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GROFF_CHAR(7)                                                    GROFF_CHAR(7)



NAME
       groff_char - groff character names

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual  page lists the standard groff input characters.  The output characters in this document will look
       different depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the man(1) program or the  roff  for-
       matter).  Only the characters that are available for the device that is being used to print or view this manual
       page will be displayed (the device currently used is 'utf8').

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named characters  for  further
       glyphs.   On  ASCII  platforms, character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual 7-bit ASCII
       characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the  corresponding  characters  in  the  Latin-1
       (ISO-8859-1)  code  set.   On EBCDIC platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same
       characters as Latin-1).  It is rather straightforward (for the experienced user) to set up other 8bit encodings
       like Latin-2; since groff will use Unicode in the next major version, no additional encodings are provided.

       All  roff systems provide the concept of named characters.  In traditional roff systems, only names of length 2
       were used, while groff also provides support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that only named  char-
       acters are used for all characters outside of the 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some  of  the  predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single characters; these
       exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include \\, \', \', \-,
       \., and \e; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters can be tested positively with the .if c conditional.

REFERENCE
       In  this section, the characters in groff are specified in tabular form.  The meaning of the columns is as fol-
       lows.

       Output shows how the character is printed for the current device; although this  can  have  quite  a  different
              shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
              specifies  how  the  character  is  input either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff escape
              sequence.

       Input code
              applies to characters which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code
              of  that  input  character.   Note  that  this  code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode characters;
              (including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127).

       PostScript name
              gives the usual PostScript name of the output character.

   ASCII Characters
       These are the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code values.  These are identical to the first 127 characters
       of  the  character  standards  ISO-8859-1  (Latin-1)  and Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic Latin).  To save
       space, not every code has an entry in the following because the following code ranges are well known.

       0-32   Control characters (print as themselves).

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       127    Control character (prints as itself).

       The remaining ranges constitute the printable, non-alphanumeric ASCII characters; only these are listed  below.
       As  can  be  seen in the table below, most of these characters print as themselves; the only exceptions are the
       following characters:

       `      the ISO Latin-1 'Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as ', a left single quotation mark,

       '      the ISO Latin-1 'Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right single quotation mark; the corresponding ISO
              Latin-1 characters can be obtained with \' and \(aq.

       -      the ISO Latin-1 'Hyphen, Minus Sign' (code 45) prints as a hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with \-.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1 'Tilde' (code 126); a larger glyph can be obtained with \(ti.

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 'Circumflex Accent' (code 94); a larger glyph can be obtained with \(ha.


       Output   Input   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    code    name

       !        !       33      exclam
       "        "       34      quotedbl
       #        #       35      numbersign
       $        $       36      dollar
       %        %       37      percent
       &        &       38      ampersand
       '        '       39      quoteright
       (        (       40      parenleft
       )        )       41      parenright
       *        *       42      asterisk
       +        +       43      plus
       ,        ,       44      comma
       -        -       45      hyphen
       .        .       46      period
       /        /       47      slash
       :        :       58      colon
       ;        ;       59      semicolon
       <        <       60      less
       =        =       61      equal
       >        >       62      greater
       ?        ?       63      question
       @        @       64      at
       [        [       91      bracketleft
       \        \       92      backslash
       ]        ]       93      bracketright
       ^        ^       94      circumflex       circumflex accent
       _        _       95      underscore
       '        `       96      quoteleft
       {        {       123     braceleft
       |        |       124     bar
       }        }       125     braceright
       ~        ~       126     tilde            tilde accent

   Latin-1 Special Characters
       These characters have character codes between 128 and 255.  They are interpreted as characters according to the
       Latin-1 (iso-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement.

       128-159
              the C1 Controls; they print as themselves, but the effect is mostly undefined.

       160    the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to '\ ', the escaped space character.

       173    the  soft  hyphen control character (prints as itself).  groff never use this character for output (thus
              it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto \%.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255), called the Latin-1 Supplement in  Unicode,  are  printable  characters
       that  print as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a Latin-1
       code page, it is better to use their named character equivalent; see next section.


       Output   Input   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    code    name

       ?        ?       161     exclamdown       inverted exclamation mark
       ?        ?       162     cent
       ?        ?       163     sterling
       ?        ?       164     currency
       ?        ?       165     yen
       ?        ?       166     brokenbar
       ?        ?       167     section
       ?        ?       168     dieresis
       (C)        (C)       169     copyright
       ?        ?       170     ordfeminine
       <<        <<       171     guillemotleft
       ?        ?       172     logicalnot
       (R)        (R)       174     registered
       ?        ?       175     macron
       ?        ?       176     degree
       ?        ?       177     plusminus
       ?        ?       178     twosuperior
       ?        ?       179     threesuperior
       ?        ?       180     acute            acute accent
       u        u       181     mu               micro sign
       ?        ?       182     paragraph
       ?        ?       183     periodcentered
       ,        ,       184     cedilla
       ?        ?       185     onesuperior
       ?        ?       186     ordmasculine
       >>        >>       187     guillemotright
        1/4          1/4        188     onequarter
        1/2          1/2        189     onehalf
        3/4          3/4        190     threequarters
       ?        ?       191     questiondown
       A        A       192     Agrave
       A        A       193     Aacute
       A        A       194     Acircumflex
       A        A       195     Atilde
       A        A       196     Adieresis
       A        A       197     Aring
       AE        AE       198     AE
       C        C       199     Ccedilla
       E        E       200     Egrave
       E        E       201     Eacute
       E        E       202     Ecircumflex
       E        E       203     Edieresis
       I        I       204     Igrave
       I        I       205     Iacute
       I        I       206     Icircumflex
       I        I       207     Idieresis
       ?        ?       208     Eth
       N        N       209     Ntilde
       O        O       210     Ograve
       O        O       211     Oacute
       O        O       212     Ocircumflex
       O        O       213     Otilde
       O        O       214     Odieresis
       x        x       215     multiply
       ?        ?       216     Oslash
       U        U       217     Ugrave
       U        U       218     Uacute
       U        U       219     Ucircumflex
       U        U       220     Udieresis
       Y        Y       221     Yacute
       ?        ?       222     Thorn
       ss        ss       223     germandbls
       a        a       224     agrave
       a        a       225     aacute
       a        a       226     acircumflex
       a        a       227     atilde
       a        a       228     adieresis
       a        a       229     aring
       ae        ae       230     ae
       c        c       231     ccedilla
       e        e       232     egrave
       e        e       233     eacute
       e        e       234     ecircumflex
       e        e       235     edieresis
       i        i       236     igrave
       i        i       237     iacute
       i        i       238     icircumflex
       i        i       239     idieresis
       ?        ?       240     eth
       n        n       241     ntilde
       o        o       242     ograve
       o        o       243     oacute
       o        o       244     ocircumflex
       o        o       245     otilde
       o        o       246     odieresis
       ?        ?       247     divide
       ?        ?       248     oslash
       u        u       249     ugrave
       u        u       250     uacute
       u        u       251     ucircumflex
       u        u       252     udieresis
       y        y       253     yacute
       ?        ?       254     thorn
       y        y       255     ydieresis

   Named Characters
       The named character idiom is the standard way to specify special characters  in  roff  systems.   They  can  be
       embedded into the document text by using escape sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.
       The character names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or  Latin-1  code  set,  not  only
       alphanumeric characters.  Here some examples:

       \c     named character having the name c, which consists of a single character (length 1).

       \(ch   named character having the 2-character name ch.

       \[char_name]
              named character having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

       In groff, each 8bit input character can also referred to by the construct \n[charn] where n is the decimal code
       of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros.  They are mapped onto glyph entities  using
       the .trin request.  Moreover, new character names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).


       Output   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    name

       ?        \[-D]   Eth              Icelandic uppercase eth
       ?        \[Sd]   eth              Icelandic lowercase eth
       ?        \[TP]   Thorn            Icelandic uppercase thorn
       ?        \[Tp]   thorn            Icelandic lowercase thorn
       ss        \[ss]   germandbls       German sharp s

       Ligatures
       ff        \[ff]   ff               ff ligature
       fi        \[fi]   fi               fi ligature
       fl        \[fl]   fl               fl ligature
       ffi        \[Fi]   ffi              ffi ligature
       ffl        \[Fl]   ffl              ffl ligature
       AE        \[AE]   AE
       ae        \[ae]   ae
       OE        \[OE]   OE
       oe        \[oe]   oe
       ?        \[.i]   dotlessi         i without a dot (Turkish)

       Accented Characters
       A        \['A]   Aacute
       E        \['E]   Eacute
       I        \['I]   Iacute
       O        \['O]   Oacute
       U        \['U]   Uacute
       Y        \['Y]   Yacute
       a        \['a]   aacute
       e        \['e]   eacute
       i        \['i]   iacute
       o        \['o]   oacute
       u        \['u]   uacute
       y        \['y]   yacute
       A        \[:A]   Adieresis        A with umlaut
       E        \[:E]   Edieresis
       I        \[:I]   Idieresis
       O        \[:O]   Odieresis
       U        \[:U]   Udieresis
       Y        \[:Y]   Ydieresis
       a        \[:a]   adieresis
       e        \[:e]   edieresis
       i        \[:i]   idieresis
       o        \[:o]   odieresis
       u        \[:u]   udieresis
       y        \[:y]   ydieresis
       A        \[^A]   Acircumflex
       E        \[^E]   Ecircumflex
       I        \[^I]   Icircumflex
       O        \[^O]   Ocircumflex
       U        \[^U]   Ucircumflex
       a        \[^a]   acircumflex
       e        \[^e]   ecircumflex
       i        \[^i]   icircumflex
       o        \[^o]   ocircumflex
       u        \[^u]   ucircumflex
       A        \[`A]   Agrave
       E        \[`E]   Egrave
       I        \[`I]   Igrave
       O        \[`O]   Ograve
       U        \[`U]   Ugrave
       a        \[`a]   agrave
       e        \[`e]   egrave
       i        \[`i]   igrave
       o        \[`o]   ograve
       u        \[`u]   ugrave
       A        \[~A]   Atilde
       N        \[~N]   Ntilde
       O        \[~O]   Otilde
       a        \[~a]   atilde
       n        \[~n]   ntilde
       o        \[~o]   otilde
       S        \[vS]   Scaron
       s        \[vs]   scaron
       Z        \[vZ]   Zcaron
       z        \[vz]   zcaron
       C        \[,C]   Ccedilla
       c        \[,c]   ccedilla
       L        \[/L]   Lslash           Polish L with a slash
       l        \[/l]   lslash           Polish l with a slash
       ?        \[/O]   Oslash           Scandinavic slashed O
       ?        \[/o]   oslash           Scandinavic slashed o
       A        \[oA]   Aring
       a        \[oa]   aring

       Accents
       ?        \[a"]   hungarumlaut     Hungarian umlaut
       ?        \[a-]   macron           macron or bar accent
       ?        \[a.]   dotaccent        dot accent
       ^        \[a^]   circumflex       circumflex accent
       ?        \[aa]   acute            acute accent
       `        \[ga]   grave            grave accent
       ?        \[ab]   breve            breve accent
       ,        \[ac]   cedilla          cedilla accent
       ?        \[ad]   dieresis         umlaut or dieresis
       ?        \[ah]   caron            ha?ek accent
       ?        \[ao]   ring             ring or circle accent
       ~        \[a~]   tilde            tilde accent
       ?        \[ho]   ogonek           hook or ogonek accent
       ^        \[ha]   asciicircum      ASCII circumflex, hat, caret
       ~        \[ti]   asciitilde       ASCII tilde, large tilde

       Quotes
       ,,        \[Bq]   quotedblbase     low double comma quote
       ,        \[bq]   quotesinglbase   low single comma quote
       "        \[lq]   quotedblleft
       "        \[rq]   quotedblright
       '        \[oq]   quoteleft        single open quote
       '        \[cq]   quoteright       single closing quote (ASCII 39)
       '        \[aq]   quotesingle      apostrophe quote
       "        \[dq]   quotedbl         double quote (ASCII 34)
       <<        \[Fo]   guillemotleft
       >>        \[Fc]   guillemotright
       <        \[fo]   guilsinglleft
       >        \[fc]   guilsinglright

       Punctuation
       ?        \[r!]   exclamdown
       ?        \[r?]   questiondown
       --        \[em]   emdash           em dash
       -        \[en]   endash           en dash
       -        \[hy]   hyphen

       Brackets
       [        \[lB]   bracketleft
       ]        \[rB]   bracketright
       {        \[lC]   braceleft
       }        \[rC]   braceright
       <        \[la]   angleleft        left angle bracket
       >        \[ra]   angleright       right angle bracket

       Arrows
       <-        \[<-]   arrowleft
       ->        \[->]   arrowright
       <->        \[<>]   arrowboth        horizontal double-headed arrow
       ?        \[da]   arrowdown
       ?        \[ua]   arrowup
       <=        \[lA]   arrowdblleft
       =>        \[rA]   arrowdblright
       <=>        \[hA]   arrowdblboth     horizontal double-headed double arrow
       ?        \[dA]   arrowdbldown
       ?        \[uA]   arrowdblup
       -        \[an]   arrowhorizex     horizontal arrow extension

       Lines
       |        \[or]   bar
       |        \[ba]   bar
       |        \[br]   br               box rule with traditional troff metrics
       _        \[ru]   ru               baseline rule
       _        \[ul]   ul               underline with traditional troff metrics
       |        \[bv]   bv               bar vertical
       ?        \[bb]   brokenbar
       /        \[sl]   slash
       \        \[rs]   backslash

       Text markers
       ?        \[ci]   circle
       ?        \[bu]   bullet
       ?        \[dd]   daggerdbl        double dagger sign
       +        \[dg]   dagger
       ?        \[lz]   lozenge
       ?        \[sq]   square
       ?        \[ps]   paragraph
       ?        \[sc]   section
       ?        \[lh]   handleft
       ?        \[rh]   handright
       @        \[at]   at
       #        \[sh]   numbersign
       CR        \[CR]   carriagereturn   carriage return symbol

       Legalize
       (C)        \[co]   copyright
       (R)        \[rg]   registered
       (TM)        \[tm]   trademark

       Currency symbols
       ?        \[Do]   dollar
       ?        \[ct]   cent
       EUR        \[eu]                    official Euro symbol
       EUR        \[Eu]   Euro             font-specific Euro glyph variant
       ?        \[Ye]   yen
       ?        \[Po]   sterling         British currency sign
       ?        \[Cs]   currency         Scandinavian currency sign
       ?        \[Fn]   florin           Dutch currency sign

       Units
       ?        \[de]   degree
       ?        \[%0]   perthousand      per thousand, per mille sign
       ?        \[fm]   minute           footmark, prime
       ?        \[sd]   second
       u        \[mc]   mu               micro sign
       ?        \[Of]   ordfeminine
       ?        \[Om]   ordmasculine

       Logical Symbols
       ?        \[AN]   logicaland
       ?        \[OR]   logicalor
       ?        \[no]   logicalnot
       ?        \[te]   existential      there exists, existential quantifier
       ?        \[fa]   universal        for all, universal quantifier
       ?        \[st]   suchthat
       ?        \[3d]   therefore
       ?        \[tf]   therefore

       Mathematical Symbols
        1/2         \[12]   onehalf
        1/4         \[14]   onequarter
        3/4         \[34]   threequarters
       ?        \[S1]   onesuperior
       ?        \[S2]   twosuperior
       ?        \[S3]   threesuperior
       +        \[pl]   plusmath         plus sign in special font
       -        \-      minus            minus sign from current font
       ?        \[+-]   plusminus
       ?        \[t+-]  plusminus        text variant of '+-'
       ?        \[pc]   periodcentered   multiplication dot
       ?        \[md]   dotmath
       x        \[mu]   multiply
       x        \[tmu]  multiply         text variant of 'mu'
       ?        \[c*]   circlemultiply   multiply sign in a circle
       ?        \[c+]   circleplus       plus sign in a circle
       ?        \[di]   divide           division sign
       ?        \[tdi]  divide           text variant of 'di'
       /        \[f/]   fraction         bar for fractions
       *        \[**]   asteriskmath
       <=        \[<=]   lessequal
       >=        \[>=]   greaterequal
       ?        \[!=]   notequal
       =        \[eq]   equalmath        equals sign in special font
       ?        \[==]   equivalence
       ?        \[=~]   congruent
       ~        \[ap]   similar
       ?        \[~~]   approxequal
       ?        \[~=]   approxequal
       ?        \[pt]   proportional
       ?        \[es]   emptyset
       ?        \[mo]   element
       ?        \[nm]   notelement
       ?        \[nb]   notsubset
       ?        \[sb]   propersubset
       ?        \[sp]   propersuperset
       ?        \[ib]   reflexsubset
       ?        \[ip]   reflexsuperset
       ?        \[ca]   intersection     intersection, cap
       ?        \[cu]   union            union, cup
       ?        \[/_]   angle
       ?        \[pp]   perpendicular
       ?        \[is]   integral
       ?        \[sum]  sum
       ?        \[product]               product
       ?        \[gr]   gradient
       ?        \[sr]   radical          square root
       ?        \[rn]                    overline
       ?        \[if]   infinity
       ?        \[Ah]   aleph
       I        \[Im]   Ifraktur         Gothic I, imaginary
       R        \[Re]   Rfraktur         Gothic R, real
       ?        \[wp]   weierstrass      Weierstrass p
       ?        \[pd]   partialdiff      partial differentiation sign

       Greek characters
       ?        \[*A]   Alpha
       ?        \[*B]   Beta
       ?        \[*C]   Xi
       ?        \[*D]   Delta
       ?        \[*E]   Epsilon
       ?        \[*F]   Phi
       ?        \[*G]   Gamma
       ?        \[*H]   Theta
       ?        \[*I]   Iota
       ?        \[*K]   Kappa
       ?        \[*L]   Lambda
       ?        \[*M]   Mu
       ?        \[*N]   Nu
       ?        \[*O]   Omicron
       ?        \[*P]   Pi
       ?        \[*Q]   Psi
       ?        \[*R]   Rho
       ?        \[*S]   Sigma
       ?        \[*T]   Tau
       ?        \[*U]   Upsilon
       ?        \[*W]   Omega
       ?        \[*X]   Chi
       ?        \[*Y]   Eta
       ?        \[*Z]   Zeta
       ?        \[*a]   alpha
       ?        \[*b]   beta
       ?        \[*c]   xi
       ?        \[*d]   delta
       ?        \[*e]   epsilon
       ?        \[*f]   phi
       ?        \[+f]   phi1             variant phi
       ?        \[*g]   gamma
       ?        \[*h]   theta
       ?        \[+h]   theta1           variant theta
       ?        \[*i]   iota
       ?        \[*k]   kappa
       ?        \[*l]   lambda
       ?        \[*m]   mu
       ?        \[*n]   nu
       ?        \[*o]   omicron
       ?        \[*p]   pi
       ?        \[+p]   omega1           variant pi, looking like omega
       ?        \[*q]   psi
       ?        \[*r]   rho
       ?        \[*s]   sigma
       ?        \[*t]   tau
       ?        \[*u]   upsilon
       ?        \[*w]   omega
       ?        \[*x]   chi
       ?        \[*y]   eta
       ?        \[*z]   zeta
       ?        \[ts]   sigma1           terminal sigma

       Card symbols
       ?        \[CL]   club             club suit
       ?        \[SP]   spade            spade suit
       ?        \[HE]   heart            heart suit
       ?        \[DI]   diamond          diamond suit

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989-2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.
       You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line  at  the  GNU  copyleft
       site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>;.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was written by James Clark <jjcATjclark.com> with
       additions by Werner Lemberg <wlATgnu.org> and Bernd Warken <bwarkenATmayn.de>.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              the GNU roff formatter.

       groff(7)
              a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG  Newsletter,
       Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <http://www.unicode.org>;



Groff Version 1.18.1.4           20 July 2002                    GROFF_CHAR(7)