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CI(1)                                                                    CI(1)

       ci - check in RCS revisions

       ci [options] file ...

       ci  stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All
       others are assumed to be working files containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of each working file
       into  the corresponding RCS file.  If only a working file is given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file
       in an RCS subdirectory and then in the working file's directory.  For more details, see FILE NAMING below.

       For ci to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except if the access list is empty or the caller
       is the superuser or the owner of the file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip revision on
       that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise, only a new branch can be created.   This  restriction  is
       not enforced for the owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).  A lock held by someone else
       can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless the -f option is given, ci checks whether the revision to be deposited differs from the  preceding  one.
       If not, instead of creating a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.  To revert, ordinary ci removes the
       working file and any lock; ci -l keeps and ci -u removes any lock, and then they both generate  a  new  working
       file  much  as  if  co -l  or  co -u had been applied to the preceding revision.  When reverting, any -n and -s
       options apply to the preceding revision.

       For each revision deposited, ci prompts for a log message.  The log message should  summarize  the  change  and
       must be terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked in ci asks
       whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the standard input is not a terminal, ci suppresses  the  prompt
       and uses the same log message for all files.  See also -m.

       If  the  RCS  file  does  not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents of the working file as the initial
       revision (default number: 1.1).  The access list is initialized to empty.   Instead  of  the  log  message,  ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The number rev of the deposited revision can be given by any of the options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r,
       or -u.  rev can be symbolic, numeric, or mixed.  Symbolic names in rev must already be defined; see the -n  and
       -N  options  for  assigning  names during checkin.  If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword
       values in the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended to  it.   If  rev  is  a
       branch number followed by a period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

       If  rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on the branch to which rev belongs, or must
       start a new branch.

       If rev is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is appended to that branch.  The level  num-
       ber  is  obtained  by  incrementing  the  tip  revision number of that branch.  If rev indicates a non-existing
       branch, that branch is created with the initial revision numbered rev.1.

       If rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the caller's last lock.  If the  caller  has
       locked  the  tip revision of a branch, the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision number is
       obtained by incrementing the tip revision number.  If the caller locked a non-tip revision,  a  new  branch  is
       started  at  that  revision  by  incrementing  the highest branch number at that revision.  The default initial
       branch and level numbers are 1.

       If rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and locking is not  set  to  strict,  then  the
       revision is appended to the default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not inserted.

       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning in ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare
              -r option specifies the most recent revision on the default branch,  but  with  ci,  a  bare  -r  option
              reestablishes  the  default  behavior  of releasing a lock and removing the working file, and is used to
              override any default -l or -u options established by shell aliases or scripts.

              works like -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the deposited revision.  Thus,  the  deposited
              revision is immediately checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a revision although one
              wants to continue editing it after the checkin.

              works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.  This lets one read  the  working  file
              immediately after checkin.

              The  -l,  bare -r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and silently override each other.  For example,
              ci -u -r is equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

              forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not different from the preceding one.

              searches the working file for keyword values to determine its revision number, creation date, state, and
              author  (see  co(1)),  and  assigns  these  values to the deposited revision, rather than computing them
              locally.  It also generates a default login message noting the  login  of  the  caller  and  the  actual
              checkin  date.   This  option  is  useful for software distribution.  A revision that is sent to several
              sites should be checked in with the -k option at these sites to  preserve  the  original  number,  date,
              author,  and state.  The extracted keyword values and the default log message can be overridden with the
              options -d, -m, -s, -w, and any option that carries a revision number.

              quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A revision that is not different from the  preceding  one
              is not deposited, unless -f is given.

              initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.  This avoids race conditions in certain

              just checkin and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS file does not already exist.

              interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the standard input is not a terminal.

              uses date for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified in free format as  explained  in  co(1).
              This  is useful for lying about the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If date is empty,
              the working file's time of last modification is used.

              Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date of the retrieved revision.   For  exam-
              ple, ci -d -M -u f does not alter f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to keyword sub-
              stitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse make(1).

       -mmsg  uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked in.  By convention, log  messages  that
              start  with  # are comments and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's vc package.  Also, log messages
              that start with {clumpname} (followed by white space) are meant to be clumped together if possible, even
              if they are associated with different files; the {clumpname} label is used only for clumping, and is not
              considered to be part of the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in revision.  ci prints an error message  if
              name is already assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of name.

              sets the state of the checked-in revision to the identifier state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes  descriptive  text  from  the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing
              text.  The file cannot begin with -.

              Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.

              The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an initial checkin; it is silently ignored oth-

              During  the  initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the text from standard input, terminated by
              end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  The user is prompted for the text  if  interaction  is
              possible; see -I.

              For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t option is ignored.

       -T     Set  the  RCS  file's modification time to the new revision's time if the former precedes the latter and
              there is a new revision; preserve the RCS file's modification time otherwise.   If  you  have  locked  a
              revision,  ci  usually updates the RCS file's modification time to the current time, because the lock is
              stored in the RCS file and removing the lock requires changing the RCS file.  This  can  create  an  RCS
              file  newer than the working file in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create a working file with a date
              before the current time; second, when reverting to the previous revision the RCS file can  change  while
              the  working  file  remains  unchanged.   These  two cases can cause excessive recompilation caused by a
              make(1) dependency of the working file on the RCS file.  The -T option inhibits  this  recompilation  by
              lying  about  the RCS file's date.  Use this option with care; it can suppress recompilation even when a
              checkin of one working file should affect another working file associated with the same RCS  file.   For
              example,  suppose  the  RCS file's time is 01:00, the (changed) working file's time is 02:00, some other
              copy of the working file has a time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.  Then ci -d -T sets the RCS
              file's  time  to  02:00  instead of the usual 04:00; this causes make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the
              other copy is newer than the RCS file.

              uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Useful for lying about the author,  and  for
              -k if no author is available.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

              specifies  the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches any pathname ending in the suffix.  An
              empty suffix matches any pathname of the form RCS/path or path1/RCS/path2.  The -x option can specify  a
              list  of  suffixes  separated by /.  For example, -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.
              If two or more suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when looking for an RCS file;  the  first
              one  that works is used for that file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be created, the suf-
              fixes are tried in order to determine the new RCS file's name.  The default for  suffixes  is  installa-
              tion-dependent;  normally  it  is  ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit commas in filenames, and is empty
              (i.e. just the empty suffix) for other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies the default time zone  for  date
              in  the  -ddate  option.   The  zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or the special string LT for
              local time.  The default is an empty zone, which uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time
              zone  indication  and  with slashes separating the parts of the date; otherwise, times are output in ISO
              8601 format with time zone indication.  For example, if local time is  January  11,  1990,  8pm  Pacific
              Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is output as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

              The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which are always UTC.

       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be specified in three ways (see also the example section).

       1)  Both  the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname is of the form path1/workfileX and the
       working pathname is of the form path2/workfile where path1/ and path2/ are (possibly different or empty) paths,
       workfile  is  a  filename,  and X is an RCS suffix.  If X is empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the  current  directory  and  its  name  is
       derived from the name of the RCS file by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X in turn, looking for an RCS file of the
       form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if the former is not found and X is nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for the RCS  file  first  in  the  directory
       ./RCS and then in the current directory.

       ci reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an unusual reason, even if the RCS file's path-
       name is just one of several possibilities.  For example, to suppress use of RCS commands in a directory d, cre-
       ate  a  regular  file  named d/RCS so that casual attempts to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a

       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdirectory RCS  with  an  RCS  file  io.c,v.
       Then  each  of  the following commands check in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision, removing

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
              ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains  a  subdirectory  RCS
       with an RCS file io.c.  The each of the following commands checks in a new revision.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c;
              ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

       An  RCS  file  created  by ci inherits the read and execute permissions from the working file.  If the RCS file
       exists already, ci preserves its read and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all  write  permissions  of
       RCS files.

       Temporary  files  are created in the directory containing the working file, and also in the temporary directory
       (see TMPDIR under ENVIRONMENT).  A semaphore file or files are created in  the  directory  containing  the  RCS
       file.   With a nonempty suffix, the semaphore names begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do
       not specify an suffix whose first character could be that of a working filename.  With  an  empty  suffix,  the
       semaphore names end with _ so working filenames should not end in _.

       ci  never  changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file and creates a new one; but instead of
       breaking a chain of one or more symbolic links to an RCS file, it unlinks the destination file instead.  There-
       fore,  ci  breaks  any  hard  or symbolic links to any working file it changes; and hard links to RCS files are
       ineffective, but symbolic links to RCS files are preserved.

       The effective user must be able to search and write the directory containing the RCS file.  Normally, the  real
       user  must be able to read the RCS and working files and to search and write the directory containing the work-
       ing file; however, some older hosts cannot easily switch between real and effective users, so  on  these  hosts
       the  effective  user  is  used  for  all accesses.  The effective user is the same as the real user unless your
       copies of ci and co have setuid privileges.  As described in the next section,  these  privileges  yield  extra
       security if the effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if only the effective user can write RCS

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the directory containing  the  files;  only
       users  with  write access to the directory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.  For example, in hosts
       that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make a group's RCS directories writable  to  that  group
       only.   This approach suffices for informal projects, but it means that any group member can arbitrarily change
       the group's RCS files, and can even remove them entirely.  Hence more  formal  projects  sometimes  distinguish
       between an RCS administrator, who can change the RCS files at will, and other project members, who can check in
       new revisions but cannot otherwise change the RCS files.

       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions, a set of users can employ setuid privi-
       leges as follows.

       ? Check  that  the  host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult a trustworthy expert if there are any doubts.  It is
         best if the seteuid system call works as described in Posix 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can switch back  and
         forth  easily between real and effective users, even if the real user is root.  If not, the second best is if
         the setuid system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior  of  Posix  1003.1-1990);  this
         fails  only  if  the  real or effective user is root.  If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immedi-

       ? Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.  Only A can invoke the rcs command on the
         users'  RCS  files.  A should not be root or any other user with special powers.  Mutually suspicious sets of
         users should use different administrators.

       ? Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by the users.

       ? Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A by copying the commands from their  stan-
         dard installation directory D as follows:

              mkdir  B
              cp  D/c[io]  B
              chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       ? Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

              PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
              set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       ? Have A create each RCS directory R with write access only to A as follows:

              mkdir  R
              chmod  go-w  R

       ? If  you  want  to let only certain users read the RCS files, put the users into a group G, and have A further
         protect the RCS directory as follows:

              chgrp  G  R
              chmod  g-w,o-rwx  R

       ? Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns them.

       ? An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.  The  default  access  list  is  empty,
         which  grants  checkin  access to anyone who can read the RCS file.  If you want limit checkin access, have A
         invoke rcs -a on the file; see rcs(1).  In particular, rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       ? Have A initialize any new RCS files with rcs -i before initial checkin, adding the -a option if you  want  to
         limit checkin access.

       ? Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them to rcs or to any other command.

       ? Do not use other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is trickier than you think!

              options  prepended  to  the  argument  list,  separated by spaces.  A backslash escapes spaces within an
              option.  The RCSINIT options are prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.   Useful  RCSINIT
              options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name  of  the  temporary  directory.   If  not set, the environment variables TMP and TEMP are inspected
              instead and the first value found is taken; if none of them are set, a host-dependent default  is  used,
              typically /tmp.

       For  each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the number of both the deposited and the pre-
       ceding revision.  The exit status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.17; Release Date: 1995/06/16.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.

       co(1), emacs(1),  ident(1),  make(1),  rcs(1),  rcsclean(1),  rcsdiff(1),  rcsintro(1),  rcsmerge(1),  rlog(1),
       setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
       Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

GNU                               1995/06/16                             CI(1)