and /etc/pam.d/remote ).

       The file /etc/securetty lists the names of the ttys where root is allowed to log in. One name of a  tty  device
       without the /dev/ prefix must be specified on each line.  If the file does not exist, root is allowed to log in
       on any tty.

       On most modern Linux systems PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) is used. On systems that do  not  use  PAM,
       the  file  /etc/usertty  specifies  additional  access  restrictions for specific users.  If this file does not
       exist, no additional access restrictions are imposed. The file consists of a sequence of  sections.  There  are
       three possible section types: CLASSES, GROUPS and USERS. A CLASSES section defines classes of ttys and hostname
       patterns, A GROUPS section defines allowed ttys and hosts on a per group basis, and  a  USERS  section  defines
       allowed ttys and hosts on a per user basis.

       Each  line  in this file in may be no longer than 255 characters. Comments start with # character and extend to
       the end of the line.

   The CLASSES Section
       A CLASSES section begins with the word CLASSES at the start of a line in all upper case.  Each  following  line
       until  the  start  of a new section or the end of the file consists of a sequence of words separated by tabs or
       spaces. Each line defines a class of ttys and host patterns.

       The word at the beginning of a line becomes defined as a collective name for the ttys and host patterns  speci-
       fied  at  the  rest of the line. This collective name can be used in any subsequent GROUPS or USERS section. No
       such class name must occur as part of the definition of a class in  order  to  avoid  problems  with  recursive

       An example CLASSES section:

       myclass1       tty1 tty2
       myclass2       tty3

       This defines the classes myclass1 and myclass2 as the corresponding right hand sides.

   The GROUPS Section
       A  GROUPS  section  defines  allowed  ttys and hosts on a per Unix group basis. If a user is a member of a Unix
       group according to /etc/passwd and /etc/group and such a group is mentioned in a GROUPS section in /etc/usertty
       then the user is granted access if the group is.

       A  GROUPS section starts with the word GROUPS in all upper case at the start of a line, and each following line
       is a sequence of words separated by spaces or tabs. The first word on a line is the name of the group  and  the
       rest  of  the  words  on  the line specifies the ttys and hosts where members of that group are allowed access.
       These specifications may involve the use of classes defined in previous CLASSES sections.

       An example GROUPS section.

       sys       tty1
       stud      myclass1 tty4

       This example specifies that members of group sys may log in on tty1 and from hosts in the domain. Users
       in group stud may log in from hosts/ttys specified in the class myclass1 or from tty4.

   The USERS Section
       A USERS section starts with the word USERS in all upper case at the start of a line, and each following line is
       a sequence of words separated by spaces or tabs. The first word on a line  is  a  username  and  that  user  is
       allowed  to  log  in on the ttys and from the hosts mentioned on the rest of the line. These specifications may
       involve classes defined in previous CLASSES sections.  If no section header is specified  at  the  top  of  the
       file, the first section defaults to be a USERS section.

       An example USERS section:

       zacho          tty1 @
       blue      tty3 myclass2

       This  lets  the  user  zacho  login  only  on  tty1 and from hosts with IP addreses in the range -, and user blue is allowed to log in from tty3 and whatever is specified in the class myclass2.

       There may be a line in a USERS section starting with a username of *. This is a default rule  and  it  will  be
       applied to any user not matching any other line.

       If  both  a  USERS  line and GROUPS line match a user then the user is allowed access from the union of all the
       ttys/hosts mentioned in these specifications.

       The tty and host pattern specifications used in the specification of classes, group and user access are  called
       origins. An origin string may have one of these formats:

       o      The name of a tty device without the /dev/ prefix, for example tty1 or ttyS0.

       o      The string @localhost, meaning that the user is allowed to telnet/rlogin from the local host to the same
              host. This also allows the user to for example run the command: xterm -e /bin/login.

       o      A domain name suffix such as @.some.dom, meaning that the user may rlogin/telnet  from  any  host  whose
              domain name has the suffix .some.dom.

       o      A  range of IPv4 addresses, written @x.x.x.x/y.y.y.y where x.x.x.x is the IP address in the usual dotted
              quad decimal notation, and y.y.y.y is a bitmask in the  same  notation  specifying  which  bits  in  the
              address to compare with the IP address of the remote host. For example @ means
              that the user may rlogin/telnet from  any  host  whose  IP  address  is  in  the  range  -

       o      An  range  of  IPv6 addresses, written @[n:n:n:n:n:n:n:n]/m is interpreted as a [net]/prefixlen pair. An
              IPv6 host address is matched if prefixlen bits of net is equal to the prefixlen  bits  of  the  address.
              For   example,  the  [net]/prefixlen  pattern  [3ffe:505:2:1::]/64  matches  every  address in the range
              3ffe:505:2:1:: through 3ffe:505:2:1:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.

       Any of the above origins may be prefixed by a time specification according to the syntax:

       timespec    ::= '[' <day-or-hour> [':' <day-or-hour>]* ']'
       day         ::= 'mon' | 'tue' | 'wed' | 'thu' | 'fri' | 'sat' | 'sun'
       hour        ::= '0' | '1' | ... | '23'
       hourspec    ::= <hour> | <hour> '-' <hour>
       day-or-hour ::= <day> | <hourspec>

       For example, the origin [mon:tue:wed:thu:fri:8-17]tty3 means that log in is allowed on mondays through  fridays
       between  8:00 and 17:59 (5:59 pm) on tty3.  This also shows that an hour range a-b includes all moments between
       a:00 and b:59. A single hour specification (such as 10) means the time span between 10:00 and 10:59.

       Not specifying any time prefix for a tty or host means log in from that origin is allowed any time. If you give
       a  time prefix be sure to specify both a set of days and one or more hours or hour ranges. A time specification
       may not include any white space.

       If no default rule is given then users not matching any line /etc/usertty are allowed to log in  from  anywhere
       as is standard behavior.


       init(8), getty(8), mail(1), passwd(1), passwd(5), environ(7), shutdown(8)

       The undocumented BSD -r option is not supported.  This may be required by some rlogind(8) programs.

       A  recursive  login, as used to be possible in the good old days, no longer works; for most purposes su(1) is a
       satisfactory substitute. Indeed, for security reasons, login does a vhangup() system call to remove any  possi-
       ble  listening  processes on the tty. This is to avoid password sniffing. If one uses the command "login", then
       the surrounding shell gets killed by vhangup() because it's no longer the true owner of the tty.  This  can  be
       avoided by using "exec login" in a top-level shell or xterm.

       Derived from BSD login 5.40 (5/9/89) by Michael Glad ( for HP-UX
       Ported to Linux 0.12: Peter Orbaek (

       The   login   command   is   part   of   the   util-linux-ng  package  and  is  available  from  ftp://ftp.ker-

Util-linux 1.6                  4 November 1996                       LOGIN(1)