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EMACS(1)                                                              EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

       GNU Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The  primary  documentation of GNU Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you can read using Info, either from
       Emacs or as a standalone program.  Please look there for complete and up-to-date documentation.  This man  page
       is  updated  only  when  someone  volunteers  to do so; the Emacs maintainers' priority goal is to minimize the
       amount of time this man page takes away from other more useful projects.
       The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and it is easily  extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility assumes that you know how to manipulate
       Emacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts an interac-
       tive  tutorial  which  can teach beginners the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
       helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character  (CTRL-h  c)  describes  a  given  character's
       effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mis-

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail),  outline  editing  (Outline),
       compiling (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-
       Interaction-Mode), automated psychotherapy (Doctor), and much more.

       There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses should have  little  trouble  adapting  even
       without  a copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial
       and using the self-documentation features.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

              file    Edit file.

              --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
                      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

              +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and the  number).
                      This applies only to the next file specified.

                      Go to the specified line and column.

              -q, --no-init-file
                      Do not load an init file.

                      Do not load the site-wide startup file.

                      Do not load a saved desktop.

              -nl, --no-shared-memory
                      Do not use shared memory.

              -Q, --quick
                      Equivalent to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".

                      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

                      Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing of the user init file ~/.emacs.  This is useful
                      for debugging problems in the init file.

              -u user, --user user
                      Load user's init file.

              -t file, --terminal file
                      Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.  This must be the first  argu-
                      ment specified in the command line.

              --multibyte, --no-unibyte
                      Enable multibyte mode (enabled by default).

              --unibyte, --no-multibyte
                      Enable unibyte mode.

                      Display Emacs version information and exit.

              --help  Display this help and exit.

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encountered):

              -f function, --funcall function
                      Execute the lisp function function.

              -l file, --load file
                      Load the lisp code in the file file.

              --eval expr, --execute expr
                      Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

              --batch Edit  in batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.  This option must be the first in
                      the argument list.  You must use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions  to

              --script file
                      Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

              --insert file
                      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

              --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

              -L dir, --directory dir
                      Add dir to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs  has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will
       create its own X window to display in.  You will probably want to start the editor as a background  process  so
       that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

              --name name
                      Specify the name which should be assigned to the initial Emacs window.  This controls looking up
                      X resources as well as the window title.

              -T name, --title name
                      Specify the title for the initial X window.

              -r, -rv, --reverse-video
                      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

              -fn font, --font font
                      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will find the various X fonts in the
                      /usr/lib/X11/fonts  directory.   Note  that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts.  Under the
                      X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh  field
                      of  the  font name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form widthx-
                      height are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

                      When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and the font name.

              --xrm resources
                      Set additional X resources.

              --color, --color=mode
                      Override color mode for character terminals; mode defaults to 'auto', and can also  be  'never',
                      'auto', 'always', or a mode name like 'ansi8'.

              -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
                      Set  the  Emacs  window's border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to
                      one pixel on each side of the window.

              -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
                      Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to
                      one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

              -g geometry, --geometry geometry
                      Set  the Emacs window's width, height, and position as specified.  The geometry specification is
                      in the standard X format; see X(7) for more information.  The width and height are specified  in
                      characters; the default is 80 by 24.  See the Emacs manual, section "Options for Window Size and
                      Position", for information on how window sizes interact with selecting or deselecting  the  tool
                      bar and menu bar.

              -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
                      Additional space to put between lines.

              -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
                      Enable vertical scrollbars.

              -fh, --fullheight
                      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

              -fs, --fullscreen
                      Make the first frame fullscreen.

              -fw, --fullwidth
                      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

              -fg color, --foreground-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the text.

                      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.

              -bg color, --background-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's background.

              -bd color, --border-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

              -cr color, --cursor-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's text cursor.

              -ms color, --mouse-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's mouse cursor.

              -d displayname, --display displayname
                      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by displayname.  Must be the first option spec-
                      ified in the command line.

              -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
                      Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

                      Start Emacs in iconified state.

              -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
                      Disable blinking cursor.

              -nw, --no-window-system
                      Tell Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you use this switch  when  invoking  Emacs
                      from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that window.

              -D, --basic-display
                      This option disables many display features; use it for debugging Emacs.

       You  can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set default values for the  following  key-

              background (class Background)
                      For color displays, sets the window's background color.

              bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
                      If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window will iconify into the "kitchen sink."

              borderColor (class BorderColor)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

              borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's border width in pixels.

              cursorColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

              cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
                      Specifies whether to make the cursor blink.  The default is on.  Use off or false to turn cursor
                      blinking off.

              font (class Font)
                      Sets the window's text font.

              foreground (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the window's text color.

              fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
                      The desired fullscreen size.  The value can be one of fullboth, fullwidth, or fullheight,  which
                      correspond  to  the  command-line options '-fs', '-fw', and '-fh', respectively.  Note that this
                      applies to the initial frame only.

              geometry (class Geometry)
                      Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

              iconName (class Title)
                      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

              internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

              lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
                      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

              menuBar (class MenuBar)
                      Gives frames menu bars if on; don't have menu bars if  off.   See  the  Emacs  manual,  sections
                      "Lucid  Resources" and "LessTif Resources", for how to control the appearance of the menu bar if
                      you have one.

              minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
                      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this  frame.   It  will  use  a  separate  minibuffer  frame

              paneFont (class Font)
                      Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.

              pointerColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

              privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
                      If  on, use a private color map, in the case where the "default visual" of class PseudoColor and
                      Emacs is using it.

              reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
                      If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be displayed in reverse video.

              screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
                      Gamma correction for colors, equivalent to the frame parameter 'screen-gamma'.

              scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
                      The scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the frame parameter 'scroll-bar-width'.

              selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
                      Font name for pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.  (For toolkit  versions,  see
                      the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources".)

              selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
                      Number of milliseconds to wait for a selection reply.  A value of 0 means wait as long as neces-

              synchronous (class Synchronous)
                      Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on.  Synchronous mode is useful for debugging X problems.

              title (class Title)
                      Sets the title of the Emacs window.

              toolBar (class ToolBar)
                      Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

              useXIM (class UseXIM)
                      Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

              verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
                      Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars if off.

              visualClass (class VisualClass)
                      Specify the "visual" that X should use.  This tells X how to handle colors.   The  value  should
                      start  with  one of TrueColor, PseudoColor, DirectColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, and StaticGray,
                      followed by -depth, where depth is the number of color planes.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the window's characteristics will default
       as  follows:  the  foreground color will be set to black, the background color will be set to white, the border
       color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set to black.

   Using the Mouse
       The following lists some of the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under X11.

              MOUSE BUTTON        FUNCTION
              left                Set point.
              middle              Paste text.
              right               Cut text into X cut buffer.
              SHIFT-middle        Cut text into X cut buffer.
              SHIFT-right         Paste text.
              CTRL-middle         Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
              CTRL-right          Select this window, then split it  into
                                  two  windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
              CTRL-SHIFT-left     X buffer menu -- hold  the  buttons  and
                                  keys  down,  wait  for  menu to appear,
                                  select buffer, and release.  Move mouse
                                  out of menu and release to cancel.
              CTRL-SHIFT-middle   X  help  menu  -- pop up index card menu
                                  for Emacs help.
              CTRL-SHIFT-right    Select window with  mouse,  and  delete
                                  all  other  windows.   Same  as  typing
                                  CTRL-x 1.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the Free  Software  Foundation,  which  develops  GNU
       software.  See the file ORDERS for ordering information.
       Your  local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As with all software and publications from FSF,
       everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the manual is  also
       included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/share/info  --  files  for  the Info documentation browser.  The complete text of the Emacs reference
       manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.  Also includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, useful
       to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  -- Lisp source files and compiled files that define most editing commands.
       Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH -- various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc -- various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* -- contains the documentation strings  for  the  Lisp  primitives  and
       preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE  lists  people  offering  various  services  to assist users of GNU
       Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting and customization.

       There is a mailing list,, for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes.  But before reporting some-
       thing  as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.
       We ask you to read the section ''Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual (or  Info  system)
       for  hints  on  how  and when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you are running in
       every bug report that you send in.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it  is  in  your
       interest to report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting bugs is to get them fixed for every-
       one in the next release, if possible.  For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list
       of people who offer it.

       Please  do  not  send  anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For more information about Emacs mailing
       lists, see the file /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.

       Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in  the  Emacs  General
       Public  License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included
       in the scope of any license covering those systems.  Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is
       permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any
       other restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard  Stallman  encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute your extensions to
       the GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Unix.   Everyone  will  be
       free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs  was  written  by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.  Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz
       added the X features.

       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
             2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright notice and
       this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the conditions for verba-
       tim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the  terms  of  a  permission
       notice identical to this one.

       Permission  is  granted  to  copy and distribute translations of this document into another language, under the
       above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice  may  be  stated  in  a  translation
       approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 23.1                   2007 April 13                        EMACS(1)