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RCS(1)                                                                  RCS(1)



NAME
       rcs - change RCS file attributes

SYNOPSIS
       rcs options file ...

DESCRIPTION
       rcs  creates  new RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones.  An RCS file contains multiple revisions of
       text, an access list, a change log, descriptive text, and some  control  attributes.   For  rcs  to  work,  the
       caller's  login name must be on the access list, except if the access list is empty, the caller is the owner of
       the file or the superuser, or the -i option is present.

       Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others  denote  working  files.   Names  are  paired  as
       explained in ci(1).  Revision numbers use the syntax described in ci(1).

OPTIONS
       -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file, but do not deposit any revision.  If the RCS file has no path pre-
              fix, try to place it first into the subdirectory ./RCS, and then into the current directory.  If the RCS
              file already exists, print an error message.

       -alogins
              Append  the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access list of the RCS file.

       -Aoldfile
              Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the RCS file.

       -e[logins]
              Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
              If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.

       -b[rev]
              Set  the  default  branch  to  rev.  If rev is omitted, the default branch is reset to the (dynamically)
              highest branch on the trunk.

       -cstring
              Set the comment leader to string.  An initial ci, or an rcs -i without -c, guesses  the  comment  leader
              from the suffix of the working filename.

              This option is obsolescent, since RCS normally uses the preceding $Log$ line's prefix when inserting log
              lines during checkout (see co(1)).  However, older versions of RCS use the comment leader instead of the
              $Log$  line's  prefix,  so if you plan to access a file with both old and new versions of RCS, make sure
              its comment leader matches its $Log$ line prefix.

       -ksubst
              Set the default keyword substitution to subst.  The effect  of  keyword  substitution  is  described  in
              co(1).   Giving  an  explicit  -k  option  to  co, rcsdiff, and rcsmerge overrides this default.  Beware
              rcs -kv, because -kv is incompatible with co -l.  Use rcs -kkv to restore  the  normal  default  keyword
              substitution.

       -l[rev]
              Lock  the  revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch.  If
              rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch.  Locking prevents  overlapping  changes.
              If someone else already holds the lock, the lock is broken as with rcs -u (see below).

       -u[rev]
              Unlock  the  revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch.
              If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the locker of  a  revision
              can  unlock  it.   Somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock.  This causes a mail message to be
              sent to the original locker.  The message contains a commentary solicited from the breaker.  The commen-
              tary is terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.

       -L     Set  locking  to  strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking
              for checkin.  This option should be used for files that are shared.

       -U     Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock  a  revision
              for  checkin.   This  option  should  not be used for files that are shared.  Whether default locking is
              strict is determined by your system administrator, but it is normally strict.

       -mrev:msg
              Replace revision rev's log message with msg.

       -M     Do not send mail when breaking somebody else's lock.  This option is not meant for  casual  use;  it  is
              meant  for  programs that warn users by other means, and invoke rcs -u only as a low-level lock-breaking
              operation.

       -nname[:[rev]]
              Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  Delete the symbolic name  if  both  :
              and  rev  are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associated with another num-
              ber.  If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting of a branch  number  fol-
              lowed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the
              current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For example, rcs -nname: RCS/* asso-
              ciates  name  with  the  current  latest  revision  of  all  the  named  RCS  files; this contrasts with
              rcs -nname:$ RCS/* which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in the
              corresponding working files.

       -Nname[:[rev]]
              Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.

       -orange
              deletes ("outdates") the revisions given by range.  A range consisting of a single revision number means
              that revision.  A range consisting of a branch number means the latest revision on that branch.  A range
              of  the form rev1:rev2 means revisions rev1 to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means from the beginning of
              the branch containing rev up to and including rev, and rev: means from revision rev to the  end  of  the
              branch containing rev.  None of the outdated revisions can have branches or locks.

       -q     Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -I     Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.

       -sstate[:rev]
              Set  the  state  attribute  of  the revision rev to state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the latest
              revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision  on  the  default  branch.   Any
              identifier  is  acceptable  for state.  A useful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for sta-
              ble), and Rel (for released).  By default, ci(1) sets the state of a revision to Exp.

       -t[file]
              Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the  RCS  file,  deleting  the  existing
              text.   The file pathname cannot begin with -.  If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input,
              terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  Prompt for the text  if  interaction  is
              possible; see -I.  With -i, descriptive text is obtained even if -t is not given.

       -t-string
              Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.

       -T     Preserve  the  modification time on the RCS file unless a revision is removed.  This option can suppress
              extensive recompilation caused by a make(1) dependency of some copy of the working file on the RCS file.
              Use  this  option with care; it can suppress recompilation even when it is needed, i.e. when a change to
              the RCS file would mean a change to keyword strings in the working file.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

       -xsuffixes
              Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -zzone Use zone as the default time zone.  This option has no effect; it  is  present  for  compatibility  with
              other RCS commands.

       At  least  one explicit option must be given, to ensure compatibility with future planned extensions to the rcs
       command.

COMPATIBILITY
       The -brev option generates an RCS file that cannot be parsed by RCS version 3 or earlier.

       The -ksubst options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that cannot be parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.

       Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discarding information that would  confuse  ver-
       sion n.

       RCS version 5.5 and earlier does not support the -x option, and requires a ,v suffix on an RCS pathname.

FILES
       rcs  accesses  files  much  as ci(1) does, except that it uses the effective user for all accesses, it does not
       write the working file or its directory, and it does not even read the working file unless a revision number of
       $ is specified.

ENVIRONMENT
       RCSINIT
              options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  See ci(1) for details.

DIAGNOSTICS
       The  RCS  pathname and the revisions outdated are written to the diagnostic output.  The exit status is zero if
       and only if all operations were successful.

IDENTIFICATION
       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.13; Release Date: 1995/06/05.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.

SEE ALSO
       rcsintro(1), co(1), ci(1), ident(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
       Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

BUGS
       A  catastrophe  (e.g.  a system crash) can cause RCS to leave behind a semaphore file that causes later invoca-
       tions of RCS to claim that the RCS file is in use.  To fix this, remove the semaphore file.  A semaphore file's
       name typically begins with , or ends with _.

       The  separator for revision ranges in the -o option used to be - instead of :, but this leads to confusion when
       symbolic names contain -.  For backwards compatibility rcs -o still supports the old - separator, but it  warns
       about this obsolete use.

       Symbolic  names  need  not refer to existing revisions or branches.  For example, the -o option does not remove
       symbolic names for the outdated revisions; you must use -n to remove the names.



GNU                               1995/06/05                            RCS(1)