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GROPS(1)                                                              GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ] [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       grops  translates  the  output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops should be invoked by using the groff
       command with a -Tps option.  (Actually, this is the default for groff.)  If no files are given, grops will read
       the  standard  input.   A filename of - will also cause grops to read the standard input.  PostScript output is
       written to the standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops using the  groff  -P

       -bn    Workaround  broken  spoolers  and previewers.  Normally grops produces output that conforms the Document
              Structuring Conventions version 3.0.  Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can't handle such  out-
              put.   The  value of n controls what grops does to its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0
              will cause grops not to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup
              comments  should be generated; this is needed for early versions of TranScript that get confused by any-
              thing between the %%EndProlog comment and the first %%Page comment.  Add 2 if lines  in  included  files
              beginning  with  %!   should  be  stripped  out;  this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.  Add 4 if
              %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog comments should be stripped out of included files; this is needed  for
              spoolers  that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.  Add 8 if the first line
              of the PostScript output should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when  using
              Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory dir/devname to the search path for prologue, font, and device description files; name
              is the name of the device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.  This generates PostScript code that guesses the page length.  The guess will  be
              correct only if the imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This option allows you to gener-
              ate documents that can be printed both on letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set physical dimension of output medium.  This overrides the papersize and paperlength commands  in  the
              DESC file; it accepts the same arguments as the papersize command.

              Use  the file prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue instead of the default prologue file pro-
              logue.  This option overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an em.  If this option  is  not  given,  the
              line thickness defaults to 0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

       There  are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families
       A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and T having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book

              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

              AB     AvantGarde-Demi

              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

              BMR    Bookman-Light

              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

              BMB    Bookman-Demi

              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

              CR     Courier

              CI     Courier-Oblique

              CB     Courier-Bold

              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

              HR     Helvetica

              HI     Helvetica-Oblique

              HB     Helvetica-Bold

              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

              PR     Palatino-Roman

              PI     Palatino-Italic

              PB     Palatino-Bold

              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

              TR     Times-Roman

              TI     Times-Italic

              TB     Times-Bold

              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a reversed version  of
       ZapfDingbats  (with  symbols  pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR; most characters in these
       fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       The default color for \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the 'rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for
       'cmy' and 'cmyk' setcmykcolor, and for 'gray' setgray.

       grops  understands various X commands produced using the \X escape sequence; grops will only interpret commands
       that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The PostScript currentpoint will be set to the
              position  of  the  \X  command  before executing code.  The origin will be at the top left corner of the
              page, and y coordinates will increase down the page.  A procedure u will be defined that converts  groff
              units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              will draw a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make changes to the graphics state, but any changes
              will persist only to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions specified by the  def
              and  mdef will be on top of the dictionary stack.  If your code adds definitions to this dictionary, you
              should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any definitions will persist only until the end  of
              the  page.   If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over
              multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
              This is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.  There should be at most one definition
              per \X command.  Long definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the code arguments are sim-
              ply joined together separated by newlines.  The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automat-
              ically  pushed  on  the  dictionary  stack  when  an exec command is executed.  If you use the \Y escape
              sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may contain up to n definitions.  grops needs to know  how  many  definitions
              code contains so that it can create an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import  a  PostScript  graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly, urx, and ury give the bounding box of
              the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate system; they should all be integers; llx  and  lly  are
              the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner of the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates
              of the upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers that give the desired width  and
              height  in  groff units of the graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has this width and height
              and translated so that the lower left corner of the graphic is located at the position  associated  with
              \X  command.  If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in the x and y directions so
              that it has the specified width.  Note that the contents of the \X command are not interpreted by troff;
              so vertical space for the graphic is not automatically added, and the width and height arguments are not
              allowed to have attached scaling indicators.  If the PostScript file complies with  the  Adobe  Document
              Structuring Conventions and contains a %%BoundingBox comment, then the bounding box can be automatically
              extracted from within groff by using the psbb request.

              The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded when grops is run by the groff command) include a  PSPIC
              macro which allows a picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

                     .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]

              file  is  the  name of the file containing the illustration; width and height give the desired width and
              height of the graphic.  The width and height arguments may have scaling indicators attached; the default
              scaling  indicator  is i.  This macro will scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that
              it is no more than width wide and height high.  By default, the graphic will be  horizontally  centered.
              The -L and -R cause the graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.  The -I option causes
              the graphic to be indented by n.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No output will be generated for text and drawing commands that are bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.
              These commands are intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before being processed with
              grops; if the previewer is unable to display certain characters or other constructs, then other  substi-
              tute characters or constructs can be used for previewing by bracketing them with these \X commands.

              For  example, gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em character because the standard X11 fonts do
              not provide it; this problem can be overcome by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em character and will  draw  the  line,  whereas
              grops will print the \(em character and ignore the line.

       The  input  to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is described in groff_out(5).  In addition
       the device and font description files for the device used must meet certain requirements.  The device and  font
       description  files  supplied for ps device meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be used to create font
       files from AFM files.  The resolution must be an integer multiple of 72 times the  sizescale.   The  ps  device
       uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.  The device description file should contain a command

              paperlength n

       which  says  that output should be generated which is suitable for printing on a page whose length is n machine
       units.  Common values are 792000 for letter paper and 841890 for paper in A4  format.   Alternatively,  it  can

              papersize string

       to  specify  a  paper  size; see groff_font(5) for more information.  Each font description file must contain a

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript font should be reencoded using the encoding described  in  enc_file;  this  file
       should consist of a sequence of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its position in the encoding expressed as a
       decimal integer.  Lines starting with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code for each character given in  the
       font  file must correspond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the code in the default encod-
       ing for the font if the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code can  be  used  with  the  \N  escape
       sequence  in  troff to select the character, even if the character does not have a groff name.  Every character
       in the font file must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given in the font file must match the widths
       used  in the PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character with a groff name of space is blank (makes no
       marks on the page); it can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact PostScript  out-

       grops can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary to print the document.  Any downloadable fonts
       which   should,   when   required,   be    included    by    grops    must    be    listed    in    the    file
       /usr/share/groff/; this should consist of lines of the form

              font filename

       where  font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of the file containing the font; lines
       beginning with # and blank lines are ignored; fields may be separated by  tabs  or  spaces;  filename  will  be
       searched  for using the same mechanism that is used for groff font metric files.  The download file itself will
       also be searched for using this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the font path is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms to the Adobe Document Structuring Con-
       ventions,  then  grops  will  interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own output is
       conforming.  It will also supply any needed font resources that are listed in the download file as well as  any
       needed  file  resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For example, suppose that you
       have a downloadable font called Garamond, and also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on
       Garamond  (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary, and change the PaintType), then it
       is necessary for Garamond to be appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops  will  handle
       this  automatically  provided  that the downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on
       Garamond by means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed in the download file.   A  downloadable
       font should not include its own name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeededResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources,
       %%IncludeResource, %%BeginResource and %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old  %%DocumentNeededFonts,
       %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType  fonts  can  be  used  with grops if converted first to Type 42 format, an especial PostScript wrapper
       equivalent to the PFA format mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to generate a type42
       wrapper and most of them involve the use of a PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the
       easiest method involves the use of the application ttftot42.  This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1)  to
       generate  type42  font  wrappers  and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create
       appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be added to the download file.   ttftot42  source
       code can be downloaded from <>;.

              If  this  is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the font path) instead of the default pro-
              logue file prologue.  The option -P overrides this environment variable.

       /usr/share/groff/      Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff/         Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff/  List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/  Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/         Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

       /usr/share/groff/      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/groff/      Macros to  disable  use  of  characters  not  present  in  older
                                                      PostScript printers (e.g. 'eth' or 'thorn').

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX                               Temporary file.

       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5), groff_char(7)

Groff Version          16 August 2002                        GROPS(1)