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Org Mode Manual
***************

This manual is for Org (version 6.21b).

Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software
Foundation

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
"GNU Free Documentation License."

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU
Free Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this
document separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a
copy of the license to the document, as described in section 6 of

* Introduction::                Getting started
* Document Structure::          A tree works like your brain
* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::                  Notes in context
* TODO Items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
* Tags::                        Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
* Properties and Columns::      Storing information about an entry
* Dates and Times::             Making items useful for planning
* Capture::                     Creating tasks and attaching files
* Agenda Views::                Collecting information into views
* Embedded LaTeX::              LaTeX fragments and formulas
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
* Publishing::                  Create a web site of linked Org files
* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Extensions::                  Add-ons for Org mode
* Hacking::                     How to hack your way around
* History and Acknowledgments::  How Org came into being
* Main Index::                  An index of Org's concepts and features
* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described

--- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual

Document Structure

* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
* Footnotes::                   How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org

Archiving

* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file

Tables

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables
* Column groups::               Grouping to trigger vertical lines
* Orgtbl mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* The spreadsheet::             The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
* Org Plot::                    Plotting from org tables

* References::                  How to refer to another field or range
* Formula syntax for Calc::     Using Calc to compute stuff
* Formula syntax for Lisp::     Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
* Field formulas::              Formulas valid for a single field
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for an entire column
* Editing and debugging formulas::  Fixing formulas
* Updating the table::          Recomputing all dependent fields
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc

* Link format::                 How links in Org are formatted
* Internal links::              Links to other places in the current file
* External links::              URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
* Using links outside Org::     Linking from my C source code?
* Link abbreviations::          Shortcuts for writing complex links
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough

* Radio targets::               Make targets trigger links in plain text

TODO Items

* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Progress logging::            Dates and notes for progress
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::         Splitting a task into manageable pieces
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists

Extended use of TODO keywords

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred does the rest
* Multiple sets in one file::   Mixing it all, and still finding your way
* Fast access to TODO states::  Single letter selection of a state
* Per-file keywords::           Different files, different requirements
* Faces for TODO keywords::     Highlighting states
* TODO dependencies::           When one task needs to wait for others

Progress logging

* Closing items::               When was this entry marked DONE?
* Tracking TODO state changes::  When did the status change?

Tags

* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags

Properties and Columns

* Property syntax::             How properties are spelled out
* Special properties::          Access to other Org mode features
* Property searches::           Matching property values
* Property inheritance::        Passing values down the tree
* Column view::                 Tabular viewing and editing
* Property API::                Properties for Lisp programmers

Column view

* Defining columns::            The COLUMNS format property
* Using column view::           How to create and use column view
* Capturing column view::       A dynamic block for column view

Defining columns

* Scope of column definitions::  Where defined, where valid?
* Column attributes::           Appearance and content of a column

Dates and Times

* Timestamps::                  Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Deadlines and scheduling::    Planning your work
* Clocking work time::          Tracking how long you spend on a task
* Effort estimates::            Planning work effort in advance
* Relative timer::              Notes with a running timer

Creating timestamps

* The date/time prompt::        How Org mode helps you entering date and time
* Custom time format::          Making dates look different

* Inserting deadline/schedule::  Planning items
* Repeated tasks::              Items that show up again and again

Capture

* Remember::                    Capture new tasks/ideas with little interruption

Remember

* Setting up Remember::         Some code for .emacs to get things going
* Remember templates::          Define the outline of different note types
* Storing notes::               Directly get the note to where it belongs
* Refiling notes::              Moving a note or task to a project

Agenda Views

* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::           Keyboard access to agenda views
* Built-in agenda views::       What is available out of the box?
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of Org trees
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views
* Agenda column view::          Using column view for collected entries

The built-in agenda views

* Weekly/daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching tags and properties::  Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Keyword search::              Finding entries by keyword
* Stuck projects::              Find projects you need to review

Presentation and sorting

* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things

Custom agenda views

* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
* Exporting Agenda Views::      Writing agendas to files
* Using the agenda elsewhere::  Using agenda information in other programs

Embedded LaTeX

* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
* Subscripts and superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas

Exporting

* Markup rules::                Which structures are recognized?
* Selective export::            Using tags to select and exclude trees
* Export options::              Per-file export settings
* The export dispatcher::       How to access exporter commands
* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* LaTeX and PDF export::        Exporting to LaTeX, and processing to PDF
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format

Markup rules

* Document title::              How the document title is determined
* Headings and sections::       The main structure of the exported document
* Initial text::                Text before the first headline
* Lists::                       Plain lists are exported
* Paragraphs::                  What determines beginning and ending
* Literal examples::            Source code and other examples
* Include files::               Include the contents of a file during export
* Tables exported::             Tables are exported richly
* Inlined images::              How to inline images during export
* Footnote markup::
* Emphasis and monospace::      To bold or not to bold
* TeX macros and LaTeX fragments::  Create special, rich export.
* Horizontal rules::            A line across the page
* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported

HTML export

* HTML Export commands::        How to invoke HTML export
* Quoting HTML tags::           Using direct HTML in Org mode
* Links::                       Transformation of links for HTML
* Images in HTML export::       How to insert figures into HTML output
* Text areas in HTML export::   An alternative way to show an example
* CSS support::                 Changing the appearance of the output
* Javascript support::          Info and Folding in a web browser

LaTeX and PDF export

* LaTeX/PDF export commands::   Which key invokes which commands
* Quoting LaTeX code::          Incorporating literal LaTeX code
* Sectioning structure::        Changing sectioning in LaTeX output
* Tables in LaTeX export::      Options for exporting tables to LaTeX
* Images in LaTeX export::      How to insert figures into LaTeX output

Publishing

* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands

Configuration

* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files

Sample configuration

* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example

Miscellaneous

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* Customization::               Adapting Org to your taste
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* TTY keys::                    Using Org on a tty
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly

Interaction with other packages

* Cooperation::                 Packages Org cooperates with
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts

Extensions

* Extensions in the contrib directory::  These come with the Org distro
* Other extensions::            These you have to find on the web.

Hacking

* Tables in arbitrary syntax::  Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
* Special agenda views::        Customized views
* Using the property API::      Writing programs that use entry properties
* Using the mapping API::       Mapping over all or selected entries

Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax

* Radio tables::                Sending and receiving
* A LaTeX example::             Step by step, almost a tutorial
* Translator functions::        Copy and modify
* Radio lists::                 Doing the same for lists

File: org,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Document Structure,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual

File: org,  Node: Summary,  Next: Installation,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Introduction

1.1 Summary
===========

Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
lists or information about projects as plain text.  Org is implemented
on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the content of
large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and structure editing
help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created with a built-in
table editor.  Org supports TODO items, deadlines, time stamps, and
scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an agenda that
utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar and diary.
Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails, Usenet messages,
BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.  For printing and
sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a structured ASCII
file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an iCalendar file.
It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of linked web pages.

An important design aspect that distinguishes Org from for example
Planner/Muse is that it encourages to store every piece of information
only once.  In Planner, you have project pages, day pages and possibly
other files, duplicating some information such as tasks.  In Org, you
only have notes files.  In your notes you mark entries as tasks, label
them with tags and timestamps.  All necessary lists like a schedule for
the day, the agenda for a meeting, tasks lists selected by tags etc are
created dynamically when you need them.

Org keeps simple things simple.  When first fired up, it should feel
like a straightforward, easy to use outliner.  Complexity is not
imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
it.  Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways, for example as:

* outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing
* ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes
* ASCII table editor with spreadsheet-like capabilities
* TODO list editor
* full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling
* environment to implement David Allen's GTD system
* a basic database application
* simple hypertext system, with HTML and LaTeX export
* publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages

Org's automatic, context sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
minor Orgtbl mode.  Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
tables in arbitrary file types, for example in LaTeX.  The structure
editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with the
minor Orgstruct mode.

There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
questions (FAQ), links to tutorials etc.  This page is located at
http://orgmode.org'.

File: org,  Node: Installation,  Next: Activation,  Prev: Summary,  Up: Introduction

1.2 Installation
================

Important: If Org is part of the Emacs distribution or an XEmacs
package, please skip this section and go directly to *note Activation::.

If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution
.zip' or .tar' file, or as a GIT archive, you must take the following
steps to install it: Go into the unpacked Org distribution directory
and edit the top section of the file Makefile'.  You must set the name
of the Emacs binary (likely either emacs' or xemacs'), and the paths
to the directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept.  If you
don't have access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run
Org directly from the distribution directory by adding the lisp'
subdirectory to the Emacs load path.  To do this, add the following
line to .emacs':

If you plan to use code from the contrib' subdirectory, do a similar
step for this directory:

XEmacs users now need to install the file noutline.el' from the
xemacs' sub-directory of the Org distribution.  Use the command:

make install-noutline

Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:

make

If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is all.
If you want to install into the system directories, use

make install
make install-info

Then add to .emacs':

;; This line only if Org is not part of the X/Emacs distribution.
(require 'org-install)

Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.

File: org,  Node: Activation,  Next: Feedback,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Introduction

1.3 Activation
==============

Add the following lines to your .emacs' file.  The last three lines
define _global_ keys for the commands org-store-link', org-agenda',
and org-iswitchb' - please choose suitable keys yourself.

;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
(global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
(global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)

Furthermore, you must activate font-lock-mode' in Org buffers,
because significant functionality depends on font-locking being active.
You can do this with either one of the following two lines (XEmacs user
must use the second option):
(global-font-lock-mode 1)                     ; for all buffers
(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)  ; Org buffers only

With this setup, all files with extension .org' will be put into
Org mode.  As an alternative, make the first line of a file look like
this:

MY PROJECTS    -*- mode: org; -*-

which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what the file's
name is.  See also the variable org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file'.

Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is active.  To
make use of this, you need to have transient-mark-mode'
(zmacs-regions' in XEmacs) turned on.  In Emacs 23 this is the
default, in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with

(transient-mark-mode 1)

File: org,  Node: Feedback,  Next: Conventions,  Prev: Activation,  Up: Introduction

1.4 Feedback
============

If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or
ideas about it, please mail to the Org mailing list
emacs-orgmodeATgnu.org'.  If you are not a member of the mailing list,
your mail will be reviewed by a moderator and then passed through to
the list.

For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible,
including the version information of Emacs (C-h v emacs-version
<RET>') and Org (C-h v org-version <RET>'), as well as the Org related
setup in .emacs'.  If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful
(see below on how to create one).  Often a small example file helps,
along with clear information about:

1. What exactly did you do?

2. What did you expect to happen?

3. What happened instead?
Thank you for helping to improve this mode.

How to create a useful backtrace
................................

If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
understand, you may have hit a bug.  The best way to report this is by
providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a _Backtrace_.
This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
error occurred.  Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:

1. Start a fresh Emacs or XEmacs, and make sure that it will load the
original Lisp code in org.el' instead of the compiled version in
org.elc'.  The backtrace contains much more information if it is
produced with uncompiled code.  To do this, either rename org.elc'
to something else before starting Emacs, or ask Emacs explicitly
to load org.el' by using the command line
emacs -l /path/to/org.el

2. Go to the Options' menu and select Enter Debugger on Error'
(XEmacs has this option in the Troubleshooting' sub-menu).

3. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error.  Don't forget to
document the steps you take.

4. When you hit the error, a *Backtrace*' buffer will appear on the
screen.  Save this buffer to a file (for example using C-x C-w')
and attach it to your bug report.

File: org,  Node: Conventions,  Prev: Feedback,  Up: Introduction

1.5 Typesetting conventions used in this manual
===============================================

Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
names.  In this manual we use the following conventions:

TODO'
WAITING'
TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
user-defined.

boss'
ARCHIVE'
User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with
special meaning are written with all capitals.

Release'
PRIORITY'
User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
special meaning are written with all capitals.

File: org,  Node: Document Structure,  Next: Tables,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Document Structure
********************

Org is based on outline mode and provides flexible commands to edit the
structure of the document.

* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
* Footnotes::                   How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org

File: org,  Node: Outlines,  Next: Headlines,  Prev: Document Structure,  Up: Document Structure

2.1 Outlines
============

Org is implemented on top of Outline mode.  Outlines allow a document
to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least for me) is
the best representation of notes and thoughts.  An overview of this
structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the document
to show only the general document structure and the parts currently
being worked on.  Org greatly simplifies the use of outlines by
compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single command
org-cycle', which is bound to the <TAB> key.

File: org,  Node: Headlines,  Next: Visibility cycling,  Prev: Outlines,  Up: Document Structure

=============

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in
Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin(1).  For example:

* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
some text
*** 3rd level
more text

* Another top level headline

Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an outline
that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline starters.
*note Clean view:: describes a setup to realize this.

An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
will be hidden when the subtree is folded.  However, if you leave at
least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view.  See the
variable org-cycle-separator-lines' to modify this behavior.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) See the variable org-special-ctrl-a/e' to configure special
behavior of C-a' and C-e' in headlines.

File: org,  Node: Visibility cycling,  Next: Motion,  Prev: Headlines,  Up: Document Structure

2.3 Visibility cycling
======================

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.  Org
uses just two commands, bound to <TAB> and S-<TAB>' to change the
visibility in the buffer.

<TAB>'
_Subtree cycling_: Rotate current subtree among the states

,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'

The cursor must be on a headline for this to work(1).  When the
cursor is at the beginning of the buffer and the first line is not
a headline, then <TAB> actually runs global cycling (see
below)(2).  Also when called with a prefix argument (C-u <TAB>'),
global cycling is invoked.

S-<TAB>'
C-u <TAB>'
_Global cycling_: Rotate the entire buffer among the states

,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'

When S-<TAB>' is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown.  Note that
inside tables, S-<TAB>' jumps to the previous field.

C-u C-u C-u <TAB>'
Show all, including drawers.

C-c C-r'
Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the
following heading and the hierarchy above.  Useful for working
near a location that has been exposed by a sparse tree command
(*note Sparse trees::) or an agenda command (*note Agenda
commands::).  With a prefix argument show, on each level, all

C-c C-x b'
Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer(3).  With a numeric
prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree.  If N
is negative then go up that many levels.  With a C-u' prefix, do
not remove the previously used indirect buffer.

When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable org-startup-folded', or on a per-file
basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the buffer:

#+STARTUP: overview
#+STARTUP: content
#+STARTUP: showall

Furthermore, any entries with a VISIBILITY' property (*note Properties
and Columns::) will get their visibility adapted accordingly.  Allowed
values for this property are folded', children', content', and all'.
C-u C-u <TAB>'
Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e. whatever
is requested by startup options and VISIBILITY' properties in
individual entries.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) see, however, the option org-cycle-emulate-tab'.

(2) see the option org-cycle-global-at-bob'.

(3) The indirect buffer (*note Indirect Buffers: (emacs)Indirect
Buffers.)  will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the
current tree.  Editing the indirect buffer will also change the
original buffer, but without affecting visibility in that buffer.

File: org,  Node: Motion,  Next: Structure editing,  Prev: Visibility cycling,  Up: Document Structure

2.4 Motion
==========

The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

C-c C-n'

C-c C-p'

C-c C-f'
Next heading same level.

C-c C-b'
Previous heading same level.

C-c C-u'
Backward to higher level heading.

C-c C-j'
Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
visibility.  Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer,
where you can use the following keys to find your destination:
<TAB>         Cycle visibility.
<down> / <up>   Next/previous visible headline.
<RET>         Select this location.
/           Do a Sparse-tree search
The following keys work if you turn off org-goto-auto-isearch'
n / p        Next/previous visible headline.
f / b        Next/previous headline same level.
u            One level up.
0-9          Digit argument.
q            Quit
See also the variableorg-goto-interface'.

File: org,  Node: Structure editing,  Next: Archiving,  Prev: Motion,  Up: Document Structure

2.5 Structure editing
=====================

M-<RET>'
Insert new heading with same level as current.  If the cursor is
in a plain list item, a new item is created (*note Plain lists::).
To force creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or
first press <RET> to get to the beginning of the next line.  When
this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split
and the rest of the line becomes the new headline(1).  If the
command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
created before the current line.  If at the beginning of any other
line, the content of that line is made the new heading.  If the
command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the
ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.

C-<RET>'
Just like M-<RET>', except when adding a new heading below the
current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead
of before it.  This command works from anywhere in the entry.

M-S-<RET>'
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.

C-S-<RET>'
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.  Like
C-<RET>', the new headline will be inserted after the current
subtree.

M-<left>'
Promote current heading by one level.

M-<right>'
Demote current heading by one level.

M-S-<left>'
Promote the current subtree by one level.

M-S-<right>'
Demote the current subtree by one level.

M-S-<up>'
Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same level).

M-S-<down>'
Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).

C-c C-x C-w'
Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.

C-c C-x M-w'
Copy subtree to kill ring.  With a numeric prefix argument N, copy
the N sequential subtrees.

C-c C-x C-y'
Yank subtree from kill ring.  This does modify the level of the
subtree to make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position.
The yank level can also be specified with a numeric prefix
argument, or by yanking after a headline marker like ****'.

C-y'
Depending on the variables org-yank-adjusted-subtrees' and
org-yank-folded-subtrees', Org's internal yank' command will
paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command
as C-c C-x C-y'.  With the default settings, no level adjustment
will take place, but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing
so would swallow text previously visible.  Any prefix argument to
this command will force a normal yank' to be executed, with the
prefix passed along.  A good way to force a normal yank is C-u
C-y'.  If you use yank-pop' after a yank, it will yank previous
kill items plainly, without adjustment and folding.

C-c C-w'
Refile entry or region to a different location.  *Note Refiling
notes::.

C-c ^'
Sort same-level entries.  When there is an active region, all
entries in the region will be sorted.  Otherwise the children of
the current headline are sorted.  The command prompts for the
sorting method, which can be alphabetically, numerically, by time
(using the first time stamp in each entry), by priority, or by
TODO keyword (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in
the setup).  Reverse sorting is possible as well.  You can also
supply your own function to extract the sorting key.  With a C-u'
prefix, sorting will be case-sensitive.  With two C-u C-u'
prefixes, duplicate entries will also be removed.

C-x n s'
Narrow buffer to current subtree.

C-x n w'
Widen buffer to remove a narrowing.

C-c *'
Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it
becomes a subheading at its location).  Also turn a headline into
a normal line by removing the stars.  If there is an active
region, turn all lines in the region into headlines.  If the first
line in the region was an item, turn only the item lines into
headlines.  Finally, if the first line is a headline, remove the
stars from all headlines in the region.

When there is an active region (Transient mark mode), promotion and
demotion work on all headlines in the region.  To select a region of
headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
just after the last headline to change.  Note that when the cursor is
inside a table (*note Tables::), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
functionality.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
org-M-RET-may-split-line'.

File: org,  Node: Archiving,  Next: Sparse trees,  Prev: Structure editing,  Up: Document Structure

2.6 Archiving
=============

When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want to
move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
agenda.  Org mode knows two ways of archiving.  You can mark a tree with
the ARCHIVE tag, or you can move an entire (sub)tree to a different
location.

* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file

File: org,  Node: ARCHIVE tag,  Next: Moving subtrees,  Prev: Archiving,  Up: Archiving

2.6.1 The ARCHIVE tag
---------------------

A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (*note Tags::) stays at
its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
- It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility
cycling command (*note Visibility cycling::).  You can force
cycling archived subtrees with C-<TAB>', or by setting the option
org-cycle-open-archived-trees'.  Also normal outline commands like
show-all' will open archived subtrees.

- During sparse tree construction (*note Sparse trees::), matches in
archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees'.

- During agenda view construction (*note Agenda Views::), the
content of archived trees is ignored unless you configure the
option org-agenda-skip-archived-trees', in which case these trees
will always be included.  In the agenda you can press the v' key
to get archives temporarily included.

- Archived trees are not exported (*note Exporting::), only the
headline is.  Configure the details using the variable
org-export-with-archived-trees'.

The following commands help managing the ARCHIVE tag:

C-c C-x a'
Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.  When the tag is
set, the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree
below it is hidden.

C-u C-c C-x a'
Check if any direct children of the current headline should be
archived.  To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO
entries.  If none are found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE
tag for the child.  If the cursor is _not_ on a headline when this
command is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.

C-TAB'
Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.

File: org,  Node: Moving subtrees,  Prev: ARCHIVE tag,  Up: Archiving

2.6.2 Moving subtrees
---------------------

Once an entire project is finished, you may want to move it to a
different location.  Org can move it to an _Archive Sibling_ in the
same tree, to a different tree in the current file, or to a different
file, the archive file.

C-c C-x A'
Move the current entry to the _Archive Sibling_.  This is a
sibling of the entry with the heading Archive' and the tag
ARCHIVE' (*note ARCHIVE tag::).  The entry becomes a child of
that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its original
context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
outline.

C-c C-x C-s'
Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
given by org-archive-location'.  Context information that could be
lost like the file name, the category, inherited tags, and the TODO
state will be store as properties in the entry.

C-u C-c C-x C-s'
Check if any direct children of the current headline could be
moved to the archive.  To do this, each subtree is checked for
open TODO entries.  If none are found, the command offers to move
it to the archive location.  If the cursor is _not_ on a headline
when this command is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.

The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
current file, with the name derived by appending _archive' to the
current file name.  For information and examples on how to change this,
see the documentation string of the variable org-archive-location'.
There is also an in-buffer option for setting this variable, for
example(1):

#+ARCHIVE: %s_done::

If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
or a (sub)tree, give the entry an :ARCHIVE:' property with the
location as the value (*note Properties and Columns::).

When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties
that record context information like the file from where the entry
came, it's outline path the archiving time etc.  Configure the variable
org-archive-save-context-info' to adjust the amount of information

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) For backward compatibility, the following also works: If there
are several such lines in a file, each specifies the archive location
for the text below it.  The first such line also applies to any text
before its definition.  However, using this method is _strongly_
deprecated as it is incompatible with the outline structure of the
document.  The correct method for setting multiple archive locations in
a buffer is using properties.

File: org,  Node: Sparse trees,  Next: Plain lists,  Prev: Archiving,  Up: Document Structure

2.7 Sparse trees
================

An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct _sparse
trees_ for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is
made visible along with the headline structure above it(1).  Just try
it out and you will see immediately how it works.

Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:

C-c /'
This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating
command.

C-c / r'
Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all
matches.  If the match is in a headline, the headline is made
visible.  If the match is in the body of an entry, headline and
body are made visible.  In order to provide minimal context, also
the full hierarchy of headlines above the match is shown, as well
as the headline following the match.  Each match is also
highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed
by an editing command(2), or by pressing C-c C-c'.  When called
with a C-u' prefix argument, previous highlights are kept, so
several calls to this command can be stacked.

For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
use the variable org-agenda-custom-commands' to define fast keyboard
access to specific sparse trees.  These commands will then be
accessible through the agenda dispatcher (*note Agenda dispatcher::).
For example:

(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
'(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))

will define the key C-c a f' as a shortcut for creating a sparse tree
matching the string FIXME'.

The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO
keywords, tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this
manual.

To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
ps-print-buffer-with-faces' which does not print invisible parts of
the document (3).  Or you can use the command C-c C-e v' to export
only the visible part of the document and print the resulting file.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) See also the variables org-show-hierarchy-above',
org-show-following-heading', org-show-siblings', and
org-show-entry-below' for detailed control on how much context is
shown around each match.

(2) depending on the option org-remove-highlights-with-change'

(3) This does not work under XEmacs, because XEmacs uses selective
display for outlining, not text properties.

File: org,  Node: Plain lists,  Next: Drawers,  Prev: Sparse trees,  Up: Document Structure

2.8 Plain lists
===============

Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
additional structure.  They also provide a way to create lists of
checkboxes (*note Checkboxes::).  Org supports editing such lists, and
the HTML exporter (*note Exporting::) parses and formats them.

Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
* _Unordered_ list items start with -', +', or *'(1) as bullets.

* _Ordered_ list items start with a numeral followed by either a
period or a right parenthesis, such as 1.' or 1)'.

* _Description_ list items are like unordered list items, but
contain the separator  :: ' to separate the description _term_
from the description.

Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on
the first line.  In particular, if an ordered list reaches number
10.', then the 2-digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the
other numbers in the list.  Indentation also determines the end of a
list item.  It ends before the next line that is indented like the
bullet/number, or less.  Empty lines are part of the previous item, so
you can have several paragraphs in one item.  If you would like an
empty line to terminate all currently open plain lists, configure the
variable org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists'.  Here is an example:

** Lord of the Rings
My favorite scenes are (in this order)
1. The attack of the Rohirrim
2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
+ this was already my favorite scene in the book
+ I really like Miranda Otto.
3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
- on DVD only
He makes a really funny face when it happens.
But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
Important actors in this film are:
- Elijah Wood :: He plays Frodo
- Sean Austin :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend.  I still remember
him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in the Goonies.

Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to
deal with them correctly(2), and by exporting them properly (*note
Exporting::).

The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first
line of an item (the line with the bullet or number).

<TAB>'
Items can be folded just like headline levels if you set the
variable org-cycle-include-plain-lists'.  The level of an item is
then given by the indentation of the bullet/number.  Items are
always subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies
remain completely separated.

If org-cycle-include-plain-lists' has not been set, <TAB> fixes
the indentation of the current line in a heuristic way.

M-<RET>'
Insert new item at current level.  With a prefix argument, force a
new heading (*note Structure editing::).  If this command is used
in the middle of a line, the line is _split_ and the rest of the
line becomes the new item(3).  If this command is executed in the
_whitespace before a bullet or number_, the new item is created
_before_ the current item.  If the command is executed in the white
space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain
the bullet, a bullet is added to the current line.

M-S-<RET>'
Insert a new item with a checkbox (*note Checkboxes::).

S-<up>'
S-<down>'
Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
org-support-shift-select' is off.  If not, you can still use
paragraph jumping commands like C-<up>' and C-<down>' to quite
similar effect.

M-S-<up>'
M-S-<down>'
Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next
item of same indentation).  If the list is ordered, renumbering is
automatic.

M-S-<left>'
M-S-<right>'
Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
When these commands are executed several times in direct
succession, the initially selected region is used, even if the new
indentation would imply a different hierarchy.  To use the new
hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor motion or so.

C-c C-c'
If there is a checkbox (*note Checkboxes::) in the item line,
toggle the state of the checkbox.  If not, this command makes sure
that all the items on this list level use the same bullet.
Furthermore, if this is an ordered list, make sure the numbering
is OK.

C-c -'
Cycle the entire list level through the different
itemize/enumerate bullets (-', +', *', 1.', 1)').  With a
numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list.
If there is an active region when calling this, all lines will be
converted to list items.  If the first line already was a list
item, any item markers will be removed from the list.  Finally,
even without an active region, a normal line will be converted
into a list item.

S-<left>/<right>'
This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the
bullet or anywhere in an item line, details depending on
org-support-shift-select'.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) When using *' as a bullet, lines must be indented or they will
be seen as top-level headlines.  Also, when you are hiding leading
stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a
star are visually indistinguishable from true headlines.  In short:
even though *' is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain
list items.

(2) Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs.  For XEmacs,
you should use Kyle E. Jones' filladapt.el'.  To turn this on,  put
into .emacs': (require 'filladapt)'

(3) If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
org-M-RET-may-split-line'.

File: org,  Node: Drawers,  Next: Footnotes,  Prev: Plain lists,  Up: Document Structure

2.9 Drawers
===========

Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
normally don't want to see it.  For this, Org mode has _drawers_.
Drawers need to be configured with the variable org-drawers'(1).
Drawers look like this:

** This is a headline
Still outside the drawer
:DRAWERNAME:
This is inside the drawer.
:END:
After the drawer.

Visibility cycling (*note Visibility cycling::) on the headline will
hide and show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line.
In order to look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the
drawer line and press <TAB> there.  Org mode uses a drawer for storing
properties (*note Properties and Columns::), and another one for
storing clock times (*note Clocking work time::).

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) You can define drawers on a per-file basis with a line like
#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE'

File: org,  Node: Footnotes,  Next: Orgstruct mode,  Prev: Drawers,  Up: Document Structure

2.10 Footnotes
==============

Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes.  In contrast to the
footnote.el' package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails.  The basic
syntax is similar to the one used by footnote.el', i.e. a footnote is
defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed.  If you need a paragraph
break inside a footnote, use the LaTeX idiom \par'.  The footnote
reference is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text.  For
example:

The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
...
[fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org

Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to _named_ footnotes and
optional inline definition.  Using plain numbers as markers (as
footnote.el' does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
encouraged because of possible conflicts with LaTeX snippets *note
Embedded LaTeX::.  Here are the valid references:

[1]'
A plain numeric footnote marker.

[fn:name]'
A named footnote reference, where name' is a unique label word,
or, for simplicity of automatic creation, a number.

[fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]'
A LaTeX-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given
directly at the reference point.

[fn:name: a definition]'
An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name
for the note.  Since Org allows multiple references to the same
note, you can then use [fn:name]' to create additional references.

Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you create names
yourself.  This is handled by the variable org-footnote-auto-label'
and its corresponding #+STARTUP' keywords, see the docstring of that
variable for details.

The following command handles footnotes:

C-c C-x f'
The footnote action command.

When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the
definition.  When it is at a definition, jump to the (first)
reference.

Otherwise, create a new footnote.  Depending on the variable
org-footnote-define-inline'(1), the definition will be placed
right into the text as part of the reference, or separately into
the location determined by the variable org-footnote-section'.

When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of
additional options is offered:
s   Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence.  During editing,
Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular
sequence.  If you want them sorted, use this command, which will
also move entries according to org-footnote-section'.
n   Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including
inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them
in sequence.  The references will then also be numbers.  This is
meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g. sending
off an email).  The exporters do this automatically, and so could
something like message-send-hook'.
d   Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references
to it.

C-c C-c'
If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition.
If it is a the definition, jump back to the reference.  When
called at a footnote location with a prefix argument, offer the
same menu as C-c C-x f'.

C-c C-c  or mouse-1/2'
Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding
definition/reference, and you can use the usual commands to follow

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) The corresponding in-buffer setting is: #+STARTUP: fninline' or
#+STARTUP: nofninline'

File: org,  Node: Orgstruct mode,  Prev: Footnotes,  Up: Document Structure

2.11 The Orgstruct minor mode
=============================

If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes
like Text mode or Mail mode as well.  The minor mode Orgstruct mode
makes this possible.  You can always toggle the mode with M-x
orgstruct-mode'.  To turn it on by default, for example in Mail mode,
use

When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to
Org like a headline of the first line of a list item, most structure
editing commands will work, even if the same keys normally have
different functionality in the major mode you are using.  If the cursor
is not in one of those special lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in

File: org,  Node: Tables,  Next: Hyperlinks,  Prev: Document Structure,  Up: Top

3 Tables
********

Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor.  Spreadsheet-like
calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs calc' package
(*note Calc: (Calc)Top.).

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables
* Column groups::               Grouping to trigger vertical lines
* Orgtbl mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* The spreadsheet::             The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
* Org Plot::                    Plotting from org tables

File: org,  Node: Built-in table editor,  Next: Narrow columns,  Prev: Tables,  Up: Tables

3.1 The built-in table editor
=============================

Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII.  Any line with |'
as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table.
|' is also the column separator.  A table might look like this:

| Name  | Phone | Age |
|-------+-------+-----|
| Peter |  1234 |  17 |
| Anna  |  4321 |  25 |

A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press <TAB> or
<RET> or C-c C-c' inside the table.  <TAB> also moves to the next
field (<RET> to the next row) and creates new table rows at the end of
the table or before horizontal lines.  The indentation of the table is
set by the first line.  Any line starting with |-' is considered as a
horizontal separator line and will be expanded on the next re-align to
span the whole table width.  So, to create the above table, you would
only type

|Name|Phone|Age|
|-

and then press <TAB> to align the table and start filling in fields.
Even faster would be to type |Name|Phone|Age' followed by C-c <RET>'.

When typing text into a field, Org treats <DEL>, <Backspace>, and
all character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting
avoids shifting other fields.  Also, when typing _immediately after the
cursor was moved into a new field with <TAB>', S-<TAB>' or <RET>'_,
the field is automatically made blank.  If this behavior is too
unpredictable for you, configure the variables
org-enable-table-editor' and org-table-auto-blank-field'.

Creation and conversion
.......................

C-c |'
Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at
least one TAB character, the function assumes that the material is
tab separated.  If every line contains a comma, comma-separated
values (CSV) are assumed.  If not, lines are split at whitespace
into fields.  You can use a prefix argument to force a specific
separator: C-u' forces CSV, C-u C-u' forces TAB, and a numeric
argument N indicates that at least N consecutive spaces, or
alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
table.  But it's easier just to start typing, like
|Name|Phone|Age <RET> |- <TAB>'.

Re-aligning and field motion
............................

C-c C-c'
Re-align the table without moving the cursor.

<TAB>'
Re-align the table, move to the next field.  Creates a new row if
necessary.

S-<TAB>'
Re-align, move to previous field.

<RET>'
Re-align the table and move down to next row.  Creates a new row if
necessary.  At the beginning or end of a line, <RET> still does
NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.

Column and row editing
......................

M-<left>'
M-<right>'
Move the current column left/right.

M-S-<left>'
Kill the current column.

M-S-<right>'
Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.

M-<up>'
M-<down>'
Move the current row up/down.

M-S-<up>'
Kill the current row or horizontal line.

M-S-<down>'
Insert a new row above the current row.  With a prefix argument,
the line is created below the current one.

C-c -'
Insert a horizontal line below current row.  With a prefix
argument, the line is created above the current line.

C-c <RET>'
Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor
into the row below that line.

C-c ^'
Sort the table lines in the region.  The position of point
indicates the column to be used for sorting, and the range of
lines is the range between the nearest horizontal separator lines,
or the entire table.  If point is before the first column, you
will be prompted for the sorting column.  If there is an active
region, the mark specifies the first line and the sorting column,
while point should be in the last line to be included into the
sorting.  The command prompts for the sorting type
(alphabetically, numerically, or by time).  When called with a
prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.

Regions
.......

C-c C-x M-w'
Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard.
Point and mark determine edge fields of the rectangle.  The
process ignores horizontal separator lines.

C-c C-x C-w'
Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
blank all fields in the rectangle.  So this is the "cut" operation.

C-c C-x C-y'
Paste a rectangular region into a table.  The upper left corner
ends up in the current field.  All involved fields will be
overwritten.  If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
the table is enlarged as needed.  The process ignores horizontal
separator lines.

M-RET'
Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph.  If there is an
active region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the
text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
number of lines.  A numeric prefix argument may be used to change
the number of desired lines.  If there is no region, the current
field is split at the cursor position and the text fragment to the
right of the cursor is prepended to the field one line down. If
there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument, the current
field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
above.

Calculations
............

C-c +'
Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined
by the active region.  The result is shown in the echo area and can
be inserted with C-y'.

S-<RET>'
When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field
above.  When not empty, copy current field down to next row and
move cursor along with it.  Depending on the variable
org-table-copy-increment', integer field values will be
incremented during copy.  Integers that are too large will not be
incremented.  Also, a 0' prefix argument temporarily disables the
increment.  This key is also used by CUA mode (*note
Cooperation::).

Miscellaneous
.............

C-c '
Edit the current field in a separate window.  This is useful for
fields that are not fully visible (*note Narrow columns::).  When
called with a C-u' prefix, just make the full field visible, so
that it can be edited in place.

M-x org-table-import'
Import a file as a table.  The table should be TAB- or whitespace
separated.  Useful, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or
data from a database, because these programs generally can write
TAB-separated text files.  This command works by inserting the
file into the buffer and then converting the region to a table.
Any prefix argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it
to determine the separator.

C-c |'
Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
buffer, selecting the pasted text with C-x C-x' and then using the
C-c |' command (see above under Creation and conversion).

M-x org-table-export'
Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file.  Useful for
data exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs.
The format used to export the file can be configured in the
variable org-table-export-default-format'.  You may also use
properties TABLE_EXPORT_FILE' and TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT' to
specify the file name and the format for table export in a
subtree.  Org supports quite general formats for exported tables.
The exporter format is the same as the format used by Orgtbl radio
tables, see *note Translator functions:: for a detailed
description.

If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
way on lines which you would like to start with |', you can turn it
off with

(setq org-enable-table-editor nil)

Then the only table command that still works is C-c C-c' to do a
manual re-align.

File: org,  Node: Narrow columns,  Next: Column groups,  Prev: Built-in table editor,  Up: Tables

3.2 Narrow columns
==================

The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor.
Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text,
leading to inconveniently wide columns.  To limit(1) the width of a
column, one field anywhere in the column may contain just the string
<N>' where N' is an integer specifying the width of the column in
characters.  The next re-align will then set the width of this column
to no more than this value.

|---+------------------------------|               |---+--------|
|   |                              |               |   | <6>    |
| 1 | one                          |               | 1 | one    |
| 2 | two                          |     ----\     | 2 | two    |
| 3 | This is a long chunk of text |     ----/     | 3 | This=> |
| 4 | four                         |               | 4 | four   |
|---+------------------------------|               |---+--------|

Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string =>'.  Note
that the full text is still in the buffer, it is only invisible.  To
see the full text, hold the mouse over the field - a tool-tip window
will show the full content.  To edit such a field, use the command C-c
' (that is C-c' followed by the backquote).  This will open a new
window with the full field.  Edit it and finish with C-c C-c'.

When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
be aligned before it looks nice.  Setting the option
org-startup-align-all-tables' will realign all tables in a file upon
visiting, but also slow down startup.  You can also set this option on
a per-file basis with:

#+STARTUP: align
#+STARTUP: noalign

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) This feature does not work on XEmacs.

File: org,  Node: Column groups,  Next: Orgtbl mode,  Prev: Narrow columns,  Up: Tables

3.3 Column groups
=================

When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines
because that is visually more satisfying in general.  Occasionally
however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows.  In
order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
first field contains only /'.  The further fields can either contain
<' to indicate that this column should start a group, >' to indicate
the end of a column, or <>' to make a column a group of its own.
Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with
vertical lines.  Here is an example:

|   |  N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
|---+----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
| / | <> |   < |     |   > |       < |          > |
| # |  1 |   1 |   1 |   1 |       1 |          1 |
| # |  2 |   4 |   8 |  16 |  1.4142 |     1.1892 |
| # |  3 |   9 |  27 |  81 |  1.7321 |     1.3161 |
|---+----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
#+TBLFM: $3=$2^2::$4=$2^3::$5=$2^4::$6=sqrt($2)::$7=sqrt(sqrt(($2)))

It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
every vertical line you'd like to have:

|  N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
|----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
| /  | <   |     |     | <       |            |

File: org,  Node: Orgtbl mode,  Next: The spreadsheet,  Prev: Column groups,  Up: Tables

3.4 The Orgtbl minor mode
=========================

If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you might
also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.  The
minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible.  You can always toggle the
mode with M-x orgtbl-mode'.  To turn it on by default, for example in
mail mode, use

Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain
tables in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode.  For example, it is
possible to construct LaTeX tables with the underlying ease and power of
Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities.  For details, see
*note Tables in arbitrary syntax::.

File: org,  Node: The spreadsheet,  Next: Org Plot,  Prev: Orgtbl mode,  Up: Tables

===================

The table editor makes use of the Emacs calc' package to implement
spreadsheet-like capabilities.  It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
derive fields from other fields.  While fully featured, Org's
implementation is not identical to other spreadsheets.  For example,
Org knows the concept of a _column formula_ that will be applied to all
non-header fields in a column without having to copy the formula to
each relevant field.

* References::                  How to refer to another field or range
* Formula syntax for Calc::     Using Calc to compute stuff
* Formula syntax for Lisp::     Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
* Field formulas::              Formulas valid for a single field
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for an entire column
* Editing and debugging formulas::  Fixing formulas
* Updating the table::          Recomputing all dependent fields
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc

File: org,  Node: References,  Next: Formula syntax for Calc,  Prev: The spreadsheet,  Up: The spreadsheet

3.5.1 References
----------------

To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
reference other fields or ranges.  In Org, fields can be referenced by
name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates.  To find
out what the coordinates of a field are, press C-c ?' in that field,
or press C-c }' to toggle the display of a grid.

Field references
................

Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways.  Like in
any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
combination like B3', meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.

Org also uses another, more general operator that looks like this:
@row$column Column references can be absolute like 1', 2',...N', or relative to the current column like +1' or -2'. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator lines (hlines). You can use absolute row numbers 1'...N', and row numbers relative to the current row like +3' or -1'. Or specify the row relative to one of the hlines: I' refers to the first hline(1), II' to the second etc. -I' refers to the first such line above the current line, +I' to the first such line below the current line. You can also write III+2' which is the second data line after the third hline in the table. Relative row numbers like -3' will not cross hlines if the current line is too close to the hline. Instead, the value directly at the hline is used. 0' refers to the current row and column. Also, if you omit either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is implied. Org's references with _unsigned_ numbers are fixed references in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two different fields, the same field will be referenced each time. Org's references with _signed_ numbers are floating references because the same reference operator can reference different fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula. As a special case references like $LR5' and $LR12' can be used to refer in a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table. Here are a few examples: @2$3      2nd row, 3rd column
C2        same as previous
$5 column 5 in the current row E& same as previous @2 current column, row 2 @-1$-3    the field one row up, three columns to the left
@-I$2 field just under hline above current row, column 2 Range references ................ You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field references connected by two dots ..'. If both fields are in the current row, you may simply use $2..$7', but if at least one field is in a different row, you need to use the general @row$column' format at
least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with @' in
order to be interpreted correctly).  Examples:

$1..$3        First three fields in the current row.
$P..$Q        Range, using column names (see under Advanced)
@2$1..@4$3    6 fields between these two fields.
A2..C4        Same as above.
@-1$-2..@-1 3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row Range references return a vector of values that can be fed into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but see the E' mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields, [0]' is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas. Named references ................ $name' is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or constant.
Constants are defined globally through the variable
org-table-formula-constants', and locally (for the file) through a
line like

#+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6

Also properties (*note Properties and Columns::) can be used as
constants in table formulas: For a property :Xyz:' use the name
$PROP_Xyz', and the property will be searched in the current outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the constants.el' package, it will also be used to resolve constants, including natural constants like $h' for Planck's constant, and units like $km' for kilometers(2). Column names and parameters can be specified in special table lines. These are described below, see *note Advanced features::. All names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and numbers. Remote references ................. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table, either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF) where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a #+TBLNAME: NAME' line before the table. It can also be the ID of an entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as described above, valid in the referenced table. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Note that only hlines are counted that _separate_ table lines. If the table starts with a hline above the header, it does not count. (2) Constant.el' can supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, SI' and cgs'. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable constants-unit-system'. You can use the #+STARTUP' options constSI' and constcgs' to set this value for the current buffer. File: org, Node: Formula syntax for Calc, Next: Formula syntax for Lisp, Prev: References, Up: The spreadsheet 3.5.2 Formula syntax for Calc ----------------------------- A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs Calc' package. Note that calc' has the non-standard convention that /' has lower precedence than *', so that a/b*c' is interpreted as a/(b*c)'. Before evaluation by calc-eval' (*note calc-eval: (Calc)Calling Calc from Your Programs.), variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions like vmean' and vsum'. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display format, however, has been changed to (float 5)' to keep tables compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable org-calc-default-modes'. p20 switch the internal precision to 20 digits n3 s3 e2 f4 normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed display format D R angle modes: degrees, radians F S fraction and symbolic modes N interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers T force text interpretation E keep empty fields in ranges In addition, you may provide a printf' format specifier to reformat the final result. A few examples:$1+$2 Sum of first and second field$1+$2;%.2f Same, format result to two decimals exp($2)+exp($1) Math functions can be used$0;%.1f              Reformat current cell to 1 decimal
($3-32)*5/9 Degrees F -> C conversion$c/$1/$cm            Hz -> cm conversion, using constants.el'
tan($1);Dp3s1 Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1 sin($1);Dp3%.1e      Same, but use printf specifier for display
vmean($2..$7)        Compute column range mean, using vector function
vmean($2..$7);EN     Same, but treat empty fields as 0
taylor($3,x=7,2) taylor series of$3, at x=7, second degree

Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations.  For example

if($1<20,teen,string("")) "teen" if age$1 less than 20, else empty

File: org,  Node: Formula syntax for Lisp,  Next: Field formulas,  Prev: Formula syntax for Calc,  Up: The spreadsheet

3.5.3 Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
----------------------------------

It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful
for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality
is not enough.  If a formula starts with a single quote followed by an
opening parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a lisp form.  The
evaluation should return either a string or a number.  Just as with
calc' formulas, you can specify modes and a printf format after a
semicolon.  With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the
way field references are interpolated into the form.  By default, a
reference will be interpolated as a Lisp string (in double quotes)
containing the field.  If you provide the N' mode switch, all
referenced elements will be numbers (non-number fields will be zero) and
interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes.  If you provide the L'
flag, all fields will be interpolated literally, without quotes.  I.e.,
if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string by the Lisp form,
enclose the reference operator itself in double quotes, like "$3"'. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax. A few examples, note how the N' mode is used when we do computations in lisp. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1 '(concat (substring$1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring$1 2))
Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's $1+$2'
'(+ $1$2);N
Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's vsum($1..$4)'
'(apply '+ '($1..$4));N

File: org,  Node: Field formulas,  Next: Column formulas,  Prev: Formula syntax for Lisp,  Up: The spreadsheet

3.5.4 Field formulas
--------------------

To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the
field, preceded by :=', for example :=$1+$2'.  When you press <TAB>
or <RET> or C-c C-c' with the cursor still in the field, the formula
will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
current field replaced with the result.

Formulas are stored in a special line starting with #+TBLFM:'
directly below the table.  If you typed the equation in the 4th field of
the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like
@3$4=$1+$2'. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands, absolute references (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the same field. Of cause this is not true if you edit the table structure with normal editing commands - then you must fix the equations yourself. The left hand side of a formula may also be a named field (*note Advanced features::), or a last-row reference like $LR3'.

Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
following command

C-u C-c ='
Install a new formula for the current field.  The command prompts
for a formula, with default taken from the #+TBLFM:' line, applies
it to the current field and stores it.

File: org,  Node: Column formulas,  Next: Editing and debugging formulas,  Prev: Field formulas,  Up: The spreadsheet

3.5.5 Column formulas
---------------------

Often in a table, the same formula should be used for all fields in a
particular column.  Instead of having to copy the formula to all fields
in that column, Org allows to assign a single formula to an entire
column.  If the table contains horizontal separator hlines, everything
before the first such line is considered part of the table _header_ and
will not be modified by column formulas.

To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in
the column, preceded by an equal sign, like =$1+$2'.  When you press
<TAB> or <RET> or C-c C-c' with the cursor still in the field, the
formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
and the current field replaced with the result.  If the field contains
only =', the previously stored formula for this column is used.  For
each column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula.  In
the TBLFM:' line, column formulas will look like $4=$1+$2'. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following command: C-c =' Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default taken from the #+TBLFM' line, applies it to the current field and stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g. C-5 C-c =') the command will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column. File: org, Node: Editing and debugging formulas, Next: Updating the table, Prev: Column formulas, Up: The spreadsheet 3.5.6 Editing and debugging formulas ------------------------------------ You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard format (like B3' or D&') if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like @3$2' or 4'), configure the variable org-table-use-standard-references'. C-c =' C-u C-c =' Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the minibuffer. See *note Column formulas:: and *note Field formulas::. C-u C-u C-c =' Re-insert the active formula (either a field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the minibuffer is that you can use the command C-c ?'. C-c ?' While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s) referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula. C-c }' Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays. These are updated each time the table is aligned, you can force it with C-c C-c'. C-c {' Toggle the formula debugger on and off. See below. C-c '' Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit, remove and add formulas, and use the following commands: C-c C-c' C-x C-s' Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With C-u' prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table. C-c C-q' Exit the formula editor without installing changes. C-c C-r' Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like B3') and internal (like @32').

<TAB>'
Pretty-print or indent lisp formula at point.  When in a line
containing a lisp formula, format the formula according to
Emacs Lisp rules.  Another <TAB> collapses the formula back
again.  In the open formula, <TAB> re-indents just like in
Emacs lisp mode.

M-<TAB>'
Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs lisp mode.

S-<up>/<down>/<left>/<right>'
Shift the reference at point.  For example, if the reference
is B3' and you press S-<right>', it will become C3'.  This
also works for relative references, and for hline references.

M-S-<up>/<down>'
Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up
and down.

M-<up>/<down>'
Scroll the window displaying the table.

C-c }'
Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.

Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated
with the field, because that is stored in a different line (the TBLFM'
line) - during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
prompted for the formula, or to edit the #+TBLFM' line.

You may edit the #+TBLFM' directly and re-apply the changed
equations with C-c C-c' in that line, or with the normal recalculation
commands in the table.

Debugging formulas
..................

When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
becomes the string #ERROR'.  If you would like see what is going on
during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
turn on formula debugging in the Tbl' menu and repeat the calculation,
for example by pressing C-u C-u C-c = <RET>' in a field.  Detailed
information will be displayed.

File: org,  Node: Updating the table,  Next: Advanced features,  Prev: Editing and debugging formulas,  Up: The spreadsheet

3.5.7 Updating the table
------------------------

Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
triggered by a command.  See *note Advanced features:: for a way to make
recalculation at least semi-automatically.

In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use
the following commands:

C-c *'
Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column
formulas from left to right, and all field formulas in the current
row.

C-u C-c *'
C-u C-c C-c'
Recompute the entire table, line by line.  Any lines before the
first hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the

C-u C-u C-c *'
C-u C-u C-c C-c'
Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of
other fields that are computed later in the calculation sequence.

File: org,  Node: Advanced features,  Prev: Updating the table,  Up: The spreadsheet

-----------------------

If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
you want to be able to assign names to fields and columns, you need to
reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
C-#'
Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states ',
#', *', !', $'. When there is an active region, change all marks in the region. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and makes use of these features: |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | | | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 | | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 | | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | | Average | | | | 29.7 | | | ^ | | | | | at | | |$ | max=50  |        |        |        |       |      |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
#+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@-II..@-I);%.1f Important: Please note that for these special tables, recalculating the table with C-u C-c *' will only affect rows that are marked #' or *', and fields that have a formula assigned to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with empty first field. The marking characters have the following meaning: !' The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may refer to a column as $Tot' instead of $6'. ^' This row defines names for the fields _above_ the row. With such a definition, any formula in the table may use $m1' to refer to
the value 10'.  Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
will be stored as $name=...'. _' Similar to ^', but defines names for the fields in the row _below_. $'
Fields in this row can define _parameters_ for formulas.  For
example, if a field in a $' row contains max=50', then formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using $max'.  Parameters
work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on a
per-table basis.

#'
Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
<TAB> or <RET> or S-<TAB>' in this row.  Also, this row is
selected for a global recalculation with C-u C-c *'.  Unmarked
lines will be left alone by this command.

*'
Selects this line for global recalculation with C-u C-c *', but
not for automatic recalculation.  Use this when automatic
recalculation slows down editing too much.

'
Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with C-u C-c *'.
All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with #' or
*'.

/'
Do not export this line.  Useful for lines that contain the
narrowing <N>' markers.

Finally, just to whet your appetite on what can be done with the
fantastic calc' package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
series of degree n' at location x' for a couple of functions.

|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
|   | Func        | n | x   | Result                               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
| # | exp(x)      | 1 | x   | 1 + x                                |
| # | exp(x)      | 2 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2                      |
| # | exp(x)      | 3 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6            |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2    |
| * | tan(x)      | 3 | x   | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
#+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3

File: org,  Node: Org Plot,  Prev: The spreadsheet,  Up: Tables

3.6 Org Plot
============

Org Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org
tables using Gnuplot' http://www.gnuplot.info/' and gnuplot-mode'
http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html'.  To see
this in action ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot-mode
installed on your system, then call org-plot/gnuplot' on the following
table.

#+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
| Sede      | Max cites | H-index |
|-----------+-----------+---------|
| Chile     |    257.72 |   21.39 |
| Leeds     |    165.77 |   19.68 |
| Sao Paolo |     71.00 |   11.50 |
| Stockholm |    134.19 |   14.33 |
| Morelia   |    257.56 |   17.67 |

Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the tables headers as
labels.  Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance
of plots can be exercised through the #+Plot:' lines preceding a
table.  See below for a complete list of Org plot options.  For more
information and examples see the org-plot tutorial at
http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.php'.

Plot Options
............

set'
Specify any gnuplot' option to be set when graphing.

title'
Specify the title of the plot.

ind'
Specify which column of the table to use as the x' axis.

deps'
Specify the columns to graph as a lisp style list, surrounded by
parenthesis and separated by spaces for example dep:(3 4)' to
graph the third and fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other
columns aside from the ind column).

type'
Specify whether the plot will be 2d', 3d', or grid'.

with'
Specify a with' option to be inserted for every col being plotted
(e.g. lines', points', boxes', impulses', etc...).  Defaults
to lines'.

file'
If you want to plot to a file specify the
"path/to/desired/output-file"'.

labels'
List of labels to be used for the deps (defaults to column headers
if they exist).

line'
Specify an entire line to be inserted in the gnuplot script.

map'
When plotting 3d' or grid' types, set this to t' to graph a
flat mapping rather than a 3d' slope.

timefmt'
Specify format of org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by
gnuplot.  Defaults to %Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S'.

script'
If you want total control you can specify a script file (place the
file name between double quotes) which will be used to plot.
Before plotting, every instance of datafile' in the specified script will be replaced with the path to the generated data file. Note even if you set this option you may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of the data file. File: org, Node: Hyperlinks, Next: TODO Items, Prev: Tables, Up: Top 4 Hyperlinks ************ Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more. * Menu: * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file * External links:: URL-like links to the world * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code? * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links * Search options:: Linking to a specific location * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough File: org, Node: Link format, Next: Internal links, Prev: Hyperlinks, Up: Hyperlinks 4.1 Link format =============== Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this: [[link][description]] or alternatively [[link]] Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org will change the display so that description' is displayed instead of [[link][description]]' and link' is displayed instead of [[link]]'. Links will be highlighted in the face org-link', which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the link' part (if there is no description) or the description' part. To edit also the invisible link' part, use C-c C-l' with the cursor on the link. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the displayed text and press <BACKSPACE>, you will remove the (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the internal structure of all links, use the menu entry Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links'. File: org, Node: Internal links, Next: External links, Prev: Link format, Up: Hyperlinks 4.2 Internal links ================== If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the current file. Links such as [[My Target]]' or [[My Target][Find my target]]' lead to a text search in the current file. The link can be followed with C-c C-o' when the cursor is on the link, or with a mouse click (*note Handling links::). The preferred match for such a link is a dedicated target: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a comment line. For example # <<My Target>> In HTML export (*note HTML export::), such targets will become named anchors for direct access through http' links(1). If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for the words in the link. In the above example the search would be for my target'. Links starting with a star like *My Target' restrict the search to headlines. When searching, Org mode will first try an exact match, but then move on to more and more lenient searches. For example, the link [[*My Targets]]' will find any of the following: ** My targets ** TODO my targets are bright ** my 20 targets are To insert a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press M-<TAB>'. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as completions. *Note Handling links::, for more commands creating links. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can return to the previous position with C-c &'. Using this command several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded earlier. * Menu: * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Note that text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the first headline. File: org, Node: Radio targets, Prev: Internal links, Up: Internal links 4.2.1 Radio targets ------------------- Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target <<<My Target>>>' causes each occurrence of my target' in normal text to become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To update the target list during editing, press C-c C-c' with the cursor on or at a target. File: org, Node: External links, Next: Handling links, Prev: Internal links, Up: Hyperlinks 4.3 External links ================== Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik on the web file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg file, absolute path /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg same as above file:papers/last.pdf file, relative path ./papers/last.pdf same as above file:projects.org another org file file:projects.org::some words text search in org file file:projects.org::*task title heading search in org file id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 Link to heading by ID news:comp.emacs Usenet link mailto:adentATgalaxy.net Mail link vm:folder VM folder link vm:folder#id VM message link vm://myselfATsome.org/folder#id VM on remote machine wl:folder WANDERLUST folder link wl:folder#id WANDERLUST message link mhe:folder MH-E folder link mhe:folder#id MH-E message link rmail:folder RMAIL folder link rmail:folder#id RMAIL message link gnus:group Gnus group link gnus:group#id Gnus article link bbdb:R.*Stallman BBDB link (with regexp) irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob IRC link shell:ls *.org A shell command elisp:org-agenda Interactive elisp command elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") Elisp form to evaluate A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (*note Link format::), for example: [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]] If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML export (*note HTML export::) will inline the image as a clickable button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an image, that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in bbdb:Richard Stallman'), or if you need to remove ambiguities about the end of the link, enclose them in angular brackets. File: org, Node: Handling links, Next: Using links outside Org, Prev: External links, Up: Hyperlinks 4.4 Handling links ================== Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link. C-c l' Store a link to the current location. This is a _global_ command (you must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org buffer (see below). For Org files, if there is a <<target>>' at the cursor, the link points to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, either by text (unsafe), or, if org-id.el' is loaded and org-link-to-org-use-id' is set, by ID property. For VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus and BBDB buffers, the link will indicate the current article/entry. For W3 and W3M buffers, the link goes to the current URL. For IRC links, if you set the variable org-irc-link-to-logs' to non-nil then C-c l' will store a file:/' style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current conversation. Otherwise an irc:/' style link to the user/channel/server under the point will be stored. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string (*note Search options::) pointing to the contents of the current line. If there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string and to do the search for particular file types - see *note Custom searches::. The key binding C-c l' is only a suggestion - see *note Installation::. C-c C-l' Insert a link. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. All links stored during the current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access them with <up> and <down> (or M-p/n'). Completion, on the other hand, will help you to insert valid link prefixes like http:' or ftp:', including the prefixes defined through link abbreviations (*note Link abbreviations::). The link will be inserted into the buffer(1), along with a descriptive text. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text becomes the default description. Note that you don't have to use this command to insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional descriptive text. C-u C-c C-l' When C-c C-l' is called with a C-u' prefix argument, a link to a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the directory of the current org file, if the linked file is in the current directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative to the current directory using ../'. Otherwise an absolute path is used, if possible with ~/' for your home directory. You can force an absolute path with two C-u' prefixes. C-c C-l (with cursor on existing link)' When the cursor is on an existing link, C-c C-l' allows you to edit the link and description parts of the link. C-c C-o' Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using browse-url-at-point'), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the cursor is on an internal link, this commands runs the corresponding search. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding TAGS view. If the cursor is on a time stamp, it compiles the agenda for that date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in file:' links with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option org-file-apps'. If you want to override the default application and visit the file with Emacs, use a C-u' prefix. If you want to avoid opening in Emacs, use a C-u C-u' prefix. mouse-2' mouse-1' On links, mouse-2' will open the link just as C-c C-o' would. Under Emacs 22, also mouse-1' will follow a link. mouse-3' Like mouse-2', but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and internal links to be displayed in another window(2). C-c %' Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically. C-c &' Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the commands following internal links, and by C-c %'. Using this command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of previously recorded positions. C-c C-x C-n' C-c C-x C-p' Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key bindings for this are really too long, you might want to bind this also to C-n' and C-p' (add-hook 'org-load-hook (lambda () (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link) (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link))) ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) After insertion of a stored link, the link will be removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use a triple C-u' prefix argument to C-c C-l', or configure the option org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion'. (2) See the variable org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer' File: org, Node: Using links outside Org, Next: Link abbreviations, Prev: Handling links, Up: Hyperlinks 4.5 Using links outside Org =========================== You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys yourself): (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global) (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global) File: org, Node: Link abbreviations, Next: Search options, Prev: Using links outside Org, Up: Hyperlinks 4.6 Link abbreviations ====================== Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An abbreviated link looks like this [[linkword:tag][description]] where the tag is optional. Such abbreviations are resolved according to the information in the variable org-link-abbrev-alist' that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example: (setq org-link-abbrev-alist '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=") ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=") ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/ nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST"))) If the replacement text contains the string %s', it will be replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with [[bugzilla:129]]', search the web for OrgMode' with [[google:OrgMode]]' and find out what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with [[ads:Dominik,C]]'. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you can define them in the file with #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id= #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s In-buffer completion *note Completion:: can be used after [' to complete link abbreviations. File: org, Node: Search options, Next: Custom searches, Prev: Link abbreviations, Up: Hyperlinks 4.7 Search options in file links ================================ File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a line number or a search option after a double(1) colon. For example, when the command C-c l' creates a link (*note Handling links::) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search string that can be used to find this line back later when following the link with C-c C-o'. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file link, together with an explanation: [[file:~/code/main.c::255]] [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]] [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]] [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]] 255' Jump to line 255. My Target' Search for a link target <<My Target>>', or do a text search for my target', similar to the search in internal links, see *note Internal links::. In HTML export (*note HTML export::), such a file link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in the linked file. *My Target' In an Org file, restrict search to headlines. /regexp/' Do a regular expression search for regexp'. This uses the Emacs command occur' to list all matches in a separate window. If the target file is in Org mode, org-occur' is used to create a sparse tree with the matches. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used to search the current file. For example, [[file:::find me]]' does a search for find me' in the current file, just as [[find me]]' would. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) For backward compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon. File: org, Node: Custom searches, Prev: Search options, Up: Hyperlinks 4.8 Custom Searches =================== The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all cases. For example, BibTeX database files have many entries like year="1993"' which would not result in good search strings, because the only unique identification for a BibTeX entry is the citation key. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search for the string in the file. Using add-hook', these functions need to be added to the hook variables org-create-file-search-functions' and org-execute-file-search-functions'. See the docstring for these variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism for BibTeX database files, and you can use the corresponding code as an implementation example. See the file org-bibtex.el'. File: org, Node: TODO Items, Next: Tags, Prev: Hyperlinks, Up: Top 5 TODO Items ************ Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents(1). Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way, information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO item emerged is always present. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do. * Menu: * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Of course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items, but this is not required. File: org, Node: TODO basics, Next: TODO extensions, Prev: TODO Items, Up: TODO Items 5.1 Basic TODO functionality ============================ Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word TODO', for example: *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune The most important commands to work with TODO entries are: C-c C-t' Rotate the TODO state of the current item among ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --. '--------------------------------' The same rotation can also be done "remotely" from the timeline and agenda buffers with the t' command key (*note Agenda commands::). C-u C-c C-t' Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up) the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys to TODO states, see *note Per-file keywords:: and *note Setting tags:: for more information. S-<right>' S-<left>' Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (*note TODO extensions::). See also *note Conflicts:: for a discussion of the interaction with shift-selection-mode'. C-c C-v' C-c / t' View TODO items in a _sparse tree_ (*note Sparse trees::). Folds the entire buffer, but shows all TODO items and the headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument, search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and you can also give a list of keywords like KWD1|KWD2|...'. With numeric prefix argument N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable org-todo-keywords'. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO and DONE entries. C-c a t' Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items from all agenda files (*note Agenda Views::) into a single buffer. The new buffer will be in agenda-mode', which provides commands to examine and manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (*note Agenda commands::). *Note Global TODO list::, for more information. S-M-<RET>' Insert a new TODO entry below the current one. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the option org-todo-state-tags-triggers' for details. File: org, Node: TODO extensions, Next: Progress logging, Prev: TODO basics, Up: TODO Items 5.2 Extended use of TODO keywords ================================= By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways with _TODO keywords_ (stored in org-todo-keywords'). With special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different files. Note that tags are another way to classify headlines in general and TODO items in particular (*note Tags::). * Menu: * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others File: org, Node: Workflow states, Next: TODO types, Prev: TODO extensions, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.1 TODO keywords as workflow states -------------------------------------- You can use TODO keywords to indicate different _sequential_ states in the process of working on an item, for example(1): (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED"))) The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that _need action_) from the DONE states (which need _no further action_). If you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE state. With this setup, the command C-c C-t' will cycle an entry from TODO to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For example C-3 C-c C-t' will change the state immediately to VERIFY. Or you can use S-<left>' to go backward through the sequence. If you define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion (*note Completion::) or even a special one-key selection scheme (*note Fast access to TODO states::) to insert these words into the buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see *note Tracking TODO state changes:: for more information. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Changing this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a buffer. File: org, Node: TODO types, Next: Multiple sets in one file, Prev: Workflow states, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.2 TODO keywords as types ---------------------------- The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different _types_ of action items. For example, you might want to indicate that items are for "work" or "home". Or, when you work with several people on a single project, you might want to assign action items directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would be set up like this: (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE"))) In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this style by adapting the workings of the command C-c C-t'(1). When used several times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time and execute C-c C-t' again, it will switch from any name directly to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by using a numeric prefix to C-c C-v'. For example, to see all things Lucy has to do, you would use C-3 C-c C-v'. To collect Lucy's items from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument as well when creating the global TODO list: C-3 C-c t'. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) This is also true for the t' command in the timeline and agenda buffers. File: org, Node: Multiple sets in one file, Next: Fast access to TODO states, Prev: TODO types, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.3 Multiple keyword sets in one file --------------------------------------- Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic TODO'/DONE', but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look like this: (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE") (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED") (sequence "|" "CANCELED"))) The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup, C-c C-t' only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from DONE' to (nothing) to TODO', and from FIXED' to (nothing) to REPORT'. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands: C-u C-u C-c C-t' C-S-<right>' C-S-<left>' These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example, C-u C-u C-c C-t' or C-S-<right>' would jump from TODO' or DONE' to REPORT', and any of the words in the second row to CANCELED'. Note that the C-S-' key binding conflict with shift-selection-mode' (*note Conflicts::). S-<right>' S-<left>' S-<<left>>' and S-<<right>>' and walk through _all_ keywords from all sets, so for example S-<<right>>' would switch from DONE' to REPORT' in the example above. See also *note Conflicts:: for a discussion of the interaction with shift-selection-mode'. File: org, Node: Fast access to TODO states, Next: Per-file keywords, Prev: Multiple sets in one file, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.4 Fast access to TODO states -------------------------------- If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section key after each keyword, in parenthesis. For example: (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)") (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)") (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)"))) If you then press C-c C-t' followed by the selection key, the entry will be switched to this state. <SPC> can be used to remove any TODO keyword from an entry.(1) ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Check also the variable org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo', it allows to change the TODO state through the tags interface (*note Setting tags::), in case you like to mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with unique keys across both sets of keywords. File: org, Node: Per-file keywords, Next: Faces for TODO keywords, Prev: Fast access to TODO states, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.5 Setting up keywords for individual files ---------------------------------------------- It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the file: #+SEQ_TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED or #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE A setup for using several sets in parallel would be: #+SEQ_TODO: TODO | DONE #+SEQ_TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED #+SEQ_TODO: | CANCELED To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type #+' into the buffer and then use M-<TAB>' completion. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use C-c C-c' with the cursor still in the line to make the changes known to Org mode(1). ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Org mode parses these lines only when Org mode is activated after visiting a file. C-c C-c' with the cursor in a line starting with #+' is simply restarting Org mode for the current buffer. File: org, Node: Faces for TODO keywords, Next: TODO dependencies, Prev: Per-file keywords, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.6 Faces for TODO keywords ----------------------------- Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: org-todo' for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and org-done' for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable org-todo-keyword-faces'. For example: (setq org-todo-keyword-faces '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("DEFERRED" . shadow) ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold)))) While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED _should_ work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a special face and use that. File: org, Node: TODO dependencies, Prev: Faces for TODO keywords, Up: TODO extensions 5.2.7 TODO dependencies ----------------------- The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize the variable org-enforce-todo-dependencies', Org will block entries from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE. Furthermore, if an entry has a property ORDERED', each of its children will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an example: * TODO Blocked until (two) is done ** DONE one ** TODO two * Parent :PROPERTIES: :ORDERED: t :END: ** TODO a ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a) ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b) C-c C-x o' Toggle the ORDERED' property of the current entry. C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t' Change TODO state, circumventin any state blocking. If you set the variable org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks', TODO entries that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed font or even made invisible in agenda views (*note Agenda Views::). You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes (*note Checkboxes::). If you set the variable org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies', an entry that has unchecked checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed module org-depend.el'. File: org, Node: Progress logging, Next: Priorities, Prev: TODO extensions, Up: TODO Items 5.3 Progress logging ==================== Org mode can automatically record a time stamp and possibly a note when you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For information on how to clock working time for a task, see *note Clocking work time::. * Menu: * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE? * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change? File: org, Node: Closing items, Next: Tracking TODO state changes, Prev: Progress logging, Up: Progress logging 5.3.1 Closing items ------------------- The most basic logging is to keep track of _when_ a certain TODO item was finished. This is achieved with(1). (setq org-log-done 'time) Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the DONE states, a line CLOSED: [timestamp]' will be inserted just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp, use(2) (setq org-log-done 'note) You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below the entry with a Closing Note' heading. In the timeline (*note Timeline::) and in the agenda (*note Weekly/daily agenda::), you can then use the l' key to display the TODO items with a CLOSED' timestamp on each day, giving you an overview of what has been done. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) The corresponding in-buffer setting is: #+STARTUP: logdone' (2) The corresponding in-buffer setting is: #+STARTUP: lognotedone' File: org, Node: Tracking TODO state changes, Prev: Closing items, Up: Progress logging 5.3.2 Tracking TODO state changes --------------------------------- When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (*note Workflow states::), you might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a note about this change. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by adding special markers !' (for a time stamp) and @' (for a note) in parenthesis after each keyword. For example, with the setting (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@)"))) you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also request that a time is recorded when the entry is turned into DONE(1), and that a note is recorded when switching to WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: The !' after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when entering the state, a time stamp should be recorded when leaving the WAIT state, if and only if the target state does not configure logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the /!' in the WAIT setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging configured. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local to a buffer: #+SEQ_TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@) In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like lognotedone' or logrepeat', as well as adding state specific settings like TODO(!)'. For example * TODO Log each state with only a time :PROPERTIES: :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!) :END: * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating :PROPERTIES: :LOGGING: WAIT(@) logrepeat :END: * TODO No logging at all :PROPERTIES: :LOGGING: nil :END: ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) It is possible that Org mode will record two time stamps when you are using both org-log-done' and state change logging. However, it will never prompt for two notes - if you have configured both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel the Closing Note'. File: org, Node: Priorities, Next: Breaking down tasks, Prev: Progress logging, Up: TODO Items 5.4 Priorities ============== If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up enough TODO items that it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by placing a _priority cookie_ into the headline of a TODO item, like this *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune By default, Org mode supports three priorities: A', B', and C'. A' is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is treated as priority B'. Priorities make a difference only in the agenda (*note Weekly/daily agenda::); outside the agenda, they have no inherent meaning to Org mode. Priorities can be attached to any outline tree entries; they do not need to be TODO items. C-c ,' Set the priority of the current headline. The command prompts for a priority character A', B' or C'. When you press <SPC> instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline. The priorities can also be changed "remotely" from the timeline and agenda buffer with the ,' command (*note Agenda commands::). S-<up>' S-<down>' Increase/decrease priority of current headline(1). Note that these keys are also used to modify time stamps (*note Creating timestamps::). See also *note Conflicts:: for a discussion of the interaction with shift-selection-mode'. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables org-highest-priority', org-lowest-priority', and org-default-priority'. For an individual buffer, you may set these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest priority): #+PRIORITIES: A C B ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) See also the option org-priority-start-cycle-with-default''. File: org, Node: Breaking down tasks, Next: Checkboxes, Prev: Priorities, Up: TODO Items 5.5 Breaking tasks down into subtasks ===================================== It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item, with detailed subtasks on the tree(1). To keep the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert either [/]' or [%]' anywhere in the headline. These cookies will be updates each time the todo status of a child changes. For example: * Organize Party [33%] ** TODO Call people [1/2] *** TODO Peter *** DONE Sarah ** TODO Buy food ** DONE Talk to neighbor If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE when all children are done, you can use the following setup: (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done) "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise." (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO")))) (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo) Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a large number of subtasks (*note Checkboxes::). ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) To keep subtasks out of the global TODO list, see the org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels'. File: org, Node: Checkboxes, Prev: Breaking down tasks, Up: TODO Items 5.6 Checkboxes ============== Every item in a plain list (*note Plain lists::) can be made into a checkbox by starting it with the string [ ]'. This feature is similar to TODO items (*note TODO Items::), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a checkbox, use C-c C-c', or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's org-mouse.el'). Here is an example of a checkbox list. * TODO Organize party [2/4] - [-] call people [1/3] - [ ] Peter - [X] Sarah - [ ] Sam - [X] order food - [ ] think about what music to play - [X] talk to the neighbors Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are checked. The [2/4]' and [1/3]' in the first and second line are cookies indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off, and the total number of checkboxes are present. This can give you an idea on how many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item. Each cookie covers all checkboxes structurally below the headline/item on which the cookie appear. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either [/]' or [%]'. With [/]' you get an n out of m' result, as in the examples above. With [%]' you get information about the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be [50%]' and [33%]', respectively). The following commands work with checkboxes: C-c C-c' Toggle checkbox at point. With a prefix argument, set it to [-]', which is considered to be an intermediate state. C-c C-x C-b' Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. - If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region. - If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between this headline and the next (so _not_ the entire subtree). - If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point. M-S-<RET>' Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item (*note Plain lists::). C-c #' Update the checkbox statistics in the current outline entry. When called with a C-u' prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with C-c C-c' and make new ones with M-S-<RET>'. If you delete boxes or add/change them by hand, use this command to get things back into sync. Or simply toggle any checkbox twice with C-c C-c'. File: org, Node: Tags, Next: Properties and Columns, Prev: TODO Items, Up: Top 6 Tags ****** An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating information is to assign tags to headlines. Org mode has extensive support for tags. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, _', and @'. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g., :work:'. Several tags can be specified, as in :work:urgent:'. Tags will by default get a bold face with the same color as the headline. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable org-tag-faces', much in the same way as you can do for TODO keywords (*note Faces for TODO keywords::). * Menu: * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags File: org, Node: Tag inheritance, Next: Setting tags, Prev: Tags, Up: Tags 6.1 Tag inheritance =================== Tags make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as well. For example, in the list * Meeting with the French group :work: ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes: *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action: the final heading will have the tags :work:', :boss:', :notes:', and :action:' even though the final heading is not explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in a file should inherit as if these tags would be defined in a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret: To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use the variables org-use-tag-inheritance' and org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance'. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match as well(1). The list of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags match in a subtree, configure the variable org-tags-match-list-sublevels' (not recommended). ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) This is only true if the search does not involve more complex tests including properties (*note Property searches::). File: org, Node: Setting tags, Next: Tag searches, Prev: Tag inheritance, Up: Tags 6.2 Setting tags ================ Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline. After a colon, M-<TAB>' offers completion on tags. There is also a special command for inserting tags: C-c C-q' Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see below. After pressing <RET>, the tags will be inserted and aligned to org-tags-column'. When called with a C-u' prefix, all tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion, demotion, and TODO state changes (*note TODO basics::). C-c C-c' When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as C-c C-q'. Org will support tag insertion based on a _list of tags_. By default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list of tags with the variable org-tag-alist'. Finally you can set the default tags for a given file with lines like #+TAGS: @work @home @tennisclub #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the variable org-tag-alist', but would like to use a dynamic tag list in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file: #+TAGS: By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection method called _fast tag selection_. This allows you to select and deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this globally by configuring the variable org-tag-alist' in your .emacs' file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in different files with :@home:'. In this case you can set something like: (setq org-tag-alist '(("@work" . ?w) ("@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l))) If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on then you can, instead, set the TAGS option line as: #+TAGS: @work(w) @home(h) @tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p) You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive. By using braces, as in: #+TAGS: { @work(w) @home(h) @tennisclub(t) } laptop(l) pc(p) you indicate that at most one of @work', @home', and @tennisclub' should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed. Don't forget to press C-c C-c' with the cursor in one of these lines to activate any changes. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable org-mode-alist' you must use the dummy tags :startgroup' and :endgroup' instead of the braces. The previous example would be set globally by the following configuration: (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil) ("@work" . ?w) ("@home" . ?h) ("@tennisclub" . ?t) (:endgroup . nil) ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p))) If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing C-c C-c' will automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags, the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with corresponding keys(1). In this interface, you can use the following keys: a-z...' Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group. <TAB>' Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer. <SPC>' Clear all tags for this line. <RET>' Accept the modified set. C-g' Abort without installing changes. q' If q' is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like C-g'. !' Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an exception) assign several tags from such a group. C-c' Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below). If you are using expert mode, the first C-c' will display the selection window. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @home', laptop' and pc' tags with just the following keys: C-c C-c <SPC> h l p <RET>'. Switching from @home' to @work' would be done with C-c C-c w <RET>' or alternatively with C-c C-c C-c w'. Adding the non-predefined tag Sarah' could be done with C-c C-c <TAB> S a r a h <RET> <RET>'. If you find that most of the time, you need only a single key press to modify your list of tags, set the variable org-fast-tag-selection-single-key'. Then you no longer have to press <RET> to exit fast tag selection - it will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press C-c' to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process (in effect: start selection with C-c C-c C-c' instead of C-c C-c'). If you set the variable to the value expert', the special window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only when you press an extra C-c'. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which have no configured keys. File: org, Node: Tag searches, Prev: Setting tags, Up: Tags 6.3 Tag searches ================ Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related information into special lists. C-c \' C-c / T' Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a C-u' prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line. C-c a m' Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. *Note Matching tags and properties::. C-c a M' Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable org-tags-match-list-sublevels'). A tags search string can use Boolean operators &' for AND and |' for OR. &' binds more strongly than |'. Parenthesis are currently not implemented. A tag may also be preceded by -', to select against it, and +' is syntactic sugar for positive selection. The AND operator &' is optional when +' or -' is present. Examples: +work-boss' Select headlines tagged :work:', but discard those also tagged :boss:'. work|laptop' Selects lines tagged :work:' or :laptop:'. work|laptop&night' Like before, but require the :laptop:' lines to be tagged also :night:'. You may also test for TODO keywords (*note TODO extensions::) and properties (*note Properties and Columns::) at the same time as matching tags. For a guide on how to match properties, see *note Property searches::. To match a specific TODO keyword, include an expression like +TODO="NEXT"' as one of the terms in a tags search. There is also the possibility to end the tags part of the match (which may include several terms connected with |') with a /' and then specify a Boolean expression just for TODO keywords. The syntax is then similar to the tag matches, but should be applied with consideration: For example, a positive selection on several TODO keywords can not meaningfully be combined with boolean AND. However, _negative selection_ combined with AND can be meaningful. To make sure that only lines are checked that actually have any TODO keyword (resulting in a speed-up), use C-c a M', or equivalently start the TODO part after the slash with !'. Examples: work+TODO="WAITING"' Select :work:'-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO keyword WAITING'. work+TODO="WAITING"|home+TODO="WAITING"' Waiting tasks both at work and at home. work/WAITING' Same as the first example. work/!-WAITING-NEXT' Select :work:'-tagged TODO lines that are neither WAITING' nor NEXT' work/!+WAITING|+NEXT' Select :work:'-tagged TODO lines that are either WAITING' or NEXT'. Any element of the tag/todo match can be a regular expression - in this case it must be enclosed in curly braces. For example, work+{^boss.*}' matches headlines that contain the tag :work:' and any tag starting with boss'. You may also use a regular expression in TODO={^W}' which would match TODO keywords starting with the letter W'. You can also require a headline to be of a certain level or category, by writing instead of any TAG an expression like LEVEL=3' or CATEGORY="work"', respectively. For example, a search +LEVEL=3+boss/-DONE' lists all level three headlines that have the tag boss' and are _not_ marked with the TODO keyword DONE. Accessing TODO, LEVEL, and CATEGORY during a search is fast. Accessing any other properties will slow down the search. File: org, Node: Properties and Columns, Next: Dates and Times, Prev: Tags, Up: Top 7 Properties and Columns ************************ Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First, properties are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where you document bugs and plan releases of a piece of software. Instead of using tags like :release_1:', :release_2:', one can use a property, say :Release:', that in different subtrees has different values, such as 1.0' or 2.0'. For an example of the second application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the album artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view (*note Column view::). * Menu: * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features * Property searches:: Matching property values * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers File: org, Node: Property syntax, Next: Special properties, Prev: Properties and Columns, Up: Properties and Columns 7.1 Property syntax =================== Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special drawer (*note Drawers::) with the name PROPERTIES'. Each property is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Here is an example: * CD collection ** Classic *** Goldberg Variations :PROPERTIES: :Title: Goldberg Variations :Composer: J.S. Bach :Artist: Glen Gould :Publisher: Deutsche Grammphon :NDisks: 1 :END: You may define the allowed values for a particular property :Xyz:' by setting a property :Xyz_ALL:'. This special property is _inherited_, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine publishers and the number of disks in a box like this: * CD collection :PROPERTIES: :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4 :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI :END: If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a file, use a line like #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4 Property values set with the global variable org-global-properties' can be inherited by all entries in all Org files. The following commands help to work with properties: M-<TAB>' After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used in the current file will be offered as possible completions. C-c C-x p' Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If necessary, the property drawer is created as well. M-x org-insert-property-drawer' Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning information like deadlines. C-c C-c' With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands. C-c C-c s' Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value can be inserted using completion. S-<left>/<right>' Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value. C-c C-c d' Remove a property from the current entry. C-c C-c D' Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file. C-c C-c c' Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the nearest column format definition. File: org, Node: Special properties, Next: Property searches, Prev: Property syntax, Up: Properties and Columns 7.2 Special properties ====================== Special properties provide alternative access method to Org mode features discussed in the previous chapters, like the TODO state or the priority of an entry. This interface exists so that you can include these states into columns view (*note Column view::), or to use them in queries. The following property names are special and should not be used as keys in the properties drawer: TODO The TODO keyword of the entry. TAGS The tags defined directly in the headline. ALLTAGS All tags, including inherited ones. PRIORITY The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter. DEADLINE The deadline time string, without the angular brackets. SCHEDULED The scheduling time stamp, without the angular brackets. TIMESTAMP The first keyword-less time stamp in the entry. TIMESTAMP_IA The first inactive time stamp in the entry. CLOCKSUM The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. org-clock-sum' must be run first to compute the values. File: org, Node: Property searches, Next: Property inheritance, Prev: Special properties, Up: Properties and Columns 7.3 Property searches ===================== To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties, the same commands are used as for tag searches (*note Tag searches::), and the same logic applies. For example, here is a search string: +work-boss+PRIORITY="A"+Coffee="unlimited"+Effort<2 \ +With={Sarah\|Denny}+SCHEDULED>="<2008-10-11>" The type of comparison will depend on how the comparison value is written: - If the comparison value is a plain number, a numerical comparison is done, and the allowed operators are <', =', >', <=', >=', and <>'. - If the comparison value is enclosed in double quotes, a string comparison is done, and the same operators are allowed. - If the comparison value is enclosed in double quotes _and_ angular brackets (like DEADLINE<="<2008-12-24 18:30>"'), both values are assumed to be date/time specifications in the standard Org way, and the comparison will be done accordingly. Special values that will be recognized are "<now>"' for now (including time), and "<today>"', and "<tomorrow>"' for these days at 0:00 hours, i.e. without a time specification. Also strings like "<+5d>"' or "<-2m>"' with units d', w', m', and y' for day, week, month, and year, respectively, can be used. - If the comparison value is enclosed in curly braces, a regexp match is performed, with =' meaning that the regexp matches the property value, and <>' meaning that it does not match. So the search string in the example finds entries tagged :work:' but not :boss:', which also have a priority value A', a :Coffee:' property with the value unlimited', an Effort' property that is numerically smaller than 2, a :With:' property that is matched by the regular expression Sarah\|Denny', and that are scheduled on or after October 11, 2008. You can configure Org mode to use property inheritance during a search, but beware that this can slow down searches considerably. See *note Property inheritance:: for details. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a single property: C-c / p' Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree is created with all entries that define this property with the given value. If you enclose the value into curly braces, it is interpreted as a regular expression and matched against the property values. File: org, Node: Property inheritance, Next: Column view, Prev: Property searches, Up: Properties and Columns 7.4 Property Inheritance ======================== The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself for an inheritance model of properties: If the parent in a tree has a certain property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable org-use-property-inheritance'. It may be set to t', to make all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches inherited properties. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at least for the special applications for which they are used: COLUMNS' The :COLUMNS:' property defines the format of column view (*note Column view::). It is inherited in the sense that the level where a :COLUMNS:' property is defined is used as the starting point for a column view table, independently of the location in the subtree from where columns view is turned on. CATEGORY' For agenda view, a category set through a :CATEGORY:' property applies to the entire subtree. ARCHIVE' For archiving, the :ARCHIVE:' property may define the archive location for the entire subtree (*note Moving subtrees::). LOGGING' The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a subtree (*note Tracking TODO state changes::). File: org, Node: Column view, Next: Property API, Prev: Property inheritance, Up: Properties and Columns 7.5 Column view =============== A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is _column view_. In column view, each outline item is turned into a table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS view (S-<TAB> S-<TAB>', or simply c' while column view is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items. Column view also works in agenda buffers (*note Agenda Views::) where queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files. * Menu: * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property * Using column view:: How to create and use column view * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view File: org, Node: Defining columns, Next: Using column view, Prev: Column view, Up: Column view 7.5.1 Defining columns ---------------------- Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is done by defining a column format line. * Menu: * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid? * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column File: org, Node: Scope of column definitions, Next: Column attributes, Prev: Defining columns, Up: Defining columns 7.5.1.1 Scope of column definitions ................................... To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a :COLUMNS:' property to the top node of that tree, for example: ** Top node for columns view :PROPERTIES: :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO :END: If a :COLUMNS:' property is present in an entry, it defines columns for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document, you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a deeper part of the tree. File: org, Node: Column attributes, Prev: Scope of column definitions, Up: Defining columns 7.5.1.2 Column attributes ......................... A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general definition looks like this: %[width]property[(title)][{summary-type}] Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are optional. The individual parts have the following meaning: width An integer specifying the width of the column in characters. If omitted, the width will be determined automatically. property The property that should be edited in this column. (title) The header text for the column. If omitted, the property name is used. {summary-type} The summary type. If specified, the column values for parent nodes are computed from the children. Supported summary types are: {+} Sum numbers in this column. {+;%.1f} Like +', but format result with %.1f'. {}       Currency, short for +;%.2f'.
{:}       Sum times, HH:MM:SS, plain numbers are hours.
{X}       Checkbox status, [X] if all children are [X].
{X/}      Checkbox status, [n/m].
{X%}      Checkbox status, [n%].

Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
values.

:COLUMNS:  %20ITEM %9Approved(Approved?){X} %Owner %11Status 1) %10Time_Estimate{:} %CLOCKSUM :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" "" :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]" The first column, %25ITEM', means the first 25 characters of the item itself, i.e. of the headline. You probably always should start the column definition with the ITEM' specifier. The other specifiers create columns Owner' with a list of names as allowed values, for Status' with four different possible values, and for a checkbox field Approved'. When no width is given after the %' character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order to fully display all values. The Approved' column does have a modified title (Approved?', with a question mark). Summaries will be created for the Time_Estimate' column by adding time duration expressions like HH:MM, and for the Approved' column, by providing an [X]' status if all children have been checked. The CLOCKSUM' column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line - it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints. File: org, Node: Using column view, Next: Capturing column view, Prev: Defining columns, Up: Column view 7.5.2 Using column view ----------------------- Turning column view on and off .............................. C-c C-x C-c' Create the column view for the local environment. This command searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a :COLUMNS:' property that defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established for the entire tree, starting from the entry that contains the :COLUMNS:' property. If none is found, the format is taken from the #+COLUMNS' line or from the variable org-columns-default-format', and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree. r' Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer. g' Same as r'. q' Exit column view. Editing values .............. <left> <right> <up> <down>' Move through the column view from field to field. S-<left>/<right>' Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you have to have specified allowed values for a property. 1..9,0' Directly select the nth allowed value, 0' selects the 10th value. n / p' Same as S-<left>/<right>' e' Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion or fast selection interface will pop up. C-c C-c' When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it. v' View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of the column is smaller than that of the value. a' Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the current column view. Modifying the table structure ............................. < / >' Make the column narrower/wider by one character. S-M-<right>' Insert a new column, to the left of the current column. S-M-<left>' Delete the current column. File: org, Node: Capturing column view, Prev: Using column view, Up: Column view 7.5.3 Capturing column view --------------------------- Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use this columnview' dynamic block (*note Dynamic blocks::). The frame of this block looks like this: * The column view #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label" #+END: This dynamic block has the following parameters: :id' This is most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be in a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to capture, you can use 3 values: local use the tree in which the capture block is located global make a global view, including all headings in the file "file:path-to-file" run column view at the top of this file "ID" call column view in the tree that has an :ID:' property with the value label. You can use M-x org-id-copy' to create a globally unique ID for the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring. :hlines' When t', insert a hline after every line. When a number N, insert a hline before each headline with level <= N'. :vlines' When set to t', enforce column groups to get vertical lines. :maxlevel' When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level. :skip-empty-rows' When set to t', skip row where the only non-empty specifier of the column view is ITEM'. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block: C-c C-x i' Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted for the scope or id of the view. C-c C-c' C-c C-x C-u' Update dynamical block at point. The cursor needs to be in the #+BEGIN' line of the dynamic block. C-u C-c C-x C-u' Update all dynamic blocks (*note Dynamic blocks::). This is useful if you have several clock table blocks in a buffer. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting instructions in front of the table - these will survive an update of the block. If there is a #+TBLFM:' after the table, the table will actually be recalculated automatically after an update. File: org, Node: Property API, Prev: Column view, Up: Properties and Columns 7.6 The Property API ==================== There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement features based on them. For more information see *note Using the property API::. File: org, Node: Dates and Times, Next: Capture, Prev: Properties and Columns, Up: Top 8 Dates and Times ***************** To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time information is called a _timestamp_ in Org mode. This may be a little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term is used in a much wider sense. * Menu: * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer File: org, Node: Timestamps, Next: Creating timestamps, Prev: Dates and Times, Up: Dates and Times 8.1 Timestamps, deadlines and scheduling ======================================== A time stamp is a specification of a date (possibly with time or a range of times) in a special format, either <2003-09-16 Tue>' or <2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>' or <2003-09-16 Tue 12:00-12:30>'(1). A time stamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda (*note Weekly/daily agenda::). We distinguish: PLAIN TIME STAMP; EVENT; APPOINTMENT A simple time stamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a plain time stamp will be shown exactly on that date. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15> * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00> TIME STAMP WITH REPEATER INTERVAL A time stamp may contain a _repeater interval_, indicating that it applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months(m), or years(y). The following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday: * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w> DIARY-STYLE SEXP ENTRIES For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary package. For example * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month <%%(diary-float t 4 2)> TIME/DATE RANGE Two time stamps connected by --' denote a range. The headline will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example: ** Meeting in Amsterdam <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu> INACTIVE TIME STAMP Just like a plain time stamp, but with square brackets instead of angular ones. These time stamps are inactive in the sense that they do _not_ trigger an entry to show up in the agenda. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed] ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) This is the standard ISO date/time format. To use an alternative format, see *note Custom time format::. File: org, Node: Creating timestamps, Next: Deadlines and scheduling, Prev: Timestamps, Up: Dates and Times 8.2 Creating timestamps ======================= For Org mode to recognize time stamps, they need to be in the specific format. All commands listed below produce time stamps in the correct format. C-c .' Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding time stamp. When the cursor is at an existing time stamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in succession, a time range is inserted. C-u C-c .' Like C-c .', but use the alternative format which contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5 minutes, see the option org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes'. C-c !' Like C-c .', but insert an inactive time stamp that will not cause an agenda entry. C-c <' Insert a time stamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar. C-c >' Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date instead. C-c C-o' Access the agenda for the date given by the time stamp or -range at point (*note Weekly/daily agenda::). S-<left>' S-<right>' Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with CUA mode (*note Conflicts::). S-<up>' S-<down>' Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a year, month, day, hour or minute. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a time stamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item. (*note Priorities::). The key bindings also conflict with CUA mode (*note Conflicts::). C-c C-y' Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into the following column). * Menu: * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time * Custom time format:: Making dates look different File: org, Node: The date/time prompt, Next: Custom time format, Prev: Creating timestamps, Up: Creating timestamps 8.2.1 The date/time prompt -------------------------- When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown as an ISO date, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for an ISO date. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You can, for example, use C-y' to paste a (possibly multi-line) string copied from an email message. Org mode will find whatever information is in there and derive anything you have not specified from the _default date and time_. The default is usually the current date and time, but when modifying an existing time stamp, or when entering the second stamp of a range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a date in the future: If you omit the month/year and the given day/month is before today, it will assume that you mean a future date(1). For example, let's assume that today is June 13, 2006. Here is how various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are in bold. 3-2-5 --> 2003-02-05 14 --> 2006-06-14 12 --> 2006-07-12 Fri --> nearest Friday (defaultdate or later) sep 15 --> 2006-09-15 feb 15 --> 2007-02-15 sep 12 9 --> 2009-09-12 12:45 --> 2006-06-13 12:45 22 sept 0:34 --> 2006-09-22 0:34 w4 --> ISO week for of the current year 2006 2012 w4 fri --> Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012 2012-w04-5 --> Same as above Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the _first_ thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a letter [dwmy] to indicate change in days weeks, months, years. With a single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be the nth such day. E.g. +0 --> today . --> today +4d --> four days from today +4 --> same as above +2w --> two weeks from today ++5 --> five days from default date +2tue --> second tuesday from now. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure the variables parse-time-months' and parse-time-weekdays'. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up(2). When you exit the date prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing <RET>, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully from the minibuffer: > / < Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month. mouse-1 Select date by clicking on it. S-<right>/<left> One day forward/backward. S-<down>/<up> One week forward/backward. M-S-<right>/<left> One month forward/backward. <RET> Choose date in calendar. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the minibuffer(3). ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) See the variable org-read-date-prefer-future'. (2) If you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt'. (3) If you find this distracting, turn the display of with org-read-date-display-live'. File: org, Node: Custom time format, Prev: The date/time prompt, Up: Creating timestamps 8.2.2 Custom time format ------------------------ Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by customizing the variables org-display-custom-times' and org-time-stamp-custom-formats'. C-c C-x C-t' Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time format does not _replace_ the default format - instead it is put _over_ the default format using text properties. This has the following consequences: * You cannot place the cursor onto a time stamp anymore, only before or after. * The S-<up>/<down>' keys can no longer be used to adjust each component of a time stamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of the stamp, S-<up>/<down>' will change the stamp by one day, just like S-<left>/<right>'. At the end of the stamp, the time will be changed by one minute. * If the time stamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these will not be overlayed, but remain in the buffer as they were. * When you delete a time stamp character-by-character, it will only disappear from the buffer after _all_ (invisible) characters belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed. * If the custom time stamp format is longer than the default and you are using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom format is shorter, things do work as expected. File: org, Node: Deadlines and scheduling, Next: Clocking work time, Prev: Creating timestamps, Up: Dates and Times 8.3 Deadlines and scheduling ============================ A time stamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning: DEADLINE Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed to be finished on that date. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In addition, the agenda for _today_ will carry a warning about the approaching or missed deadline, starting org-deadline-warning-days' before the due date, and continuing until the entry is marked DONE. An example: *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]] DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun> You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning period of 5 days DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>'. SCHEDULED Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given date. The headline will be listed under the given date(1). In addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present in the compilation for _today_, until the entry is marked DONE. I.e., the task will automatically be forwarded until completed. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat> Important: Scheduling an item in Org mode should not be understood in the same way that we understand scheduling a meeting. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should mark this entry with a simple plain time stamp, to get this item shown on the date where it applies. This is a frequent mis-understanding from Org-users. In Org mode, scheduling means setting a date when you want to start working on an action item. You may use time stamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the assumption that the time stamp represents the nearest instance of the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like <%%(diary-float t 42)>' in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the sexp entry matches. * Menu: * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) It will still be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like this, set the variable org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done'. File: org, Node: Inserting deadline/schedule, Next: Repeated tasks, Prev: Deadlines and scheduling, Up: Deadlines and scheduling 8.3.1 Inserting deadlines or schedules -------------------------------------- The following commands allow to quickly insert a deadline or to schedule an item: C-c C-d' Insert DEADLINE' keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. C-c / d' Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or which will become due within org-deadline-warning-days'. With C-u' prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric prefix, check that many days. For example, C-1 C-c / d' shows all deadlines due tomorrow. C-c C-s' Insert SCHEDULED' keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling date from the entry. C-c C-x C-k' Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate date. With the cursor on the selected date, press k s' or k d' to schedule the marked item. File: org, Node: Repeated tasks, Prev: Inserting deadline/schedule, Up: Deadlines and scheduling 8.3.2 Repeated tasks -------------------- Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED, or plain time stamp. In the following example ** TODO Pay the rent DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m> the +1m' is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater comes first and the warning period last: DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>'. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem with this is, however, that then also the _next_ instance of the repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using C-c C-t'), it will shift the base date of the repeating time stamp by the repeater interval, and immediately set the entry state back to TODO. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually switch the date like this: ** TODO Pay the rent DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m> A timestamp(1) will be added under the deadline, to keep a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances will be visible. With the +1m' cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one month. So if you have not payed the rent for three months, marking this entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you forgot to call you father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time after the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has special repeaters markers with ++' and .+'. For example: ** TODO Call Father DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w> Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week, but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called and marked it done on Saturday. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m> Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after today. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific task - just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) You can change this using the option org-log-repeat', or the #+STARTUP' options logrepeat', lognoterepeat', and nologrepeat'. With lognoterepeat', you will also be prompted for a note. File: org, Node: Clocking work time, Next: Effort estimates, Prev: Deadlines and scheduling, Up: Dates and Times 8.4 Clocking work time ====================== Org mode allows you to clock the time you spent on specific tasks in a project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. C-c C-x C-i' Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a :CLOCK:' drawer (see also the variable org-clock-into-drawer'). When called with a C-u' prefix argument, select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two C-u C-u' prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task, with letter d'. C-c C-x C-o' Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as => HH:MM'. See the variable org-log-note-clock-out' for the possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out time stamp(1). C-c C-y' Recompute the time interval after changing one of the time stamps. This is only necessary if you edit the time stamps directly. If you change them with S-<cursor>' keys, the update is automatic. C-c C-t' Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock if it is running in this same item. C-c C-x C-x' Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by mistake, or if you ended up working on something else. C-c C-x C-j' Jump to the entry that contains the currently running clock. With a C-u' prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks. C-c C-x C-d' Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the buffer (see variable org-remove-highlights-with-change') or press C-c C-c'. C-c C-x C-r' Insert a dynamic block (*note Dynamic blocks::) containing a clock report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and update it. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file #+END: clocktable If such a block already exists at point, its content is replaced by the new table. The BEGIN' line can specify options: :maxlevel Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table. :emphasize When t', emphasize level one and level two items :scope The scope to consider. This can be any of the following: nil the current buffer or narrowed region file the full current buffer subtree the subtree where the clocktable is located treeN the surrounding level N tree, for example tree3' tree the surrounding level 1 tree agenda all agenda files ("file"..) scan these files file-with-archives current file and its archives agenda-with-archives all agenda files, including archives :block The time block to consider. This block is specified either absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of these formats: 2007-12-31 New year eve 2007 2007-12 December 2007 2007-W50 ISO-week 50 in 2007 2007 the year 2007 today, yesterday, today-N a relative day thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-N a relative week thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-N a relative month thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-N a relative year Use S-<left>/<right>' keys to shift the time interval. :tstart A time string specifying when to start considering times :tend A time string specifying when to stop considering times :step week' or day', to split the table into chunks. To use this, :block' or :tstart', :tend' are needed. :link Link the item headlines in the table to their origins :formula Content of a #+TBLFM' line to be added and evaluated. As a special case, :formula %' adds column with % time. If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated. So to get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current day, you could write #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t #+END: clocktable and to use a specific time range you could write(2) #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>" :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>" #+END: clocktable A summary of the current subtree with % times would be #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula % #+END: clocktable C-c C-c' C-c C-x C-u' Update dynamical block at point. The cursor needs to be in the #+BEGIN' line of the dynamic block. C-u C-c C-x C-u' Update all dynamic blocks (*note Dynamic blocks::). This is useful if you have several clock table blocks in a buffer. S-<left>' S-<right>' Shift the current :block' interval and update the table. The cursor needs to be in the #+BEGIN: clocktable' line for this command. If :block' is today', it will be shifted to today-1' etc. The l' key may be used in the timeline (*note Timeline::) and in the agenda (*note Weekly/daily agenda::) to show which tasks have been worked on or closed during a day. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) The corresponding in-buffer setting is: #+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out' (2) Note that all parameters must be specified in a single line - the line is broken here only to fit it onto the manual. File: org, Node: Effort estimates, Next: Relative timer, Prev: Clocking work time, Up: Dates and Times 8.5 Effort estimates ==================== If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a special property Effort'(1). Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view (*note Column view::). You should start by setting up discrete values for effort estimates, and a COLUMNS' format that displays these values together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific buffer you can use #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort){:} %CLOCKSUM or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the variables org-global-properties' and org-columns-default-format'. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global setup may be advised. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column mode, and to use S-<right>' and S-<left>' to change the value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column will summarize the estimated work effort for each day(2), and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the option org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum'. The appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will then also be added to the load estimate of the day. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered with the /' key in the agenda (*note Agenda commands::). If you have these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) You may change the property being used with the variable org-effort-property'. (2) Please note the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (*note Agenda column view::). File: org, Node: Relative timer, Prev: Effort estimates, Up: Dates and Times 8.6 Taking notes with a relative timer ====================================== When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes. C-c C-x .' Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is restarted. C-c C-x -' Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix argument, first reset the timer to 0. M-<RET>' Once the timer list is started, you can also use M-<RET>' to insert new timer items. C-c C-x ,' Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused. With prefix argument, stop it entirely. C-u C-c C-x ,' Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line. C-c C-x 0' Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the timer is reset to 0. When called with a C-u' prefix, reset the timer to specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double prefix argument C-c C-u', change all timer strings in the active region by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was not started at exactly the right moment. File: org, Node: Capture, Next: Agenda Views, Prev: Dates and Times, Up: Top 9 Capture ********* An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them. Org uses the remember' package to create tasks, and stores files related to a task (attachments) in a special directory. * Menu: * Remember:: Capture new tasks/ideas with little interruption * Attachments:: Add files to tasks. File: org, Node: Remember, Next: Attachments, Prev: Capture, Up: Capture 9.1 Remember ============ The Remember package by John Wiegley lets you store quick notes with little interruption of your work flow. See http://www.emacswiki.org/cgi-bin/wiki/RememberMode' for more information. It is an excellent way to add new notes and tasks to Org files. Org significantly expands the possibilities of remember: You may define templates for different note types, and associate target files and headlines with specific templates. It also allows you to select the location where a note should be stored interactively, on the fly. * Menu: * Setting up Remember:: Some code for .emacs to get things going * Remember templates:: Define the outline of different note types * Storing notes:: Directly get the note to where it belongs * Refiling notes:: Moving a note or task to a project File: org, Node: Setting up Remember, Next: Remember templates, Prev: Remember, Up: Remember 9.1.1 Setting up Remember ------------------------- The following customization will tell remember to use org files as target, and to create annotations compatible with Org links. (org-remember-insinuate) (setq org-directory "~/path/to/my/orgfiles/") (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org")) (define-key global-map "\C-cr" 'org-remember) The last line binds the command org-remember' to a global key(1). org-remember' basically just calls remember', but it makes a few things easier: If there is an active region, it will automatically copy the region into the remember buffer. It also allows to jump to the buffer and location where remember notes are being stored: Just call org-remember' with a prefix argument. If you use two prefix arguments, Org jumps to the location where the last remember note was stored. The remember buffer will actually use org-mode' as its major mode, so that all editing features of Org-mode are available. In addition to this, a minor mode org-remember-mode' is turned on, for the single purpose that you can use its keymap org-remember-mode-map' to overwrite some of Org-mode's key bindings. You can also call org-remember' in a special way from the agenda, using the k r' key combination. With this access, any time stamps inserted by the selected remember template (see below) will default to the cursor date in the agenda, rather than to the current date. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) Please select your own key, C-c r' is only a suggestion. File: org, Node: Remember templates, Next: Storing notes, Prev: Setting up Remember, Up: Remember 9.1.2 Remember templates ------------------------ In combination with Org, you can use templates to generate different types of remember notes. For example, if you would like to use one template to create general TODO entries, another one for journal entries, and a third one for collecting random ideas, you could use: (setq org-remember-templates '(("Todo" ?t "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a" "~/org/TODO.org" "Tasks") ("Journal" ?j "* %U %?\n\n %i\n %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org") ("Idea" ?i "* %^{Title}\n %i\n %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org" "New Ideas"))) In these entries, the first string is just a name, and the character specifies how to select the template. It is useful if the character is also the first letter of the name. The next string specifies the template. Two more (optional) strings give the file in which, and the headline under which the new note should be stored. The file (if not present or nil') defaults to org-default-notes-file', the heading to org-remember-default-headline'. If the file name is not an absolute path, it will be interpreted relative to org-directory'. The heading can also be the symbols top' or bottom' to send note as level 1 entries to the beginning or end of the file, respectively. An optional sixth element specifies the contexts in which the user can select the template. This element can be a list of major modes or a function. org-remember' will first check whether the function returns t' or if we are in any of the listed major mode, and exclude templates for which this condition is not fulfilled. Templates that do not specify this element at all, or that use nil' or t' as a value will always be selectable. So for example: (setq org-remember-templates '(("Bug" ?b "* BUG %?\n %i\n %a" "~/org/BUGS.org" "Bugs" (emacs-lisp-mode)) ("Journal" ?j "* %U %?\n\n %i\n %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org" "X" my-check) ("Idea" ?i "* %^{Title}\n %i\n %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org" "New Ideas"))) The first template will only be available when invoking org-remember' from an buffer in emacs-lisp-mode'. The second template will only be available when the function my-check' returns t'. The third template will be proposed in any context. When you call M-x org-remember' (or M-x remember') to remember something, Org will prompt for a key to select the template (if you have more than one template) and then prepare the buffer like * TODO [[file:link to where you called remember]] During expansion of the template, special %'-escapes allow dynamic insertion of content: %^{prompt} prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it. You may specify a default value and a completion table with %^{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...} The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history. %a annotation, normally the link created with org-store-link' %A like %a', but prompt for the description part %i initial content, the region when remember is called with C-u. The entire text will be indented like %i' itself. %t time stamp, date only %T time stamp with date and time %u, %U like the above, but inactive time stamps %^t like %t', but prompt for date. Similarly %^T', %^u', %^U' You may define a prompt like %^{Birthday}t' %n user name (taken from user-full-name') %c Current kill ring head. %x Content of the X clipboard. %^C Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use. %^L Like %^C', but insert as link. %^g prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file. %k title of currently clocked task %K link to currently clocked task %^G prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files. %^{prop}p Prompt the user for a value for property prop' %:keyword specific information for certain link types, see below %[pathname] insert the contents of the file given by pathname' %(sexp) evaluate elisp (sexp)' and replace with the result %! immediately store note after completing the template (skipping the C-c C-c' that normally triggers storing) %& jump to target location immediately after storing note For specific link types, the following keywords will be defined(1): Link type | Available keywords -------------------+---------------------------------------------- bbdb | %:name %:company bbdb | %::server %:port %:nick vm, wl, mh, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress | %:to %:toname %:toaddress | %:fromto (either "to NAME" or "from NAME")(2) gnus | %:group, for messages also all email fields w3, w3m | %:url info | %:file %:node calendar | %:date" To place the cursor after template expansion use: %? After completing the template, position cursor here. If you change your mind about which template to use, call org-remember' in the remember buffer. You may then select a new template that will be filled with the previous context information. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) If you define your own link types (*note Adding hyperlink types::), any property you store with org-store-link-props' can be accessed in remember templates in a similar way. (2) This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable org-from-is-user-regexp'. File: org, Node: Storing notes, Next: Refiling notes, Prev: Remember templates, Up: Remember 9.1.3 Storing notes ------------------- When you are finished preparing a note with remember, you have to press C-c C-c' to file the note away. If you have started the clock in the remember buffer, you will first be asked if you want to clock out now(1). If you answer n', the clock will continue to run after the note was filed away. The handler will then store the note in the file and under the headline specified in the template, or it will use the default file and headlines. The window configuration will be restored, sending you back to the working context before the call to remember'. To re-use the location found during the last call to remember', exit the remember buffer with C-0 C-c C-c', i.e. specify a zero prefix argument to C-c C-c'. Another special case is C-2 C-c C-c' which files the note as a child of the currently clocked item. If you want to store the note directly to a different place, use C-1 C-c C-c' instead to exit remember(2). The handler will then first prompt for a target file - if you press <RET>, the value specified for the template is used. Then the command offers the headings tree of the selected file, with the cursor position at the default headline (if you had specified one in the template). You can either immediately press <RET> to get the note placed there. Or you can use the following keys to find a different location: <TAB> Cycle visibility. <down> / <up> Next/previous visible headline. n / p Next/previous visible headline. f / b Next/previous headline same level. u One level up. Pressing <RET> or <left> or <right> then leads to the following result. Cursor Key Note gets inserted position on headline <RET> as sublevel of the heading at cursor, first or last depending on org-reverse-note-order'. <left>/<right>as same level, before/after current heading buffer-start <RET> as level 2 heading at end of file or level 1 at beginning depending on org-reverse-note-order'. not on <RET> at cursor position, level taken from context. headline Before inserting the text into a tree, the function ensures that the text has a headline, i.e. a first line that starts with a *'. If not, a headline is constructed from the current date. If you have indented the text of the note below the headline, the indentation will be adapted if inserting the note into the tree requires demotion from level 1. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) To avoid this query, configure the variable org-remember-clock-out-on-exit'. (2) Configure the variable org-remember-store-without-prompt' to make this behavior the default. File: org, Node: Refiling notes, Prev: Storing notes, Up: Remember 9.1.4 Refiling notes -------------------- Remember is usually used to quickly capture notes and tasks into one or a few capture lists. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the right location and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this process, you can use the following special command: C-c C-w' Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem. Depending on org-reverse-note-order', it will be either the first or last subitem. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files. See the variable org-refile-targets' for details. If you would like to select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see the variables org-refile-use-outline-path' and org-outline-path-complete-in-steps'. C-u C-c C-w' Use the refile interface to jump to a heading. C-u C-u C-c C-w' Jump to the location where org-refile' last moved a tree to. File: org, Node: Attachments, Prev: Remember, Up: Capture 9.2 Attachments =============== It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project. Hyperlinks (*note Hyperlinks::) can be used to establish associations with files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or source code files belonging to a project. Another method is attachments, which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are located in the data' directory which lives in the same directory where your org-file lives(1). If you initialize this directory with git-init', Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley. In cases where this seems better, you can also attach a directory of your choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached directory. The following commands deal with attachments. C-c C-a' The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these keys, a list of commands is displayed and you need to press an additional key to select a command: a' Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on org-attach-method'. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems. c/m/l' Attach a file using the copy/move/link method. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems. n' Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer. z' Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added attachments yourself. o' Open current task's attachment. If there are more than one, prompt for a file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by org-file-apps'. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks (*note Handling links::). O' Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs. f' Open the current task's attachment directory. F' Also open the directory, but force using dired' in Emacs. d' Select and delete a single attachment. D' Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in dired and delete from there. C-c C-a s' Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by putting the directory path into the ATTACH_DIR' property. C-c C-a i' Set the ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT' property, so that children will use the same directory for attachments as the parent. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) If you move entries or Org-files from one directory to the next, you may want to configure org-attach-directory' to contain an absolute path. File: org, Node: Agenda Views, Next: Embedded LaTeX, Prev: Capture, Up: Top 10 Agenda Views *************** Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are important for a particular date, this information must be collected, sorted and displayed in an organized way. Org can select items based on various criteria, and display them in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided: * an _agenda_ that is like a calendar and shows information for specific dates, * a _TODO list_ that covers all unfinished action items, * a _match view_, showings headlines based on the tags, properties and TODO state associated with them, * a _timeline view_ that shows all events in a single Org file, in time-sorted view, * a _keyword search view_ that shows all entries from multiple files that contain specified keywords. * a _stuck projects view_ showing projects that currently don't move along, and * _custom views_ that are special tag/keyword searches and combinations of different views. The extracted information is displayed in a special _agenda buffer_. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to edit these files remotely. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the window configuration is restored when the agenda exits: org-agenda-window-setup' and org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit'. * Menu: * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box? * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries File: org, Node: Agenda files, Next: Agenda dispatcher, Prev: Agenda Views, Up: Agenda Views 10.1 Agenda files ================= The information to be shown is normally collected from all _agenda files_, the files listed in the variable org-agenda-files'(1). If a directory is part of this list, all files with the extension .org' in this directory will be part of the list. Thus even if you only work with a single Org file, this file should be put into that list(2). You can customize org-agenda-files', but the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands C-c [' Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end. C-c ]' Remove current file from the list of agenda files. C-,' C-'' Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other. M-x org-iswitchb' Command to use an iswitchb'-like interface to switch to and between Org buffers. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used to visit any of them. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily onto a file not in this list, or onto just one file in the list or even only a subtree in a file, this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command, you may press <' once or several times in the dispatcher (*note Agenda dispatcher::). To restrict the agenda scope for an extended period, use the following commands: C-c C-x <' Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file, the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in effect until removed with C-c C-x >', or by typing either <' or >' in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately. C-c C-x >' Remove the permanent restriction created by C-c C-x <'. When working with Speedbar', you can use the following commands in the Speedbar frame: < in the speedbar frame' Permanently restrict the agenda to the item at the cursor in the Speedbar frame, either an Org file or a subtree in such a file. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately. > in the speedbar frame' Lift the restriction again. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) If the value of that variable is not a list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be maintained in that external file. (2) When using the dispatcher, pressing <' before selecting a command will actually limit the command to the current file, and ignore org-agenda-files' until the next dispatcher command. File: org, Node: Agenda dispatcher, Next: Built-in agenda views, Prev: Agenda files, Up: Agenda Views 10.2 The agenda dispatcher ========================== The views are created through a dispatcher that should be bound to a global key, for example C-c a' (*note Installation::). In the following we will assume that C-c a' is indeed how the dispatcher is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After pressing C-c a', an additional letter is required to execute a command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands: a' Create the calendar-like agenda (*note Weekly/daily agenda::). t / T' Create a list of all TODO items (*note Global TODO list::). m / M' Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (*note Matching tags and properties::). L' Create the timeline view for the current buffer (*note Timeline::). s' Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry. /' Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in the files listed in org-agenda-multi-occur-extra-files'. This uses the Emacs command multi-occur'. A prefix argument can be used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is 1. # / !' Create a list of stuck projects (*note Stuck projects::). <' Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer(1). After pressing <', you still need to press the character selecting the command. < <' If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree(2). After pressing < <', you still need to press the character selecting the command. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and a number of special tags matches. *Note Custom agenda views::. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) For backward compatibility, you can also press 1' to restrict to the current buffer. (2) For backward compatibility, you can also press 0' to restrict to the current buffer. File: org, Node: Built-in agenda views, Next: Presentation and sorting, Prev: Agenda dispatcher, Up: Agenda Views 10.3 The built-in agenda views ============================== In this section we describe the built-in views. * Menu: * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file * Keyword search:: Finding entries by keyword * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review File: org, Node: Weekly/daily agenda, Next: Global TODO list, Prev: Built-in agenda views, Up: Built-in agenda views 10.3.1 The weekly/daily agenda ------------------------------ The purpose of the weekly/daily _agenda_ is to act like a page of a paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day. C-c a a' Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of org files. The agenda shows the entries for each day. With a numeric prefix(1) (like C-u 2 1 C-c a a') you may set the number of days to be displayed (see also the variable org-agenda-ndays') Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in *note Agenda commands::. Calendar/Diary integration .......................... Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. The calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different countries and cultures. The diary allows you to keep track of anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments (weekly, monthly) and more. In this way, it is quite complementary to Org. It can be very useful to combine output from Org with the diary. In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org mode's agenda, you only need to customize the variable (setq org-agenda-include-diary t) After that, everything will happen automatically. All diary entries including holidays, anniversaries etc will be included in the agenda buffer created by Org mode. <SPC>, <TAB>, and <RET> can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary file in order to edit existing diary entries. The i' command to insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as well as the commands S', M', and C' to display Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other calendars, respectively. c' can be used to switch back and forth between calendar and agenda. If you are using the diary only for sexp entries and holidays, it is faster to not use the above setting, but instead to copy or even move the entries into an Org file. Org mode evaluates diary-style sexp entries, and does it faster because there is no overhead for first creating the diary display. Note that the sexp entries must start at the left margin, no white space is allowed before them. For example, the following segment of an Org file will be processed and entries will be made in the agenda: * Birthdays and similar stuff #+CATEGORY: Holiday %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names #+CATEGORY: Ann %%(diary-anniversary 14 5 1956) Arthur Dent is %d years old %%(diary-anniversary 2 10 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old Appointment reminders ..................... Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all the appointments of your agenda files, use the command org-agenda-to-appt'. This commands also lets you filter through the list of your appointments and add only those belonging to a specific category or matching a regular expression. See the docstring for details. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) For backward compatibility, the universal prefix C-u' causes all TODO entries to be listed before the agenda. This feature is deprecated, use the dedicated TODO list, or a block agenda instead (*note Block agenda::). File: org, Node: Global TODO list, Next: Matching tags and properties, Prev: Weekly/daily agenda, Up: Built-in agenda views 10.3.2 The global TODO list --------------------------- The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items, formatted and collected into a single place. C-c a t' Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all agenda files (*note Agenda Views::) into a single buffer. The buffer is in agenda-mode', so there are commands to examine and manipulate the TODO entries directly from that buffer (*note Agenda commands::). C-c a T' Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. You can also do this by specifying a prefix argument to C-c a t'. With a C-u' prefix you are prompted for a keyword, and you may also specify several keywords by separating them with |' as boolean OR operator. With a numeric prefix, the Nth keyword in org-todo-keywords' is selected. The r' key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword, for example 3 r'. If you often need a search for a specific keyword, define a custom command for it (*note Agenda dispatcher::). Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags search (*note Tag searches::). Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a TODO entry with a single key press. The commands available in the TODO list are described in *note Agenda commands::. Normally the global TODO list simply shows all headlines with TODO keywords. This list can become very long. There are two ways to keep it more compact: - Some people view a TODO item that has been _scheduled_ for execution (*note Timestamps::) as no longer _open_. Configure the variable org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled' to exclude scheduled items from the global TODO list. - TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks. In such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline and omit the sublevels from the global list. Configure the variable org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels' to get this behavior. File: org, Node: Matching tags and properties, Next: Timeline, Prev: Global TODO list, Up: Built-in agenda views 10.3.3 Matching tags and properties ----------------------------------- If headlines in the agenda files are marked with _tags_ (*note Tags::), you can select headlines based on the tags that apply to them and collect them into an agenda buffer. C-c a m' Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags. The command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic expression with tags, like +work+urgent-withboss' or work|home' (*note Tags::). If you often need a specific search, define a custom command for it (*note Agenda dispatcher::). C-c a M' Like C-c a m', but only select headlines that are also TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable org-tags-match-list-sublevels'). Matching specific TODO keywords together with a tags match is also possible, see *note Tag searches::. The commands available in the tags list are described in *note Agenda commands::. File: org, Node: Timeline, Next: Keyword search, Prev: Matching tags and properties, Up: Built-in agenda views 10.3.4 Timeline for a single file --------------------------------- The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org mode file in a _time-sorted view_. The main purpose of this command is to give an overview over events in a project. C-c a L' Show a time-sorted view of the org file, with all time-stamped items. When called with a C-u' prefix, all unfinished TODO entries (scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date. The commands available in the timeline buffer are listed in *note Agenda commands::. File: org, Node: Keyword search, Next: Stuck projects, Prev: Timeline, Up: Built-in agenda views 10.3.5 Keyword search --------------------- This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org mode entries. It is particularly useful to find notes. C-c a s' This is a special search that lets you select entries by keywords or regular expression, using a boolean logic. For example, the search string +computer +wifi -ethernet -{8\.11[bg]} will search for note entries that contain the keywords computer' and wifi', but not the keyword ethernet', and which are also not matched by the regular expression 8\.11[bg]', meaning to exclude both 8.11b and 8.11g. Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command will also search the files listed in org-agenda-text-search-extra-files'. File: org, Node: Stuck projects, Prev: Keyword search, Up: Built-in agenda views 10.3.6 Stuck projects --------------------- If you are following a system like David Allen's GTD to organize your work, one of the "duties" you have is a regular review to make sure that all projects move along. A _stuck_ project is a project that has no defined next actions, so it will never show up in the TODO lists Org mode produces. During the review, you need to identify such projects and define next actions for them. C-c a #' List projects that are stuck. C-c a !' Customize the variable org-stuck-projects' to define what a stuck project is and how to find it. You almost certainly will have to configure this view before it will work for you. The built-in default assumes that all your projects are level-2 headlines, and that a project is not stuck if it has at least one entry marked with a TODO keyword TODO or NEXT or NEXTACTION. Let's assume that you, in your own way of using Org mode, identify projects with a tag PROJECT, and that you use a TODO keyword MAYBE to indicate a project that should not be considered yet. Let's further assume that the TODO keyword DONE marks finished projects, and that NEXT and TODO indicate next actions. The tag @SHOP indicates shopping and is a next action even without the NEXT tag. Finally, if the project contains the special word IGNORE anywhere, it should not be listed either. In this case you would start by identifying eligible projects with a tags/todo match +PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE', and then check for TODO, NEXT, @SHOP, and IGNORE in the subtree to identify projects that are not stuck. The correct customization for this is (setq org-stuck-projects '("+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE" ("NEXT" "TODO") ("@SHOP") "\\<IGNORE\\>")) File: org, Node: Presentation and sorting, Next: Agenda commands, Prev: Built-in agenda views, Up: Agenda Views 10.4 Presentation and sorting ============================= Before displaying items in an agenda view, Org mode visually prepares the items and sorts them. Each item occupies a single line. The line starts with a _prefix_ that contains the _category_ (*note Categories::) of the item and other important information. You can customize the prefix using the option org-agenda-prefix-format'. The prefix is followed by a cleaned-up version of the outline headline associated with the item. * Menu: * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things File: org, Node: Categories, Next: Time-of-day specifications, Prev: Presentation and sorting, Up: Presentation and sorting 10.4.1 Categories ----------------- The category is a broad label assigned to each agenda item. By default, the category is simply derived from the file name, but you can also specify it with a special line in the buffer, like this(1): #+CATEGORY: Thesis If you would like to have a special CATEGORY for a single entry or a (sub)tree, give the entry a :CATEGORY:' property with the special category you want to apply as the value. The display in the agenda buffer looks best if the category is not longer than 10 characters. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) For backward compatibility, the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file, each specifies the category for the text below it. The first category also applies to any text before the first CATEGORY line. However, using this method is _strongly_ deprecated as it is incompatible with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for setting multiple categories in a buffer is using a property. File: org, Node: Time-of-day specifications, Next: Sorting of agenda items, Prev: Categories, Up: Presentation and sorting 10.4.2 Time-of-day specifications --------------------------------- Org mode checks each agenda item for a time-of-day specification. The time can be part of the time stamp that triggered inclusion into the agenda, for example as in <2005-05-10 Tue 19:00>'. Time ranges can be specified with two time stamps, like <2005-05-10 Tue 20:30>--<2005-05-10 Tue 22:15>'. In the headline of the entry itself, a time(range) may also appear as plain text (like 12:45' or a 8:30-1pm'). If the agenda integrates the Emacs diary (*note Weekly/daily agenda::), time specifications in diary entries are recognized as well. For agenda display, Org mode extracts the time and displays it in a standard 24 hour format as part of the prefix. The example times in the previous paragraphs would end up in the agenda like this: 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge If the agenda is in single-day mode, or for the display of today, the timed entries are embedded in a time grid, like 8:00...... ------------------ 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer 10:00...... ------------------ 12:00...... ------------------ 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub 14:00...... ------------------ 16:00...... ------------------ 18:00...... ------------------ 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem 20:00...... ------------------ 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge The time grid can be turned on and off with the variable org-agenda-use-time-grid', and can be configured with org-agenda-time-grid'. File: org, Node: Sorting of agenda items, Prev: Time-of-day specifications, Up: Presentation and sorting 10.4.3 Sorting of agenda items ------------------------------ Before being inserted into a view, the items are sorted. How this is done depends on the type of view. * For the daily/weekly agenda, the items for each day are sorted. The default order is to first collect all items containing an explicit time-of-day specification. These entries will be shown at the beginning of the list, as a _schedule_ for the day. After that, items remain grouped in categories, in the sequence given by org-agenda-files'. Within each category, items are sorted by priority (*note Priorities::), which is composed of the base priority (2000 for priority A', 1000 for B', and 0 for C'), plus additional increments for overdue scheduled or deadline items. * For the TODO list, items remain in the order of categories, but within each category, sorting takes place according to priority (*note Priorities::). * For tags matches, items are not sorted at all, but just appear in the sequence in which they are found in the agenda files. Sorting can be customized using the variable org-agenda-sorting-strategy', and may also include criteria based on the estimated effort of an entry (*note Effort estimates::). File: org, Node: Agenda commands, Next: Custom agenda views, Prev: Presentation and sorting, Up: Agenda Views 10.5 Commands in the agenda buffer ================================== Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the org file or diary file where they originate. You are not allowed to edit the agenda buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the original entry location, and to edit the org-files "remotely" from the agenda buffer. In this way, all information is stored only once, removing the risk that your agenda and note files may diverge. Some commands can be executed with mouse clicks on agenda lines. For the other commands, the cursor needs to be in the desired line. Motion ...... n' Next line (same as <up> and C-p'). p' Previous line (same as <down> and C-n'). View/Go to org file ................... mouse-3' <SPC>' Display the original location of the item in another window. With prefix arg, make sure that the entire entry is made visible in the outline, not only the heading. L' Display original location and recenter that window. mouse-2' mouse-1' <TAB>' Go to the original location of the item in another window. Under Emacs 22, mouse-1' will also works for this. <RET>' Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows. f' Toggle Follow mode. In Follow mode, as you move the cursor through the agenda buffer, the other window always shows the corresponding location in the org file. The initial setting for this mode in new agenda buffers can be set with the variable org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode'. b' Display the entire subtree of the current item in an indirect buffer. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is negative, go up that many levels. With a C-u' prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer. l' Toggle Logbook mode. In Logbook mode, entries that were marked DONE while logging was on (variable org-log-done') are shown in the agenda, as are entries that have been clocked on that day. You can configure the entry types that should be included in log mode using the variable org-agenda-log-mode-items'. When called with a C-u' prefix, show all possible logbook entries, including state changes. When called with two prefix args C-u C-u', show only logging information, nothing else. v' Toggle Archives mode. In archives mode, trees that are marked ARCHIVED' are also scanned when producing the agenda. When you call this command with a C-u' prefix argument, even all archive files are included. To exit archives mode, press v' again. R' Toggle Clockreport mode. In clockreport mode, the daily/weekly agenda will always show a table with the clocked times for the timespan and file scope covered by the current agenda view. The initial setting for this mode in new agenda buffers can be set with the variable org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode'. Change display .............. o' Delete other windows. d w m y' Switch to day/week/month/year view. When switching to day or week view, this setting becomes the default for subsequent agenda commands. Since month and year views are slow to create, they do not become the default. A numeric prefix argument may be used to jump directly to a specific day of the year, ISO week, month, or year, respectively. For example, 32 d' jumps to February 1st, 9 w' to ISO week number 9. When setting day, week, or month view, a year may be encoded in the prefix argument as well. For example, 200712 w' will jump to week 12 in 2007. If such a year specification has only one or two digits, it will be mapped to the interval 1938-2037. D' Toggle the inclusion of diary entries. See *note Weekly/daily agenda::. G' Toggle the time grid on and off. See also the variables org-agenda-use-time-grid' and org-agenda-time-grid'. r' Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes after modification of the time stamps of items with S-<left>' and S-<right>'. When the buffer is the global TODO list, a prefix argument is interpreted to create a selective list for a specific TODO keyword. g' Same as r'. s' C-x C-s' Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session. <right>' Display the following org-agenda-ndays' days. For example, if the display covers a week, switch to the following week. With prefix arg, go forward that many times org-agenda-ndays' days. <left>' Display the previous dates. .' Go to today. C-c C-x C-c' Invoke column view (*note Column view::) in the agenda buffer. The column view format is taken from the entry at point, or (if there is no entry at point), from the first entry in the agenda view. So whatever the format for that entry would be in the original buffer (taken from a property, from a #+COLUMNS' line, or from the default variable org-columns-default-format'), will be used in the agenda. Secondary filtering and query editing ..................................... /' Filter the current agenda view with respect to a tag and/or effort estimates. The difference between this and a custom agenda commands is that filtering is very fast, so that you can switch quickly between different filters without having to recreate the agenda. You will be prompted for a tag selection letter. Pressing <TAB> at that prompt will offer use completion to select a tag (including any tags that do not have a selection character). The command then hides all entries that do not contain or inherit this tag. When called with prefix arg, remove the entries that _do_ have the tag. A second /' at the prompt will turn off the filter and unhide any hidden entries. If the first key you press is either +' or -', the previous filter will be narrowed by requiring or forbidding the selected additional tag. Instead of pressing +' or -' after /', you can also immediately use the \' command. In order to filter for effort estimates, you should set-up allowed efforts globally, for example (setq org-global-properties '(("Effort_ALL". "0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00"))) You can then filter for an effort by first typing an operator, one of <', >', and =', and then the one-digit index of an effort estimate in your array of allowed values, where 0' means the 10th value. The filter will then restrict to entries with effort smaller-or-equal, equal, or larger-or-equal than the selected value. If the digits 0-9 are not used as fast access keys to tags, you can also simply press the index digit directly without an operator. In this case, <' will be assumed. \' Narrow the current agenda filter by an additional condition. When called with prefix arg, remove the entries that _do_ have the tag, or that do match the effort criterion. You can achieve the same effect by pressing +' or -' as the first key after the /' command. [ ] { }' In the search view (*note Keyword search::), these keys add new search words ([' and ]') or new regular expressions ({' and }') to the query string. The opening bracket/brace will add a positive search term prefixed by +', indicating that this search term must occur/match in the entry. The closing bracket/brace will add a negative search term which must not occur/match in the entry for it to be selected. Remote editing .............. 0-9' Digit argument. C-_' Undo a change due to a remote editing command. The change is undone both in the agenda buffer and in the remote buffer. t' Change the TODO state of the item, both in the agenda and in the original org file. C-k' Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging to it in the original Org file. If the text to be deleted remotely is longer than one line, the kill needs to be confirmed by the user. See variable org-agenda-confirm-kill'. a' Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. A' Move the subtree corresponding to the current entry to its _Archive Sibling_. ' Archive the subtree corresponding to the current headline. This means the entry will be moved to the configured archive location, most likely a different file. T' Show all tags associated with the current item. This is useful if you have turned off org-agenda-show-inherited-tags', but still want to see all tags of a headline occasionally. :' Set tags for the current headline. If there is an active region in the agenda, change a tag for all headings in the region. ,' Set the priority for the current item. Org mode prompts for the priority character. If you reply with <SPC>, the priority cookie is removed from the entry. P' Display weighted priority of current item. +' S-<up>' Increase the priority of the current item. The priority is changed in the original buffer, but the agenda is not resorted. Use the r' key for this. -' S-<down>' Decrease the priority of the current item. C-c C-a' Dispatcher for all command related to attachments. C-c C-s' Schedule this item C-c C-d' Set a deadline for this item. k' Agenda actions, to set dates for selected items to the cursor date. This command also works in the calendar! The command prompts for an additional key: m Mark the entry at point for action. You can also make entries in Org files with C-c C-x C-k'. d Set the deadline of the marked entry to the date at point. s Schedule the marked entry at the date at point. r Call org-remember' with the cursor date as default date. Press r' afterward to refresh the agenda and see the effect of the command. S-<right>' Change the time stamp associated with the current line by one day into the future. With a numeric prefix argument, change it by that many days. For example, 3 6 5 S-<right>' will change it by a year. The stamp is changed in the original org file, but the change is not directly reflected in the agenda buffer. Use the r' key to update the buffer. S-<left>' Change the time stamp associated with the current line by one day into the past. >' Change the time stamp associated with the current line to today. The key >' has been chosen, because it is the same as S-.' on my keyboard. I' Start the clock on the current item. If a clock is running already, it is stopped first. O' Stop the previously started clock. X' Cancel the currently running clock. J' Jump to the running clock in another window. Calendar commands ................. c' Open the Emacs calendar and move to the date at the agenda cursor. c' When in the calendar, compute and show the Org mode agenda for the date at the cursor. i' Insert a new entry into the diary. Prompts for the type of entry (day, weekly, monthly, yearly, anniversary, cyclic) and creates a new entry in the diary, just as i d' etc. would do in the calendar. The date is taken from the cursor position. M' Show the phases of the moon for the three months around current date. S' Show sunrise and sunset times. The geographical location must be set with calendar variables, see documentation of the Emacs calendar. C' Convert the date at cursor into many other cultural and historic calendars. H' Show holidays for three month around the cursor date. M-x org-export-icalendar-combine-agenda-files' Export a single iCalendar file containing entries from all agenda files. This is a globally available command, and also available in the agenda menu. Exporting to a file ................... C-x C-w' Write the agenda view to a file. Depending on the extension of the selected file name, the view will be exported as HTML (extension .html' or .htm'), Postscript (extension .ps'), or plain text (any other extension). Use the variable org-agenda-exporter-settings' to set options for ps-print' and for htmlize' to be used during export. Quit and Exit ............. q' Quit agenda, remove the agenda buffer. x' Exit agenda, remove the agenda buffer and all buffers loaded by Emacs for the compilation of the agenda. Buffers created by the user to visit org files will not be removed. File: org, Node: Custom agenda views, Next: Agenda column view, Prev: Agenda commands, Up: Agenda Views 10.6 Custom agenda views ======================== Custom agenda commands serve two purposes: to store and quickly access frequently used TODO and tags searches, and to create special composite agenda buffers. Custom agenda commands will be accessible through the dispatcher (*note Agenda dispatcher::), just like the default commands. * Menu: * Storing searches:: Type once, use often * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer * Setting Options:: Changing the rules * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing agendas to files * Using the agenda elsewhere:: Using agenda information in other programs File: org, Node: Storing searches, Next: Block agenda, Prev: Custom agenda views, Up: Custom agenda views 10.6.1 Storing searches ----------------------- The first application of custom searches is the definition of keyboard shortcuts for frequently used searches, either creating an agenda buffer, or a sparse tree (the latter covering of course only the current buffer). Custom commands are configured in the variable org-agenda-custom-commands'. You can customize this variable, for example by pressing C-c a C'. You can also directly set it with Emacs Lisp in .emacs'. The following example contains all valid search types: (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("w" todo "WAITING") ("W" todo-tree "WAITING") ("u" tags "+boss-urgent") ("v" tags-todo "+boss-urgent") ("U" tags-tree "+boss-urgent") ("f" occur-tree "\\<FIXME\\>") ("h" . "HOME+Name tags searches") ; description for "h" prefix ("hl" tags "+home+Lisa") ("hp" tags "+home+Peter") ("hk" tags "+home+Kim"))) The initial string in each entry defines the keys you have to press after the dispatcher command C-c a' in order to access the command. Usually this will be just a single character, but if you have many similar commands, you can also define two-letter combinations where the first character is the same in several combinations and serves as a prefix key(1). The second parameter is the search type, followed by the string or regular expression to be used for the matching. The example above will therefore define: C-c a w' as a global search for TODO entries with WAITING' as the TODO keyword C-c a W' as the same search, but only in the current buffer and displaying the results as a sparse tree C-c a u' as a global tags search for headlines marked :boss:' but not :urgent:' C-c a v' as the same search as C-c a u', but limiting the search to headlines that are also TODO items C-c a U' as the same search as C-c a u', but only in the current buffer and displaying the result as a sparse tree C-c a f' to create a sparse tree (again: current buffer only) with all entries containing the word FIXME' C-c a h' as a prefix command for a HOME tags search where you have to press an additional key (l', p' or k') to select a name (Lisa, Peter, or Kim) as additional tag to match. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) You can provide a description for a prefix key by inserting a cons cell with the prefix and the description. File: org, Node: Block agenda, Next: Setting Options, Prev: Storing searches, Up: Custom agenda views 10.6.2 Block agenda ------------------- Another possibility is the construction of agenda views that comprise the results of _several_ commands, each of which creates a block in the agenda buffer. The available commands include agenda' for the daily or weekly agenda (as created with C-c a a'), alltodo' for the global TODO list (as constructed with C-c a t'), and the matching commands discussed above: todo', tags', and tags-todo'. Here are two examples: (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("h" "Agenda and Home-related tasks" ((agenda "") (tags-todo "home") (tags "garden"))) ("o" "Agenda and Office-related tasks" ((agenda "") (tags-todo "work") (tags "office"))))) This will define C-c a h' to create a multi-block view for stuff you need to attend to at home. The resulting agenda buffer will contain your agenda for the current week, all TODO items that carry the tag home', and also all lines tagged with garden'. Finally the command C-c a o' provides a similar view for office tasks. File: org, Node: Setting Options, Next: Exporting Agenda Views, Prev: Block agenda, Up: Custom agenda views 10.6.3 Setting options for custom commands ------------------------------------------ Org mode contains a number of variables regulating agenda construction and display. The global variables define the behavior for all agenda commands, including the custom commands. However, if you want to change some settings just for a single custom view, you can do so. Setting options requires inserting a list of variable names and values at the right spot in org-agenda-custom-commands'. For example: (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("w" todo "WAITING" ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-down)) (org-agenda-prefix-format " Mixed: "))) ("U" tags-tree "+boss-urgent" ((org-show-following-heading nil) (org-show-hierarchy-above nil))) ("N" search "" ((org-agenda-files '("~org/notes.org")) (org-agenda-text-search-extra-files nil))))) Now the C-c a w' command will sort the collected entries only by priority, and the prefix format is modified to just say  Mixed: ' instead of giving the category of the entry. The sparse tags tree of C-c a U' will now turn out ultra-compact, because neither the headline hierarchy above the match, nor the headline following the match will be shown. The command C-c a N' will do a text search limited to only a single file. For command sets creating a block agenda, org-agenda-custom-commands' has two separate spots for setting options. You can add options that should be valid for just a single command in the set, and options that should be valid for all commands in the set. The former are just added to the command entry, the latter must come after the list of command entries. Going back to the block agenda example (*note Block agenda::), let's change the sorting strategy for the C-c a h' commands to priority-down', but let's sort the results for GARDEN tags query in the opposite order, priority-up'. This would look like this: (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("h" "Agenda and Home-related tasks" ((agenda) (tags-todo "home") (tags "garden" ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-up))))) ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-down)))) ("o" "Agenda and Office-related tasks" ((agenda) (tags-todo "work") (tags "office"))))) As you see, the values and parenthesis setting is a little complex. When in doubt, use the customize interface to set this variable - it fully supports its structure. Just one caveat: When setting options in this interface, the _values_ are just lisp expressions. So if the value is a string, you need to add the double quotes around the value yourself. File: org, Node: Exporting Agenda Views, Next: Using the agenda elsewhere, Prev: Setting Options, Up: Custom agenda views 10.6.4 Exporting Agenda Views ----------------------------- If you are away from your computer, it can be very useful to have a printed version of some agenda views to carry around. Org mode can export custom agenda views as plain text, HTML(1), Postscript, and iCalendar files. If you want to do this only occasionally, use the command C-x C-w' Write the agenda view to a file. Depending on the extension of the selected file name, the view will be exported as HTML (extension .html' or .htm'), Postscript (extension .ps'), iCalendar (extension .ics'), or plain text (any other extension). Use the variable org-agenda-exporter-settings' to set options for ps-print' and for htmlize' to be used during export, for example (setq org-agenda-exporter-settings '((ps-number-of-columns 2) (ps-landscape-mode t) (htmlize-output-type 'css))) If you need to export certain agenda views frequently, you can associate any custom agenda command with a list of output file names (2). Here is an example that first does define custom commands for the agenda and the global todo list, together with a number of files to which to export them. Then we define two block agenda commands and specify file names for them as well. File names can be relative to the current working directory, or absolute. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("X" agenda "" nil ("agenda.html" "agenda.ps")) ("Y" alltodo "" nil ("todo.html" "todo.txt" "todo.ps")) ("h" "Agenda and Home-related tasks" ((agenda "") (tags-todo "home") (tags "garden")) nil ("~/views/home.html")) ("o" "Agenda and Office-related tasks" ((agenda) (tags-todo "work") (tags "office")) nil ("~/views/office.ps" "~/calendars/office.ics")))) The extension of the file name determines the type of export. If it is .html', Org mode will use the htmlize.el' package to convert the buffer to HTML and save it to this file name. If the extension is .ps', ps-print-buffer-with-faces' is used to produce postscript output. If the extension is .ics', iCalendar export is run export over all files that were used to construct the agenda, and limit the export to entries listed in the agenda now. Any other extension produces a plain ASCII file. The export files are _not_ created when you use one of those commands interactively because this might use too much overhead. Instead, there is a special command to produce _all_ specified files in one step: C-c a e' Export all agenda views that have export file names associated with them. You can use the options section of the custom agenda commands to also set options for the export commands. For example: (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("X" agenda "" ((ps-number-of-columns 2) (ps-landscape-mode t) (org-agenda-prefix-format " [ ] ") (org-agenda-with-colors nil) (org-agenda-remove-tags t)) ("theagenda.ps")))) This command sets two options for the postscript exporter, to make it print in two columns in landscape format - the resulting page can be cut in two and then used in a paper agenda. The remaining settings modify the agenda prefix to omit category and scheduling information, and instead include a checkbox to check off items. We also remove the tags to make the lines compact, and we don't want to use colors for the black-and-white printer. Settings specified in org-agenda-exporter-settings' will also apply, but the settings in org-agenda-custom-commands' take precedence. From the command line you may also use emacs -f org-batch-store-agenda-views -kill or, if you need to modify some parameters(3) emacs -eval '(org-batch-store-agenda-views \ org-agenda-ndays 30 \ org-agenda-start-day "2007-11-01" \ org-agenda-include-diary nil \ org-agenda-files (quote ("~/org/project.org")))' \ -kill which will create the agenda views restricted to the file ~/org/project.org', without diary entries and with 30 days extent. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) You need to install Hrvoje Niksic's htmlize.el'. (2) If you want to store standard views like the weekly agenda or the global TODO list as well, you need to define custom commands for them in order to be able to specify file names. (3) Quoting may depend on the system you use, please check th FAQ for examples. File: org, Node: Using the agenda elsewhere, Prev: Exporting Agenda Views, Up: Custom agenda views 10.6.5 Using agenda information outside of Org ---------------------------------------------- Org provides commands to access agenda information for the command line in emacs batch mode. This extracted information can be sent directly to a printer, or it can be read by a program that does further processing of the data. The first of these commands is the function org-batch-agenda', that produces an agenda view and sends it as ASCII text to STDOUT. The command takes a single string as parameter. If the string has length 1, it is used as a key to one of the commands you have configured in org-agenda-custom-commands', basically any key you can use after C-c a'. For example, to directly print the current TODO list, you could use emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs -eval '(org-batch-agenda "t")' | lpr If the parameter is a string with 2 or more characters, it is used as a tags/todo match string. For example, to print your local shopping list (all items with the tag shop', but excluding the tag NewYork'), you could use emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs \ -eval '(org-batch-agenda "+shop-NewYork")' | lpr You may also modify parameters on the fly like this: emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs \ -eval '(org-batch-agenda "a" \ org-agenda-ndays 30 \ org-agenda-include-diary nil \ org-agenda-files (quote ("~/org/project.org")))' \ | lpr which will produce a 30 day agenda, fully restricted to the Org file ~/org/projects.org', not even including the diary. If you want to process the agenda data in more sophisticated ways, you can use the command org-batch-agenda-csv' to get a comma-separated list of values for each agenda item. Each line in the output will contain a number of fields separated by commas. The fields in a line are: category The category of the item head The headline, without TODO kwd, TAGS and PRIORITY type The type of the agenda entry, can be todo selected in TODO match tagsmatch selected in tags match diary imported from diary deadline a deadline scheduled scheduled timestamp appointment, selected by timestamp closed entry was closed on date upcoming-deadline warning about nearing deadline past-scheduled forwarded scheduled item block entry has date block including date todo The TODO keyword, if any tags All tags including inherited ones, separated by colons date The relevant date, like 2007-2-14 time The time, like 15:00-16:50 extra String with extra planning info priority-l The priority letter if any was given priority-n The computed numerical priority Time and date will only be given if a timestamp (or deadline/scheduled) lead to the selection of the item. A CSV list like this is very easy to use in a post processing script. For example, here is a Perl program that gets the TODO list from Emacs/Org and prints all the items, preceded by a checkbox: #!/usr/bin/perl # define the Emacs command to run cmd = "emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs -eval '(org-batch-agenda-csv \"t\")'"; # run it and capture the output agenda = qx{cmd 2>/dev/null}; # loop over all lines foreach line (split(/\n/,agenda)) { # get the individual values (category,head,type,todo,tags,date,time,extra, priority_l,priority_n) = split(/,/,line); # process and print print "[ ] head\n"; } File: org, Node: Agenda column view, Prev: Custom agenda views, Up: Agenda Views 10.7 Using column view in the agenda ==================================== Column view (*note Column view::) is normally used to view and edit properties embedded in the hierarchical structure of an Org file. It can be quite useful to use column view also from the agenda, where entries are collected by certain criteria. C-c C-x C-c' Turn on column view in the agenda. To understand how to use this properly, it is important to realize that the entries in the agenda are no longer in their proper outline environment. This causes the following issues: 1. Org needs to make a decision which COLUMNS' format to use. Since the entries in the agenda are collected from different files, and different files may have different COLUMNS' formats, this is a non-trivial problem. Org first checks if the variable org-overriding-columns-format' is currently set, and if yes takes the format from there. Otherwise it takes the format associated with the first item in the agenda, or, if that item does not have a specific format (defined in a property, or in it's file), it uses org-columns-default-format'. 2. If any of the columns has a summary type defined (*note Column attributes::), turning on column view in the agenda will visit all relevant agenda files and make sure that the computations of this property are up to date. This is also true for the special CLOCKSUM' property. Org will then sum the values displayed in the agenda. In the daily/weekly agenda, the sums will cover a single day, in all other views they cover the entire block. It is vital to realize that the agenda may show the same entry _twice_ (for example as scheduled and as a deadline), and it may show two entries from the same hierarchy (for example a _parent_ and it's _child_). In these cases, the summation in the agenda will lead to incorrect results because some values will count double. 3. When the column view in the agenda shows the CLOCKSUM', that is always the entire clocked time for this item. So even in the daily/weekly agenda, the clocksum listed in column view may originate from times outside the current view. This has the advantage that you can compare these values with a column listing the planned total effort for a task - one of the major applications for column view in the agenda. If you want information about clocked time in the displayed period use clock table mode (press R' in the agenda). File: org, Node: Embedded LaTeX, Next: Exporting, Prev: Agenda Views, Up: Top 11 Embedded LaTeX ***************** Plain ASCII is normally sufficient for almost all note taking. One exception, however, are scientific notes which need to be able to contain mathematical symbols and the occasional formula. LaTeX(1) is widely used to typeset scientific documents. Org mode supports embedding LaTeX code into its files, because many academics are used to reading LaTeX source code, and because it can be readily processed into images for HTML production. It is not necessary to mark LaTeX macros and code in any special way. If you observe a few conventions, Org mode knows how to find it and what to do with it. * Menu: * Math symbols:: TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy * Processing LaTeX fragments:: Previewing LaTeX processing * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) LaTeX is a macro system based on Donald E. Knuth's TeX system. Many of the features described here as "LaTeX" are really from TeX, but for simplicity I am blurring this distinction. File: org, Node: Math symbols, Next: Subscripts and superscripts, Prev: Embedded LaTeX, Up: Embedded LaTeX 11.1 Math symbols ================= You can use LaTeX macros to insert special symbols like \alpha' to indicate the Greek letter, or \to' to indicate an arrow. Completion for these macros is available, just type \' and maybe a few letters, and press M-<TAB>' to see possible completions. Unlike LaTeX code, Org mode allows these macros to be present without surrounding math delimiters, for example: Angles are written as Greek letters \alpha, \beta and \gamma. During HTML export (*note HTML export::), these symbols are translated into the proper syntax for HTML, for the above examples this is &alpha;' and &rarr;', respectively. If you need such a symbol inside a word, terminate it like this: \Aacute{}stor'. File: org, Node: Subscripts and superscripts, Next: LaTeX fragments, Prev: Math symbols, Up: Embedded LaTeX 11.2 Subscripts and superscripts ================================ Just like in LaTeX, ^' and _' are used to indicate super- and subscripts. Again, these can be used without embedding them in math-mode delimiters. To increase the readability of ASCII text, it is not necessary (but OK) to surround multi-character sub- and superscripts with curly braces. For example The mass if the sun is M_sun = 1.989 x 10^30 kg. The radius of the sun is R_{sun} = 6.96 x 10^8 m. To avoid interpretation as raised or lowered text, you can quote ^' and _' with a backslash: \_' and \^'. During HTML export (*note HTML export::), subscript and superscripts are surrounded with <sub>' and <sup>' tags, respectively. File: org, Node: LaTeX fragments, Next: Processing LaTeX fragments, Prev: Subscripts and superscripts, Up: Embedded LaTeX 11.3 LaTeX fragments ==================== With symbols, sub- and superscripts, HTML is pretty much at its end when it comes to representing mathematical formulas(1). More complex expressions need a dedicated formula processor. To this end, Org mode can contain arbitrary LaTeX fragments. It provides commands to preview the typeset result of these fragments, and upon export to HTML, all fragments will be converted to images and inlined into the HTML document(2). For this to work you need to be on a system with a working LaTeX installation. You also need the dvipng' program, available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/dvipng/'. The LaTeX header that will be used when processing a fragment can be configured with the variable org-format-latex-header'. LaTeX fragments don't need any special marking at all. The following snippets will be identified as LaTeX source code: * Environments of any kind. The only requirement is that the \begin' statement appears on a new line, preceded by only whitespace. * Text within the usual LaTeX math delimiters. To avoid conflicts with currency specifications, single ' characters are only recognized as math delimiters if the enclosed text contains at most two line breaks, is directly attached to the ' characters with no whitespace in between, and if the closing ' is followed by whitespace, punctuation or a dash. For the other delimiters, there is no such restriction, so when in doubt, use \(...' as
inline math delimiters.

For example:

$$% arbitrary environments, x=\sqrt{b} % even tables, figures$$                            % etc

If $a^2=b$ and $$b=2$$, then the solution must be
either $$a=+\sqrt{2}$$ or $a=-\sqrt{2}$.

If you need any of the delimiter ASCII sequences for other purposes, you
can configure the option org-format-latex-options' to deselect the
ones you do not wish to have interpreted by the LaTeX converter.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) Yes, there is MathML, but that is not yet fully supported by
many browsers, and there is no decent converter for turning LaTeX or
ASCII representations of formulas into MathML. So for the time being,
converting formulas into images seems the way to go.

(2) The LaTeX export will not use images for displaying LaTeX
fragments but include these fragments directly into the LaTeX code.

File: org,  Node: Processing LaTeX fragments,  Next: CDLaTeX mode,  Prev: LaTeX fragments,  Up: Embedded LaTeX

11.4 Processing LaTeX fragments
===============================

LaTeX fragments can be processed to produce a preview images of the
typeset expressions:

C-c C-x C-l'
Produce a preview image of the LaTeX fragment at point and overlay
it over the source code.  If there is no fragment at point,
process all fragments in the current entry (between two
headlines).  When called with a prefix argument, process the
entire subtree.  When called with two prefix arguments, or when
the cursor is before the first headline, process the entire buffer.

C-c C-c'
Remove the overlay preview images.

During HTML export (*note HTML export::), all LaTeX fragments are
converted into images and inlined into the document if the following
setting is active:

(setq org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments t)

File: org,  Node: CDLaTeX mode,  Prev: Processing LaTeX fragments,  Up: Embedded LaTeX

11.5 Using CDLaTeX to enter math
================================

CDLaTeX mode is a minor mode that is normally used in combination with a
major LaTeX mode like AUCTeX in order to speed-up insertion of
environments and math templates.  Inside Org mode, you can make use of
some of the features of CDLaTeX mode.  You need to install cdlatex.el'
and texmathp.el' (the latter comes also with AUCTeX) from
http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/cdlatex'.  Don't use CDLaTeX
mode itself under Org mode, but use the light version
org-cdlatex-mode' that comes as part of Org mode.  Turn it on for the
current buffer with M-x org-cdlatex-mode', or for all Org files with

When this mode is enabled, the following features are present (for
more details see the documentation of CDLaTeX mode):
* Environment templates can be inserted with C-c {'.

* The <TAB> key will do template expansion if the cursor is inside a
LaTeX fragment(1).  For example, <TAB> will expand fr' to
\frac{}{}' and position the cursor correctly inside the first
brace.  Another <TAB> will get you into the second brace.  Even
outside fragments, <TAB> will expand environment abbreviations at
the beginning of a line.  For example, if you write equ' at the
beginning of a line and press <TAB>, this abbreviation will be
expanded to an equation' environment.  To get a list of all
abbreviations, type M-x cdlatex-command-help'.

* Pressing _' and ^' inside a LaTeX fragment will insert these
characters together with a pair of braces.  If you use <TAB> to
move out of the braces, and if the braces surround only a single
character or macro, they are removed again (depending on the
variable cdlatex-simplify-sub-super-scripts').

* Pressing the backquote ' followed by a character inserts math
macros, also outside LaTeX fragments.  If you wait more than 1.5
seconds after the backquote, a help window will pop up.

* Pressing the normal quote '' followed by another character
modifies the symbol before point with an accent or a font.  If you
wait more than 1.5 seconds after the backquote, a help window will
pop up.  Character modification will work only inside LaTeX
fragments, outside the quote is normal.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) Org mode has a method to test if the cursor is inside such a
fragment, see the documentation of the function
org-inside-LaTeX-fragment-p'.

File: org,  Node: Exporting,  Next: Publishing,  Prev: Embedded LaTeX,  Up: Top

12 Exporting
************

Org mode documents can be exported into a variety of other formats.  For
printing and sharing of notes, ASCII export produces a readable and
simple version of an Org file.  HTML export allows you to publish a
notes file on the web, while the XOXO format provides a solid base for
exchange with a broad range of other applications. LaTeX export lets
you use Org mode and its structured editing functions to easily create
LaTeX files.  To incorporate entries with associated times like
deadlines or appointments into a desktop calendar program like iCal,
Org mode can also produce extracts in the iCalendar format.  Currently
Org mode only supports export, not import of these different formats.

Org supports export of selected regions when transient-mark-mode' is
enabled (default in Emacs 23).

* Markup rules::                Which structures are recognized?
* Selective export::            Using tags to select and exclude trees
* Export options::              Per-file export settings
* The export dispatcher::       How to access exporter commands
* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* LaTeX and PDF export::        Exporting to LaTeX, and processing to PDF
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format

File: org,  Node: Markup rules,  Next: Selective export,  Prev: Exporting,  Up: Exporting

12.1 Markup rules
=================

When exporting Org mode documents,  the exporter tries to reflect the
structure of the document as accurately as possible in the back-end.
Since export targets like HTML or LaTeX allow much richer formatting,
Org mode has rules how to prepare text for rich export.  This section
summarizes the markup rule used in an Org mode buffer.

* Document title::              How the document title is determined
* Headings and sections::       The main structure of the exported document
* Initial text::                Text before the first headline
* Lists::                       Plain lists are exported
* Paragraphs::                  What determines beginning and ending
* Literal examples::            Source code and other examples
* Include files::               Include the contents of a file during export
* Tables exported::             Tables are exported richly
* Inlined images::              How to inline images during export
* Footnote markup::
* Emphasis and monospace::      To bold or not to bold
* TeX macros and LaTeX fragments::  Create special, rich export.
* Horizontal rules::            A line across the page
* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported

File: org,  Node: Document title,  Next: Headings and sections,  Prev: Markup rules,  Up: Markup rules

Document title
--------------

The title of the exported document is taken from the special line

#+TITLE: This is the title of the document

If this line does not exist, the title is derived from the first
non-empty, non-comment line in the buffer.  If no such line exists, or
if you have turned off exporting of the text before the first headline
(see below), the title will be the file name without extension.

If you are exporting only a subtree by marking is as the region, the
heading of the subtree will become the title of the document.  If the
subtree has a property EXPORT_TITLE', that will take precedence.

File: org,  Node: Headings and sections,  Next: Table of contents,  Prev: Document title,  Up: Markup rules

---------------------

The outline structure of the document as described in *note Document
Structure:: forms the basis for defining sections of the exported
document.  However, since the outline structure is also used for (for
example) lists of tasks, only the first three outline levels will be
used as headings.  Deeper levels will become itemized lists.  You can
change the location of this switch, globally by setting the variable
org-headline-levels', or on a per file basis with a line

#+OPTIONS: H:4

File: org,  Node: Table of contents,  Next: Initial text,  Prev: Headings and sections,  Up: Markup rules

-----------------

The table of contents is normally inserted directly before the first
headline of the file.  If you would like to get it to a different
location, insert the string [TABLE-OF-CONTENTS]' on a line by itself
at the desired location.  The depth of the table of contents is by
default the same as the number of headline levels, but you can choose a
smaller number or turn off the table of contents entirely by
configuring the variable org-export-with-toc', or on a per-file basis
with a line like

#+OPTIONS: toc:2          (only to two levels in TOC)
#+OPTIONS: toc:nil        (no TOC at all)

File: org,  Node: Initial text,  Next: Lists,  Prev: Table of contents,  Up: Markup rules

Text before the first headline
------------------------------

Org mode normally exports the text before the first headline, and even
uses the first line as the document title.  The text will be fully
marked up.  If you need to include literal HTML or LaTeX code, use the
special constructs described below in the sections for the individual
exporters.

Some people like to use the space before the first headline for
setup and internal links and therefore would like to control the
exported text before the first headline in a different way.  You can do
so by setting the variable org-export-skip-text-before-1st-heading' to
t'.  On a per-file basis, you can get the same effect with #+OPTIONS:
skip:t'.

If you still want to have some text before the first headline, use the
#+TEXT' construct:

#+OPTIONS: skip:t
#+TEXT: This text will go before the *first* headline.
#+TEXT: [TABLE-OF-CONTENTS]

File: org,  Node: Lists,  Next: Paragraphs,  Prev: Initial text,  Up: Markup rules

Lists
-----

Plain lists as described in *note Plain lists:: are translated to the
back-ends syntax for such lists.  Most back-ends support unordered,
ordered, and description lists.

File: org,  Node: Paragraphs,  Next: Literal examples,  Prev: Lists,  Up: Markup rules

Paragraphs, line breaks, and quoting
------------------------------------

Paragraphs are separated by at least one empty line.  If you need to
enforce a line break within a paragraph, use \\' at the end of a line.

To keep the line breaks in a region, but otherwise use normal
formatting, you can use this construct, which can also be used to
format poetry.

#+BEGIN_VERSE
Tiny black birds rise and fall
Snow covers Emacs

-- AlexSchroeder
#+END_VERSE

When quoting a passage from another document, it is customary to
format this as a paragraph that is indented on both the left and the
right margin.  You can include quotations in Org mode documents like
this:

#+BEGIN_QUOTE
Everything should be made as simple as possible,
but not any simpler -- Albert Einstein
#+END_QUOTE

File: org,  Node: Literal examples,  Next: Include files,  Prev: Paragraphs,  Up: Markup rules

Literal examples
----------------

You can include literal examples that should not be subjected to
markup.  Such examples will be typeset in monospace, so this is well
suited for source code and similar examples.

#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE
Some example from a text file.
#+END_EXAMPLE

For simplicity when using small examples, you can also start the
example lines with a colon followed by a space.  There may also be
additional whitespace before the colon:

Here is an example
: Some example from a text file.

If the example is source code from a programming language, or any
other text that can be marked up by font-lock in Emacs, you can ask for
the example to look like the fontified Emacs buffer(1).  This is done
with the src' block, where you also need to specify the name of the
major mode that should be used to fontify the example:

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(defun org-xor (a b)
"Exclusive or."
(if a (not b) b))
#+END_SRC

Both in example' and in src' snippets, you can add a -n' switch
to the end of the BEGIN' line, to get the lines of the example
numbered.  If you use a +n' switch, the numbering from the previous
numbered snippet will be continued in the current one.  In literal
examples, Org will interpret strings like (ref:name)' as labels, and
use them as targets for special hyperlinks like [[(name)]]' (i.e. the
reference name enclosed in single parenthesis).  In HTML, hovering the
mouse over such a link will remote-highlight the corresponding code
line, which is kind of cool.  If the example/src snippet is numbered,
you can also add a -r' switch.  Then labels will be removed from the
source code and the links will be replaced(2) with line numbers from
the code listing.  Here is an example:

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp -n -r
(save-excursion                  (ref:sc)
(goto-char (point-min))       (ref:jump)
#+END SRC
In line [[(sc)]] we remember the current positon.  [[(jump)][Line (jump)]]
jumps to point-min.

If the syntax for the label format conflicts with the language
syntax, use a -l' switch to change the format, for example
#+BEGIN_SRC pascal -n -r -l "((%s))"'.  See also the variable
org-coderef-label-format'.

HTML export also allows examples to be published as text areas,
*note Text areas in HTML export::.

C-c ''
Edit the source code example at point in its native mode.  This
works by switching to an indirect buffer, narrowing the buffer and
switching to the other mode.  You need to exit by pressing C-c ''
again(3).  Fixed-width regions (where each line starts with a
colon followed by a space) will be edited using artist-mode'(4)
to allow creating ASCII drawings easily.  Using this command in an
empty line will create a new fixed-width region.

C-c l'
Calling org-store-link' while editing a source code example in a
temporary buffer created with C-c '' will prompt for a label,
make sure that it is unique in the current buffer, and insert it
with the proper formatting like (ref:label)' at the end of the
current line.  Then the label is stored as a link (label)', for
retrieval with C-c C-l'.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) Currently this works only for the HTML back-end, and requires
the htmlize.el' package version 1.34 or later.

(2) If you want to explain the use of such labels themelves in
org-mode example code, you can use the -k' switch to make sure they
are not touched.

(3) Upon exit, lines starting with *' or #' will get a comma
prepended, to keep them from being interpreted by Org as outline nodes
or special comments.  These commas will be striped for editing with
C-c '', and also for export.

(4) You may select a different-mode with the variable
org-edit-fixed-width-region-mode'.

File: org,  Node: Include files,  Next: Tables exported,  Prev: Literal examples,  Up: Markup rules

Include files
-------------

During export, you can include the content of another file.  For
example, to include your .emacs file, you could use:

#+INCLUDE: "~/.emacs" src emacs-lisp

The optional second and third parameter are the markup (quote',
example', or src'), and, if the markup is src', the language for
formatting the contents.  The markup is optional, if it is not given,
the text will be assumed to be in Org mode format and will be processed
normally.  The include line will also allow additional keyword
parameters :prefix1' and :prefix' to specify prefixes for the first
line and for each following line, as well as any options accepted by
the selected markup.  For example, to include a file as an item, use

#+INCLUDE: "~/snippets/xx" :prefix1 "   + " :prefix "     "

C-c ''
Visit the include file at point.

File: org,  Node: Tables exported,  Next: Inlined images,  Prev: Include files,  Up: Markup rules

Tables
------

Both the native Org mode tables (*note Tables::) and tables formatted
with the table.el' package will be exported properly.  For Org mode
tables, the lines before the first horizontal separator line will
become table header lines.  You can use the following lines somewhere
before the table to assign a caption and a label for cross references:

#+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next table (or link)
#+LABEL:   tbl:basic-data

File: org,  Node: Inlined images,  Next: Footnote markup,  Prev: Tables exported,  Up: Markup rules

Inlined Images
--------------

Some backends (HTML and LaTeX) allow to directly include images into the
exported document.  Org does this, if a link to an image files does not
have a description part, for example [[./img/a.jpg]]'.  If you wish to
define a caption for the image and maybe a label for internal cross
references, you can use (before, but close to the link)

#+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next figure link (or table)
#+LABEL:   fig:SED-HR4049

You may also define additional attributes for the figure.  As this is
backend-specific, see the sections about the individual backends for

File: org,  Node: Footnote markup,  Next: Emphasis and monospace,  Prev: Inlined images,  Up: Markup rules

Footnote markup
---------------

Footnotes defined in the way descriped in *note Footnotes:: will be
exported by all backends.  Org does allow multiple references to the
same note, and different backends support this to varying degree.

File: org,  Node: Emphasis and monospace,  Next: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments,  Prev: Footnote markup,  Up: Markup rules

Emphasis and monospace
----------------------

You can make words *bold*, /italic/, _underlined_, =code=' and
~verbatim~', and, if you must, +strike-through+'.  Text in the code
and verbatim string is not processed for Org mode specific syntax, it
is exported verbatim.

File: org,  Node: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments,  Next: Horizontal rules,  Prev: Emphasis and monospace,  Up: Markup rules

TeX macros and LaTeX fragments
------------------------------

A TeX-like syntax is used to specify special characters.  Where
possible, these will be transformed into the native format of the
exporter back-end.  Strings like \alpha' will be exported as &alpha;'
in the HTML output, and as $\alpha$' in the LaTeX output.  Similarly,
\nbsp' will become &nbsp;' in HTML and ~' in LaTeX.  This applies
for a large number of entities, with names taken from both HTML and
LaTeX, see the variable org-html-entities' for the complete list.  If
you are unsure about a name, use M-<TAB>' for completion after having
typed the backslash and maybe a few characters (*note Completion::).

LaTeX fragments are converted into images for HTML export, and they
are written literally into the LaTeX export.  See also *note Embedded
LaTeX::.

Finally, \-' is treated as a shy hyphen, and --', ---', and ...'
are all converted into special commands creating hyphens of different
lengths or a compact set of dots.

File: org,  Node: Horizontal rules,  Next: Comment lines,  Prev: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments,  Up: Markup rules

Horizontal rules
----------------

A line consisting of only dashes, and at least 5 of them, will be
exported as a horizontal line (<hr/>' in HTML).

File: org,  Node: Comment lines,  Prev: Horizontal rules,  Up: Markup rules

Comment lines
-------------

Lines starting with #' in column zero are treated as comments and will
never be exported.  Also entire subtrees starting with the word
COMMENT' will never be exported.  Finally, regions surrounded by
#+BEGIN_COMMENT' ... #+END_COMMENT' will not be exported.

C-c ;'
Toggle the COMMENT keyword at the beginning of an entry.

File: org,  Node: Selective export,  Next: Export options,  Prev: Markup rules,  Up: Exporting

12.2 Selective export
=====================

You may use tags to select the parts of a document that should be
exported, or to exclude parts from export.  This behavior is governed
by two variables: org-export-select-tags' and
org-export-exclude-tags'.

Org first checks if any of the _select_ tags is present in the
buffer.  If yes, all trees that do not carry one of these tags will be
excluded.  If a selected tree is a subtree, the heading hierarchy above
it will also be selected for export, but not the text below those

If none of the select tags is found, the whole buffer will be selected
for export.

Finally, all subtrees that are marked by any of the _exclude_ tags will
be removed from the export buffer.

File: org,  Node: Export options,  Next: The export dispatcher,  Prev: Selective export,  Up: Exporting

12.3 Export options
===================

The exporter recognizes special lines in the buffer which provide
additional information.  These lines may be put anywhere in the file.
The whole set of lines can be inserted into the buffer with C-c C-e
t'.  For individual lines, a good way to make sure the keyword is
correct is to type #+' and then use M-<TAB>' completion (*note
Completion::).

C-c C-e t'
Insert template with export options, see example below.

#+TITLE:     the title to be shown (default is the buffer name)
#+AUTHOR:    the author (default taken from user-full-name')
#+DATE:      A date, fixed, of a format string for format-time-string'
#+EMAIL:     his/her email address (default from user-mail-address')
#+LANGUAGE:  language for HTML, e.g. en' (org-export-default-language')
#+TEXT:      Some descriptive text to be inserted at the beginning.
#+TEXT:      Several lines may be given.
#+OPTIONS:   H:2 num:t toc:t \n:nil @:t ::t |:t ^:t f:t TeX:t ...
#+LINK_UP:   the up'' link of an exported page
#+LINK_HOME: the home'' link of an exported page
#+EXPORT_SELECT_TAGS:   Tags that select a tree for export
#+EXPORT_EXCLUDE_TAGS:  Tags that exclude a tree from export

The OPTIONS line is a compact(1) form to specify export settings.  Here
you can:
H:         set the number of headline levels for export
num:       turn on/off section-numbers
toc:       turn on/off table of contents, or set level limit (integer)
\n:        turn on/off line-break-preservation
@:         turn on/off quoted HTML tags
::         turn on/off fixed-width sections
|:         turn on/off tables
^:         turn on/off TeX-like syntax for sub- and superscripts.  If
you write "^:{}", a_{b}' will be interpreted, but
the simple a_b' will be left as it is.
-:         turn on/off conversion of special strings.
f:         turn on/off footnotes like this[1].
todo:      turn on/off inclusion of TODO keywords into exported text
pri:       turn on/off priority cookies
tags:      turn on/off inclusion of tags, may also be not-in-toc'
<:         turn on/off inclusion of any time/date stamps like DEADLINES
*:         turn on/off emphasized text (bold, italic, underlined)
TeX:       turn on/off simple TeX macros in plain text
LaTeX:     turn on/off LaTeX fragments
skip:      turn on/off skipping the text before the first heading
author:    turn on/off inclusion of author name/email into exported file
creator:   turn on/off inclusion of creator info into exported file
timestamp: turn on/off inclusion creation time into exported file
d:         turn on/off inclusion of drawers

These options take effect in both the HTML and LaTeX export, except
for TeX' and LaTeX', which are respectively t' and nil' for the
LaTeX export.

When exporting only a single subtree by selecting it with C-c @'
before calling an export command, the subtree can overrule some of the
file's export settings with properties EXPORT_FILE_NAME',
EXPORT_TITLE', EXPORT_TEXT', and EXPORT_OPTIONS'.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) If you want to configure many options this way, you can use
several OPTIONS lines.

File: org,  Node: The export dispatcher,  Next: ASCII export,  Prev: Export options,  Up: Exporting

12.4 The export dispatcher
==========================

All export commands can be reached using the export dispatcher, which
is a prefix key that prompts for an additional key specifying the
command.  Normally the entire file is exported, but if there is an
active region that contains one outline tree, the first heading is used
as document title and the subtrees are exported.

C-c C-e'
Dispatcher for export and publishing commands.  Displays a
help-window listing the additional key(s) needed to launch an
export or publishing command.  The prefix arg is passed through to
the exporter.  A double prefix C-u C-u' causes most commands to
be executed in the background, in a separate emacs process(1).

C-c C-e v'
Like C-c C-e', but only export the text that is currently visible
(i.e. not hidden by outline visibility).

C-u C-u C-c C-e'
Call an the exporter, but reverse the setting of
org-export-run-in-background', i.e. request background processing
if not set, or force processing in the current Emacs process if st.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) To make this behavior the default, customize the variable
org-export-run-in-background'.

File: org,  Node: ASCII export,  Next: HTML export,  Prev: The export dispatcher,  Up: Exporting

12.5 ASCII export
=================

ASCII export produces a simple and very readable version of an Org mode
file.

C-c C-e a'
Export as ASCII file.  For an org file myfile.org', the ASCII file
will be myfile.txt'.  The file will be overwritten without
warning.  If there is an active region(1), only the region will be
exported. If the selected region is a single tree(2), the tree
head will become the document title.  If the tree head entry has
or inherits an EXPORT_FILE_NAME' property, that name will be used
for the export.

C-c C-e v a'
Export only the visible part of the document.

In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become
headlines, defining a general document structure.  Additional levels
will be exported as itemized lists.  If you want that transition to
occur at a different level, specify it with a prefix argument.  For
example,

C-1 C-c C-e a

creates only top level headlines and does the rest as items.  When
headlines are converted to items, the indentation of the text following
the headline is changed to fit nicely under the item.  This is done with
the assumption that the first body line indicates the base indentation
of the body text.  Any indentation larger than this is adjusted to
preserve the layout relative to the first line.  Should there be lines
with less indentation than the first, these are left alone.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) this requires transient-mark-mode' to be turned on

(2) To select the current subtree, use C-c @'.

File: org,  Node: HTML export,  Next: LaTeX and PDF export,  Prev: ASCII export,  Up: Exporting

12.6 HTML export
================

Org mode contains an HTML (XHTML 1.0 strict) exporter with extensive
HTML formatting, in ways similar to John Gruber's _markdown_ language,
but with additional support for tables.

* HTML Export commands::        How to invoke HTML export
* Quoting HTML tags::           Using direct HTML in Org mode
* Links::                       Transformation of links for HTML
* Images in HTML export::       How to insert figures into HTML output
* Text areas in HTML export::   An alternative way to show an example
* CSS support::                 Changing the appearance of the output
* Javascript support::          Info and Folding in a web browser

File: org,  Node: HTML Export commands,  Next: Quoting HTML tags,  Prev: HTML export,  Up: HTML export

12.6.1 HTML export commands
---------------------------

C-c C-e h'
Export as HTML file myfile.html'.  For an org file myfile.org',
the ASCII file will be myfile.html'.  The file will be overwritten
without warning.  If there is an active region(1), only the region
will be exported. If the selected region is a single tree(2), the
tree head will become the document title.  If the tree head entry
has, or inherits, an EXPORT_FILE_NAME' property, that name will
be used for the export.

C-c C-e b'
Export as HTML file and immediately open it with a browser.

C-c C-e H'
Export to a temporary buffer, do not create a file.

C-c C-e R'
Export the active region to a temporary buffer.  With a prefix
argument, do not produce the file header and footer, but just the
plain HTML section for the region.  This is good for cut-and-paste
operations.

C-c C-e v h'

C-c C-e v b'

C-c C-e v H'

C-c C-e v R'
Export only the visible part of the document.

M-x org-export-region-as-html'
Convert the region to HTML under the assumption that it was Org
mode syntax before.  This is a global command that can be invoked
in any buffer.

M-x org-replace-region-by-HTML'
Replace the active region (assumed to be in Org mode syntax) by
HTML code.

In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become
headlines, defining a general document structure.  Additional levels
will be exported as itemized lists.  If you want that transition to
occur at a different level, specify it with a numeric prefix argument.
For example,

C-2 C-c C-e b

creates two levels of headings and does the rest as items.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) this requires transient-mark-mode' to be turned on

(2) To select the current subtree, use C-c @'.

File: org,  Node: Quoting HTML tags,  Next: Links,  Prev: HTML Export commands,  Up: HTML export

12.6.2 Quoting HTML tags
------------------------

Plain <' and >' are always transformed to &lt;' and &gt;' in HTML
export.  If you want to include simple HTML tags which should be
interpreted as such, mark them with @' as in @<b>bold text@</b>'.
Note that this really works only for simple tags.  For more extensive
HTML that should be copied verbatim to the exported file use either

#+HTML: Literal HTML code for export

or

#+BEGIN_HTML
All lines between these markers are exported literally
#+END_HTML

File: org,  Node: Links,  Next: Images in HTML export,  Prev: Quoting HTML tags,  Up: HTML export

------------

Internal links (*note Internal links::) will continue to work in HTML.
This does include automatic links created by radio targets (*note Radio
targets::).  Links to external files will still work if the target file
is on the same relative path as the published Org file.  Links to other
.org' files will be translated into HTML links under the assumption
that an HTML version also exists of the linked file, at the same
relative path.  id:' links can then be used to jump to specific
entries across files.  For information related to linking files while
publishing them to a publishing directory see *note Publishing links::.

If you want to specify attributes for links, you can do so using a
special #+ATTR_HTML' line to define attributes that will be added to
the <a>' or <img>' tags.  Here is an example that sets alt' and
title' attributes for an inlined image:

#+ATTR_HTML: alt="This is image A" title="Image with no action"
[[./img/a.jpg]]

File: org,  Node: Images in HTML export,  Next: Text areas in HTML export,  Prev: Links,  Up: HTML export

12.6.4 Images
-------------

HTML export can inline images given as links in the Org file, and it
can make an image the clickable part of a link.  By default(1), images
are inlined if a link does not have a description.  So
[[file:myimg.jpg]]' will be inlined, while [[file:myimg.jpg][the
image]]' will just produce a link the image' that points to the image.
If the description part itself is a file:' link or a http:' URL
pointing to an image, this image will be inlined and activated so that
clicking on the image will activate the link.  For example, to include
a thumbnail that will link to a high resolution version of the image,
you could use:

[[file:highres.jpg][file:thumb.jpg]]

and you could use http' addresses just as well.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) but see the variable org-export-html-inline-images'

File: org,  Node: Text areas in HTML export,  Next: CSS support,  Prev: Images in HTML export,  Up: HTML export

12.6.5 Text areas
-----------------

An alternative way to publish literal code examples in HTML is to use
text areas, where the example can even be edited before pasting it into
an application.  It is triggered by a -t' switch at an example' or
src' block.  Using this switch disables any options for syntax and
label highlighting, and line numbering, which may be present.  You may
also use -h' and -w' switches to specify the height and width of the
text area, which default to the number of lines in the example, and 80,
respectively.  For example

#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE -t -w 40
(defun org-xor (a b)
"Exclusive or."
(if a (not b) b))
#+END_EXAMPLE

File: org,  Node: CSS support,  Next: Javascript support,  Prev: Text areas in HTML export,  Up: HTML export

12.6.6 CSS support
------------------

You can also give style information for the exported file.  The HTML
exporter assigns the following special CSS classes to appropriate parts
of the document - your style specifications may change these, in
addition to any of the standard classes like for headlines, tables etc.
.todo              TODO keywords
.done              the DONE keyword
.timestamp         time stamp
.timestamp-kwd     keyword associated with a time stamp, like SCHEDULED
.tag               tag in a headline
.target            target for links
div.figure         how to format an inlined image
.linenr            the line number in a code example
.code-highlighted  for highlighting referenced code lines

Each exported files contains a compact default style that defines
these classes in a basic way(1).  You may overwrite these settings, or
add to them by using the variables org-export-html-style' (for
Org-wide settings) and org-export-html-style-extra' (for more granular
settings, like file-local settings).  To set the latter variable
individually for each file, you can use

#+STYLE: <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheet.css" />

For longer style definitions, you can use several such lines.  You
could also directly write a <style>' </style>' section in this way,
without referring to an external file.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) This style is defined in the constant
org-export-html-style-default', which you should not modify.  To turn
inclusion of these defaults off, customize
org-export-html-style-include-default'

File: org,  Node: Javascript support,  Prev: CSS support,  Up: HTML export

12.6.7 Javascript supported display of web pages
------------------------------------------------

_Sebastian Rose_ has written a JavaScript program especially designed to
enhance the web viewing experience of HTML files created with Org.  This
program allows you to view large files in two different ways.  The
first one is an _Info_-like mode where each section is displayed
separately and navigation can be done with the n' and p' keys (and
some other keys as well, press ?' for an overview of the available
keys).  The second view type is a _folding_ view much like Org provides
inside Emacs.  The script is available at
http://orgmode.org/org-info.js' and you can find the documentation for
it at http://orgmode.org/worg/code/org-info-js/'.  We are serving the
script from our site, but if you use it a lot, you might not want to be
dependent on orgmode.org' and prefer to install a local copy on your
own web server.

To use the script, you need to make sure that the org-jsinfo.el'
module gets loaded.  It should be loaded by default, but you can try
M-x customize-variable <RET> org-modules <RET>' to convince yourself
that this is indeed the case.  All it then takes to make use of the
program is adding a single line to the Org file:

#+INFOJS_OPT: view:info toc:nil

If this line is found, the HTML header will automatically contain the
code needed to invoke the script.  Using the line above, you can set
the following viewing options:

path:    The path to the script.  The default is to grab the script from
http://orgmode.org/org-info.js', but you might want to have
a local copy and use a path like ../scripts/org-info.js'.
view:    Initial view when website is first shown.  Possible values are:
info      Info-like interface with one section per page.
overview  Folding interface, initially showing only top-level.
content   Folding interface, starting with all headlines visible.
showall   Folding interface, all headlines and text visible.
sdepth:  Maximum headline level that will still become an independent
section for info and folding modes.  The default is taken from
org-headline-levels' (= the H' switch in #+OPTIONS').
If this is smaller than in org-headline-levels', each
info/folding section can still contain children headlines.
toc:     Should the table of content _initially_ be visible?
Even when nil', you can always get to the toc with i'.
tdepth:  The depth of the table of contents.  The defaults are taken from
the variables org-headline-levels' and org-export-with-toc'.
ftoc:    Does the css of the page specify a fixed position for the toc?
If yes, the toc will never be displayed as a section.
ltoc:    Should there be short contents (children) in each section?
Make this above' it the section should be above initial text.
mouse:   Headings are highlighted when the mouse is over them.  Should be
underline' (default) or a background color like #cccccc'.
buttons: Should view-toggle buttons be everywhere?  When nil' (the
default), only one such button will be present.

You can choose default values for these options by customizing the
variable org-infojs-options'.  If you always want to apply the script
to your pages, configure the variable org-export-html-use-infojs'.

File: org,  Node: LaTeX and PDF export,  Next: XOXO export,  Prev: HTML export,  Up: Exporting

12.7 LaTeX and PDF export
=========================

Org mode contains a LaTeX exporter written by Bastien Guerry.  With
further processing, this backend is also used to produce PDF output.
Since the LaTeX output uses hyperref' to implement links and cross
references, the PDF output file will be fully linked.

* LaTeX/PDF export commands::   Which key invokes which commands
* Quoting LaTeX code::          Incorporating literal LaTeX code
* Sectioning structure::        Changing sectioning in LaTeX output
* Tables in LaTeX export::      Options for exporting tables to LaTeX
* Images in LaTeX export::      How to insert figures into LaTeX output

File: org,  Node: LaTeX/PDF export commands,  Next: Quoting LaTeX code,  Prev: LaTeX and PDF export,  Up: LaTeX and PDF export

12.7.1 LaTeX export commands
----------------------------

C-c C-e l'
Export as LaTeX file myfile.tex'.  For an org file myfile.org',
the ASCII file will be myfile.tex'.  The file will be overwritten
without warning.  If there is an active region(1), only the region
will be exported. If the selected region is a single tree(2), the
tree head will become the document title.  If the tree head entry
has or inherits an EXPORT_FILE_NAME' property, that name will be
used for the export.

C-c C-e L'
Export to a temporary buffer, do not create a file.

C-c C-e v l'

C-c C-e v L'
Export only the visible part of the document.

M-x org-export-region-as-latex'
Convert the region to LaTeX under the assumption that it was Org
mode syntax before.  This is a global command that can be invoked
in any buffer.

M-x org-replace-region-by-latex'
Replace the active region (assumed to be in Org mode syntax) by
LaTeX code.

C-c C-e p'
Export as LaTeX and then process to PDF.

C-c C-e d'
Export as LaTeX and then process to PDF, then open the resulting
PDF file.

In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become
headlines, defining a general document structure.  Additional levels
will be exported as description lists.  The exporter can ignore them or
convert them to a custom string depending on org-latex-low-levels'.

If you want that transition to occur at a different level, specify it
with a numeric prefix argument. For example,

C-2 C-c C-e l

creates two levels of headings and does the rest as items.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) this requires transient-mark-mode' to be turned on

(2) To select the current subtree, use C-c @'.

File: org,  Node: Quoting LaTeX code,  Next: Sectioning structure,  Prev: LaTeX/PDF export commands,  Up: LaTeX and PDF export

12.7.2 Quoting LaTeX code
-------------------------

Embedded LaTeX as described in *note Embedded LaTeX:: will be correctly
inserted into the LaTeX file.  This includes simple macros like
\ref{LABEL}' to create a cross reference to a figure.  Furthermore,
you can add special code that should only be present in LaTeX export
with the following constructs:

#+LaTeX: Literal LaTeX code for export

or

#+BEGIN_LaTeX
All lines between these markers are exported literally
#+END_LaTeX

File: org,  Node: Sectioning structure,  Next: Tables in LaTeX export,  Prev: Quoting LaTeX code,  Up: LaTeX and PDF export

12.7.3 Sectioning structure
---------------------------

By default, the LaTeX output uses the class article'.

You can change this globally by setting a different value for
org-export-latex-default-class' or locally by adding an option like
#+LaTeX_CLASS: myclass' in your file, or with a :LaTeX_CLASS:'
property that applies when exporting a region containing only this
(sub)tree.  The class should be listed in org-export-latex-classes',
where you can also define the sectioning structure for each class, as
well as defining additional classes.

File: org,  Node: Tables in LaTeX export,  Next: Images in LaTeX export,  Prev: Sectioning structure,  Up: LaTeX and PDF export

12.7.4 Tables in LaTeX export
-----------------------------

For LaTeX export of a table, you can specify a label and a caption
(*note Markup rules::).  You can also use the ATTR_LaTeX' line to
request a longtable environment for the table, so that it may span
several pages:

#+CAPTION: A long table
#+LABEL: tbl:long
#+ATTR_LaTeX: longtable
| ..... | ..... |
| ..... | ..... |

File: org,  Node: Images in LaTeX export,  Prev: Tables in LaTeX export,  Up: LaTeX and PDF export

12.7.5 Images in LaTeX export
-----------------------------

Images that are linked to without a description part in the link, like
[[file:img.jpg]]' or [[./img.jpg]]' will be inserted into the PDF
output files resulting from LaTeX output.  Org will use an
\includegraphics' macro to insert the image.  If you have specified a
caption and/or a label as described in *note Markup rules::, the figure
will be wrapped into a figure' environment and thus become a floating
element.  Finally, you can use an #+ATTR_LaTeX:' line to specify the
options that can be used in the optional argument of the
\includegraphics' macro.

#+CAPTION:    The black-body emission of the disk around HR 4049
#+LABEL:      fig:SED-HR4049
#+ATTR_LaTeX: width=5cm,angle=90
[[./img/sed-hr4049.pdf]]

If you need references to a label created in this way, write
\ref{fig:SED-HR4049}' just like in LaTeX.  The default settings will
recognize files types that can be included as images during processing
by pdflatex (png', jpg', and pdf' files).  If you process your files
in a different way, you may need to customize the variable
org-export-latex-inline-image-extensions'.

File: org,  Node: XOXO export,  Next: iCalendar export,  Prev: LaTeX and PDF export,  Up: Exporting

12.8 XOXO export
================

Org mode contains an exporter that produces XOXO-style output.
Currently, this exporter only handles the general outline structure and
does not interpret any additional Org mode features.

C-c C-e x'
Export as XOXO file myfile.html'.

C-c C-e v x'
Export only the visible part of the document.

File: org,  Node: iCalendar export,  Prev: XOXO export,  Up: Exporting

12.9 iCalendar export
=====================

Some people like to use Org mode for keeping track of projects, but
still prefer a standard calendar application for anniversaries and
appointments.  In this case it can be useful to have deadlines and
other time-stamped items in Org files show up in the calendar
application.  Org mode can export calendar information in the standard
iCalendar format.  If you also want to have TODO entries included in
the export, configure the variable org-icalendar-include-todo'.
iCalendar export will export plain time stamps as VEVENT, and TODO
items as VTODO.  It will also create events from deadlines that are in
non-TODO items.  Deadlines and scheduling dates in TODO items will be
used to set the start and due dates for the todo entry(1).  As
categories, it will use the tags locally defined in the heading, and
the file/tree category(2).

The iCalendar standard requires each entry to have a globally unique
identifier (UID).  Org creates these identifiers during export.  If you
set the variable org-icalendar-store-UID', the UID will be stored in
the :ID:' property of the entry and re-used next time you report this
entry.  Since a single entry can give rise to multiple iCalendar
entries (as a timestamp, a deadline, a scheduled item, and as a TODO
item), Org adds prefixes to the UID, depending on what triggered the
inclusion of the entry.  In this way the UID remains unique, but a
synchronization program can still figure out from which entry all the
different instances originate.

C-c C-e i'
Create iCalendar entries for the current file and store them in
the same directory, using a file extension .ics'.

C-c C-e I'
Like C-c C-e i', but do this for all files in org-agenda-files'.
For each of these files, a separate iCalendar file will be written.

C-c C-e c'
Create a single large iCalendar file from all files in
org-agenda-files' and write it to the file given by
org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file'.

The export will honor SUMMARY, DESCRIPTION and LOCATION(3)
properties if the selected entries have them.  If not, the summary will
be derived from the headline, and the description from the body
(limited to org-icalendar-include-body' characters).

How this calendar is best read and updated, that depends on the
application you are using.  The FAQ covers this issue.

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) See the variables org-icalendar-use-deadline' and
org-icalendar-use-scheduled'.

(2) To add inherited tags or the TODO state, configure the variable
org-icalendar-categories'.

(3) The LOCATION property can be inherited from higher in the
hierarchy if you configure org-use-property-inheritance' accordingly.

File: org,  Node: Publishing,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: Exporting,  Up: Top

13 Publishing
*************

Org includes(1) a publishing management system that allows you to
configure automatic HTML conversion of _projects_ composed of
interlinked org files.  This system is called _org-publish_.  You can
also configure org-publish to automatically upload your exported HTML
pages and related attachments, such as images and source code files, to
a web server. Org-publish turns Org into a web-site authoring tool.

You can also use Org-publish to convert files into LaTeX, or even
combine HTML and LaTeX conversion so that files are available in both
formats on the server(2).

Org-publish has been contributed to Org by David O'Toole.

* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands

---------- Footnotes ----------

(1) org-publish.el' is not distributed with Emacs 21, if you are
still using Emacs 21, you need you need to download this file
separately.

(2) Since LaTeX files on a server are not that helpful, you surely
want to perform further conversion on them - e.g. convert them to PDF'
format.

File: org,  Node: Configuration,  Next: Sample configuration,  Prev: Publishing,  Up: Publishing

13.1 Configuration
==================

Publishing needs significant configuration to specify files, destination
and many other properties of a project.

* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files

File: org,  Node: Project alist,  Next: Sources and destinations,  Prev: Configuration,  Up: Configuration

13.1.1 The variable org-publish-project-alist'
-----------------------------------------------

Org-publish is configured almost entirely through setting the value of
one variable, called org-publish-project-alist'.  Each element of the
list configures one project, and may be in one of the two following
forms:

("project-name" :property value :property value ...)

or

("project-name" :components ("project-name" "project-name" ...))

In both cases, projects are configured by specifying property values.
A project defines the set of files that will be published, as well as
the publishing configuration to use when publishing those files.  When
a project takes the second form listed above, the individual members of
the "components" property are taken to be components of the project,
which group together files requiring different publishing options. When
you publish such a "meta-project" all the components will also publish.
The :components' are published in the sequence provided.

File: org,  Node: Sources and destinations,  Next: Selecting files,  Prev: Project alist,  Up: Configuration

13.1.2 Sources and destinations for files
-----------------------------------------

Most properties are optional, but some should always be set. In
particular, org-publish needs to know where to look for source files,
and where to put published files.

:base-directory'      Directory containing publishing source files
:publishing-directory'Directory (possibly remote) where output files
will be published.
:preparation-function'Function called before starting the publishing
process, for example to run make' for updating
files to be published.
:completion-function' Function called after finishing the publishing
process, for example to change permissions of the
resulting files.

File: org,  Node: Selecting files,  Next: Publishing action,  Prev: Sources and destinations,  Up: Configuration

13.1.3 Selecting files
----------------------

By default, all files with extension .org' in the base directory are
considered part of the project.  This can be modified by setting the
properties
:base-extension'  Extension (without the dot!) of source files.  This
actually is a regular expression.
:exclude'         Regular expression to match file names that should
not be published, even though they have been selected
on the basis of their extension.
:include'         List of files to be included regardless of
:base-extension' and :exclude'.

File: org,  Node: Publishing action,  Next: Publishing options,  Prev: Selecting files,  Up: Configuration

13.1.4 Publishing action
------------------------

Publishing means that a file is copied to the destination directory and
possibly transformed in the process.  The default transformation is to
export Org files as HTML files, and this is done by the function
org-publish-org-to-html' which calls the HTML exporter (*note HTML
export::). But you also can publish your files in LaTeX by using the
function org-publish-org-to-latex' instead, or as PDF files using
org-publish-org-to-pdf'.  Other files like images only need to be
copied to the publishing destination. For non-Org files, you need to
provide your own publishing function:

:publishing-function' Function executing the publication of a file.
This may also be a list of functions, which will
all be called in turn.

The function must accept two arguments: a property list containing at
least a :publishing-directory' property, and the name of the file to
be published.  It should take the specified file, make the necessary
transformation (if any) and place the result into the destination
folder.  You can write your own publishing function, but org-publish'
provides one for attachments (files that only need to be copied):
org-publish-attachment'.

File: org,  Node: Publishing options,  Next: Publishing links,  Prev: Publishing action,  Up: Configuration

13.1.5 Options for the HTML/LaTeX exporters
-------------------------------------------

The property list can be used to set many export options for the HTML
and LaTeX exporters.  In most cases, these properties correspond to user
variables in Org.  The table below lists these properties along with
the variable they belong to.  See the documentation string for the
respective variable for details.

:link-up'              org-export-html-link-up'
:link-home'            org-export-html-link-home'
:language'             org-export-default-language'
:customtime'           org-display-custom-times'
:headline-levels'      org-export-headline-levels'
:section-numbers'      org-export-with-section-numbers'
:section-number-format'org-export-section-number-format'
:table-of-contents'    org-export-with-toc'
:preserve-breaks'      org-export-preserve-breaks'
:archived-trees'       org-export-with-archived-trees'
:emphasize'            org-export-with-emphasize'
:sub-superscript'      org-export-with-sub-superscripts'
:special-strings'      org-export-with-special-strings'
:footnotes'            org-export-with-footnotes'
:drawers'              org-export-with-drawers'
:tags'                 org-export-with-tags'
:todo-keywords'        org-export-with-todo-keywords'
:priority'             org-export-with-priority'
:TeX-macros'           org-export-with-TeX-macros'
:LaTeX-fragments'      org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments'
:skip-before-1st-heading'org-export-skip-text-before-1st-heading'
:fixed-width'          org-export-with-fixed-width'
:timestamps'           org-export-with-timestamps'
:author-info'          org-export-author-info'
:creator-info'         org-export-creator-info'
:tables'               org-export-with-tables'
:table-auto-headline'  org-export-highlight-first-table-line'
:style-include-default'org-export-html-style-include-default'
:style'                org-export-html-style'
:style-extra'          org-export-html-style-extra'
:convert-org-links'    org-export-html-link-org-files-as-html'
:inline-images'        org-export-html-inline-images'
:html-extension'       org-export-html-extension'
:html-table-tag'       org-export-html-table-tag'
:expand-quoted-html'   org-export-html-expand'
:timestamp'            org-export-html-with-timestamp'
:publishing-directory' org-export-publishing-directory'
:preamble'             org-export-html-preamble'
:postamble'            org-export-html-postamble'
:auto-preamble'        org-export-html-auto-preamble'
:auto-postamble'       org-export-html-auto-postamble'
:author'               user-full-name'
:email'                user-mail-address'
:select-tags'          org-export-select-tags'
:exclude-tags'         org-export-exclude-tags'

If you use several email addresses, separate them by a semi-column.

Most of the org-export-with-*' variables have the same effect in
both HTML and LaTeX exporters, except for :TeX-macros' and
:LaTeX-fragments', respectively nil' and t' in the LaTeX export.

When a property is given a value in org-publish-project-alist', its
setting overrides the value of the corresponding user variable (if any)
during publishing.  Options set within a file (*note Export options::),
however, override everything.

File: org,  Node: Publishing links,  Next: Project page index,  Prev: Publishing options,  Up: Configuration

13.1.6 Links between published files
------------------------------------

To create a link from one Org file to another, you would use something
like [[file:foo.org][The foo]]' or simply file:foo.org.' (*note
Hyperlinks::).  Upon publishing this link becomes a link to foo.html'.
In this way, you can interlink the pages of your "org web" project and
the links will work as expected when you publish them to HTML.

You may also link to related files, such as images. Provided you are
careful with relative pathnames, and provided you have also configured
org-publish' to upload the related files, these links will work too.
See *note Complex example:: for an example of this usage.

Sometime an Org file to be published may contain links that are only
valid in your production environment, but not in the publishing
location.  In this case, use the property

to define a function for checking link validity.  This function must
accept two arguments, the file name and a directory relative to which
the file name is interpreted in the production environment.  If this
function returns nil', then the HTML generator will only insert a
description into the HTML file, but no link.  One option for this
function is org-publish-validate-link' which checks if the given file
is part of any project in org-publish-project-alist'.

File: org,  Node: Project page index,  Prev: Publishing links,  Up: Configuration

13.1.7 Project page index
-------------------------

The following properties may be used to control publishing of an index
of files or summary page for a given project.

:auto-index'      When non-nil, publish an index during
org-publish-current-project or org-publish-all.
:index-filename'  Filename for output of index. Defaults to index.org'
(which becomes index.html').
:index-title'     Title of index page. Defaults to name of file.
:index-function'  Plug-in function to use for generation of index.
Defaults to org-publish-org-index', which generates
a plain list of links to all files in the project.

File: org,  Node: Sample configuration,  Next: Triggering publication,  Prev: Configuration,  Up: Publishing

13.2 Sample configuration
=========================

Below we provide two example configurations.  The first one is a simple
project publishing only a set of Org files.  The second example is more
complex, with a multi-component project.

* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example

File: org,  Node: Simple example,  Next: Complex example,  Prev: Sample configuration,  Up: Sample configuration

13.2.1 Example: simple publishing configuration
-----------------------------------------------

This example publishes a set of Org files to the public_html'
directory on the local machine.

(setq org-publish-project-alist
'(("org"
:base-directory "~/org/"
:publishing-directory "~/public_html"
:section-numbers nil
:table-of-contents nil
href=\"../other/mystyle.css\"
type=\"text/css\">")))

File: org,  Node: Complex example,  Prev: Simple example,  Up: Sample configuration

13.2.2 Example: complex publishing configuration
------------------------------------------------

This more complicated example publishes an entire website, including
org files converted to HTML, image files, emacs lisp source code, and
style sheets. The publishing-directory is remote and private files are
excluded.

To ensure that links are preserved, care should be taken to replicate
your directory structure on the web server, and to use relative file
paths. For example, if your org files are kept in ~/org' and your
publishable images in ~/images', you'd link to an image with
file:../images/myimage.png
On the web server, the relative path to the image should be the
same. You can accomplish this by setting up an "images" folder in the
right place on the web server, and publishing images to it.

(setq org-publish-project-alist
'(("orgfiles"
:base-directory "~/org/"
:base-extension "org"
:publishing-directory "/ssh:user@host:~/html/notebook/"
:publishing-function org-publish-org-to-html
:exclude "PrivatePage.org"   ;; regexp
:section-numbers nil
:table-of-contents nil
href=\"../other/mystyle.css\" type=\"text/css\">"
:auto-preamble t
:auto-postamble nil)

("images"
:base-directory "~/images/"
:base-extension "jpg\\|gif\\|png"
:publishing-directory "/ssh:user@host:~/html/images/"
:publishing-function org-publish-attachment)

("other"
:base-directory "~/other/"
:base-extension "css\\|el"
:publishing-directory "/ssh:user@host:~/html/other/"
:publishing-function org-publish-attachment)
("website" :components ("orgfiles" "images" "other"))))

File: org,  Node: Triggering publication,  Prev: Sample configuration,  Up: Publishing

13.3 Triggering publication
===========================

Once org-publish is properly configured, you can publish with the
following functions:

C-c C-e C'
Prompt for a specific project and publish all files that belong to
it.

C-c C-e P'
Publish the project containing the current file.

C-c C-e F'
Publish only the current file.

C-c C-e A'
Publish all projects.

Org uses timestamps to track when a file has changed. The above
functions normally only publish changed files. You can override this and
force publishing of all files by giving a prefix argument.

File: org,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Next: Extensions,  Prev: Publishing,  Up: Top

14 Miscellaneous
****************

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* Customization::               Adapting Org to your taste
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* TTY keys::                    Using Org on a tty
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly

File: org,  Node: Completion,  Next: Customization,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.1 Completion
===============

Org supports in-buffer completion.  This type of completion does not
make use of the minibuffer.  You simply type a few letters into the
buffer and use the key to complete text right there.

M-<TAB>'
Complete word at point
* At the beginning of a headline, complete TODO keywords.

* After \', complete TeX symbols supported by the exporter.

* After *', complete headlines in the current buffer so that
they can be used in search links like [[*find this

* After :' in a headline, complete tags.  The list of tags is
taken from the variable org-tag-alist' (possibly set through
the #+TAGS' in-buffer option, *note Setting tags::), or it
is created dynamically from all tags used in the current
buffer.

* After :' and not in a headline, complete property keys.  The
list of keys is constructed dynamically from all keys used in
the current buffer.

* After [', complete link abbreviations (*note Link
abbreviations::).

* After #+', complete the special keywords like TYP_TODO' or
OPTIONS' which set file-specific options for Org mode.  When
the option keyword is already complete, pressing M-<TAB>'
again will insert example settings for this keyword.

* In the line after #+STARTUP: ', complete startup keywords,
i.e. valid keys for this line.

* Elsewhere, complete dictionary words using Ispell.

File: org,  Node: Customization,  Next: In-buffer settings,  Prev: Completion,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.2 Customization
==================

There are more than 180 variables that can be used to customize Org.
For the sake of compactness of the manual, I am not describing the
variables here.  A structured overview of customization variables is
available with M-x org-customize'.  Or select Browse Org Group' from
the Org->Customization' menu.  Many settings can also be activated on
a per-file basis, by putting special lines into the buffer (*note
In-buffer settings::).

File: org,  Node: In-buffer settings,  Next: The very busy C-c C-c key,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.3 Summary of in-buffer settings
==================================

Org mode uses special lines in the buffer to define settings on a
per-file basis.  These lines start with a #+' followed by a keyword, a
colon, and then individual words defining a setting.  Several setting
words can be in the same line, but you can also have multiple lines for
the keyword.  While these settings are described throughout the manual,
here is a summary.  After changing any of those lines in the buffer,
press C-c C-c' with the cursor still in the line to activate the
changes immediately.  Otherwise they become effective only when the
file is visited again in a new Emacs session.

#+ARCHIVE: %s_done::'
This line sets the archive location for the agenda file.  It
applies for all subsequent lines until the next #+ARCHIVE' line,
or the end of the file.  The first such line also applies to any
entries before it.  The corresponding variable is
org-archive-location'.

#+CATEGORY:'
This line sets the category for the agenda file.  The category
applies for all subsequent lines until the next #+CATEGORY' line,
or the end of the file.  The first such line also applies to any
entries before it.

#+COLUMNS: %25ITEM .....'
Set the default format for columns view.  This format applies when
columns view is invoked in location where no COLUMNS' property
applies.

#+CONSTANTS: name1=value1 ...'
Set file-local values for constants to be used in table formulas.
This line set the local variable
org-table-formula-constants-local'.  The global version of this
variable is org-table-formula-constants'.

#+FILETAGS: :tag1:tag2:tag3:'
Set tags that can be inherited by any entry in the file, including
the top-level entries.

#+DRAWERS: NAME1 .....'
Set the file-local set of drawers.  The corresponding global
variable is org-drawers'.

These lines (several are allowed) specify link abbreviations.
*Note Link abbreviations::.  The corresponding variable is
org-link-abbrev-alist'.

#+PRIORITIES: highest lowest default'
This line sets the limits and the default for the priorities.  All
three must be either letters A-Z or numbers 0-9.  The highest
priority must have a lower ASCII number that the lowest priority.

#+PROPERTY: Property_Name Value'
This line sets a default inheritance value for entries in the
current buffer, most useful for specifying the allowed values of a
property.

#+SETUPFILE: file'
This line defines a file that holds more in-buffer setup.
Normally this is entirely ignored.  Only when the buffer is parsed
for option-setting lines (i.e. when starting Org mode for a file,
when pressing C-c C-c' in a settings line, or when exporting),
then the contents of this file are parsed as if they had been
included in the buffer.  In particular, the file can be any other
Org mode file with internal setup.  You can visit the file the
cursor is in the line with C-c ''.

#+STARTUP:'
This line sets options to be used at startup of Org mode, when an
Org file is being visited.  The first set of options deals with the
initial visibility of the outline tree.  The corresponding
variable for global default settings is org-startup-folded', with
a default value t', which means overview'.
overview   top-level headlines only
showall    no folding at all, show everything
Then there are options for aligning tables upon visiting a file.
This is useful in files containing narrowed table columns.  The
corresponding variable is org-startup-align-all-tables', with a
default value nil'.
align      align all tables
noalign    don't align tables on startup
Logging closing and reinstating TODO items, and clock intervals
(variables org-log-done', org-log-note-clock-out', and
org-log-repeat') can be configured using these options.
logdone            record a timestamp when an item is marked DONE
lognotedone        record timestamp and a note when DONE
nologdone          don't record when items are marked DONE
logrepeat          record a time when reinstating a repeating item
lognoterepeat      record a note when reinstating a repeating item
nologrepeat        do not record when reinstating repeating item
lognoteclock-out   record a note when clocking out
nolognoteclock-out don't record a note when clocking out
Here are the options for hiding leading stars in outline headings,
and for indenting outlines.  The corresponding variables are
org-hide-leading-stars' and org-odd-levels-only', both with a
default setting nil' (meaning showstars' and oddeven').
hidestars  make all but one of the stars starting a headline invisible.
showstars  show all stars starting a headline
indent     virtual indentation according to outline level
noindent   no virtual indentation according to outline level
odd        allow only odd outline levels (1,3,...)
oddeven    allow all outline levels
To turn on custom format overlays over time stamps (variables
org-put-time-stamp-overlays' and
org-time-stamp-overlay-formats'), use
customtime overlay custom time format
The following options influence the table spreadsheet (variable
constants-unit-system').
constcgs   constants.el' should use the c-g-s unit system
constSI    constants.el' should use the SI unit system
To influence footnote settings, use the following keywords.  The
corresponding variables are org-footnote-define-inline' and
org-footnote-auto-label'.
fninline    define footnotes inline
fnnoinline  define footnotes in separate section
fnlocal     define footnotes near first reference, but not inline
fnprompt    prompt for footnote labels
fnauto      create [fn:1]-like labels automatically (default)
fnconfirm   offer automatic label for editing or confirmation
fnplain     create [1]-like labels automatically

#+TAGS:  TAG1(c1) TAG2(c2)'
These lines (several such lines are allowed) specify the valid
tags in this file, and (potentially) the corresponding _fast tag
selection_ keys.  The corresponding variable is org-tag-alist'.

#+TBLFM:'
This line contains the formulas for the table directly above the
line.

#+TITLE:, #+AUTHOR:, #+EMAIL:, #+LANGUAGE:, #+TEXT:, #+OPTIONS, #+DATE:'
These lines provide settings for exporting files.  For more
details see *note Export options::.

#+SEQ_TODO:   #+TYP_TODO:'
These lines set the TODO keywords and their interpretation in the
current file.  The corresponding variables are org-todo-keywords'
and org-todo-interpretation'.

File: org,  Node: The very busy C-c C-c key,  Next: Clean view,  Prev: In-buffer settings,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.4 The very busy C-c C-c key
==============================

The key C-c C-c' has many purposes in Org, which are all mentioned
scattered throughout this manual.  One specific function of this key is
to add _tags_ to a headline (*note Tags::).  In many other
circumstances it means something like _Hey Org, look here and update
according to what you see here_.  Here is a summary of what this means
in different contexts.

- If there are highlights in the buffer from the creation of a sparse
tree, or from clock display, remove these highlights.

- If the cursor is in one of the special #+KEYWORD' lines, this
triggers scanning the buffer for these lines and updating the
information.

- If the cursor is inside a table, realign the table.  This command
works even if the automatic table editor has been turned off.

- If the cursor is on a #+TBLFM' line, re-apply the formulas to the
entire table.

- If the cursor is inside a table created by the table.el' package,
activate that table.

- If the current buffer is a remember buffer, close the note and
file it.  With a prefix argument, file it, without further
interaction, to the default location.

- If the cursor is on a <<<target>>>', update radio targets and
corresponding links in this buffer.

- If the cursor is in a property line or at the start or end of a
property drawer, offer property commands.

- If the cursor is at a footnote reference, go to the corresponding
definition, and vice versa.

- If the cursor is in a plain list item with a checkbox, toggle the
status of the checkbox.

- If the cursor is on a numbered item in a plain list, renumber the
ordered list.

- If the cursor is on the #+BEGIN' line of a dynamical block, the
block is updated.

File: org,  Node: Clean view,  Next: TTY keys,  Prev: The very busy C-c C-c key,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.5 A cleaner outline view
===========================

Some people find it noisy and distracting that the Org headlines are
starting with a potentially large number of stars, and that text below
the headlines is not indented.  This is not really a problem when you
are writing a book where the outline headings are really section
headlines.  However, in a more list-oriented outline, it is clear that
an indented structure is a lot cleaner, as can be seen by comparing the
two columns in the following example:

* Top level headline             |    * Top level headline
** Second level                  |      * Second level
*** 3rd level                    |        * 3rd level
some text                        |          some text
*** 3rd level                    |        * 3rd level
more text                        |          more text
* Another top level headline     |    * Another top level headline

It is non-trivial to make such a look work in Emacs, but Org contains
three separate features that, combined, achieve just that.

1. _Indentation of text below headlines_
You may indent text below each headline to make the left boundary
line up with the headline, like

*** 3rd level
more text, now indented

A good way to get this indentation is by hand, and Org supports
this with paragraph filling, line wrapping, and structure
editing(1) preserving or adapting the indentation appropriate.  A
different approach would be to have a way to automatically indent
lines according to outline structure by adding overlays or text
properties.  But I have not yet found a robust and efficient way to
do this in large files.

2. _Hiding leading stars_
You can modify the display in such a way that all leading stars
become invisible.  To do this in a global way, configure the
variable org-hide-leading-stars' or change this on a per-file
basis with

#+STARTUP: hidestars

Note that the opposite behavior is selected with showstars'.

With hidden stars, the tree becomes:

* Top level headline
* Second level
* 3rd level
...

Note that the leading stars are not truly replaced by whitespace,
they are only fontified with the face org-hide' that uses the
background color as font color.  If you are not using either white
or black background, you may have to customize this face to get
the wanted effect.  Another possibility is to set this font such
that the extra stars are almost invisible, for example using the
color grey90' on a white background.

3. Things become cleaner still if you skip all the even levels and
use only odd levels 1, 3, 5..., effectively adding two stars to go
from one outline level to the next.  In this way we get the
outline view shown at the beginning of this section.  In order to
make the structure editing and export commands handle this
convention correctly, configure the variable
org-odd-levels-only', or set this on a per-file basis with one of
the following lines:

#+STARTUP: odd
#+STARTUP: oddeven

You can convert an Org file from single-star-per-level to the
double-star-per-level convention with M-x
org-convert-to-odd-levels RET' in that file.  The reverse
operation is M-x org-convert-to-oddeven-levels'.

---------- Footnotes ----------

File: org,  Node: TTY keys,  Next: Interaction,  Prev: Clean view,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.6 Using Org on a tty
=======================

Because Org contains a large number of commands, by default much of
Org's core commands are bound to keys that are generally not accessible
on a tty, such as the cursor keys (<left>, <right>, <up>, <down>),
<TAB> and <RET>, in particular when used together with modifiers like
<Meta> and/or <Shift>.  To access these commands on a tty when special
keys are unavailable, the following alternative bindings can be used.
The tty bindings below will likely be more cumbersome; you may find for
some of the bindings below that a customized work-around suits you
better.  For example, changing a time stamp is really only fun with
S-<cursor>' keys, whereas on a tty you would rather use C-c .' to
re-insert the timestamp.

Default     Alternative 1  Alternative 2
S-<TAB>'   C-u <TAB>'
M-<left>'  C-c C-x l'    <Esc> <left>'
M-S-<left>'C-c C-x L'
M-<right>' C-c C-x i'    <Esc>
<right>'
M-S-<right>'C-c C-x R'
M-<up>'    C-c C-x u'    <Esc> <up>'
M-S-<up>'  C-c C-x U'
M-<down>'  C-c C-x d'    <Esc> <down>'
M-S-<down>'C-c C-x D'
S-<RET>'   C-c C-x c'
M-<RET>'   C-c C-x m'    <Esc> <RET>'
M-S-<RET>' C-c C-x M'
S-<left>'  C-c <left>'
S-<right>' C-c <right>'
S-<up>'    C-c <up>'
S-<down>'  C-c <down>'
C-S-<left>'C-c C-x
<left>'
C-S-<right>'C-c C-x
<right>'

File: org,  Node: Interaction,  Next: Bugs,  Prev: TTY keys,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.7 Interaction with other packages
====================================

Org lives in the world of GNU Emacs and interacts in various ways with
other code out there.

* Cooperation::                 Packages Org cooperates with
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts

File: org,  Node: Cooperation,  Next: Conflicts,  Prev: Interaction,  Up: Interaction

14.7.1 Packages that Org cooperates with
----------------------------------------

calc.el' by Dave Gillespie
Org uses the Calc package for implementing spreadsheet
functionality in its tables (*note The spreadsheet::).  Org checks
for the availability of Calc by looking for the function
calc-eval' which should be autoloaded in your setup if Calc has
been installed properly.  As of Emacs 22, Calc is part of the Emacs
distribution.  Another possibility for interaction between the two
packages is using Calc for embedded calculations. *Note Embedded
Mode: (Calc)Embedded Mode.

constants.el' by Carsten Dominik
In a table formula (*note The spreadsheet::), it is possible to use
names for natural constants or units.  Instead of defining your own
constants in the variable org-table-formula-constants', install
the constants' package which defines a large number of constants
and units, and lets you use unit prefixes like M' for Mega' etc.
You will need version 2.0 of this package, available at
http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools'. Org checks for the
function constants-get', which has to be autoloaded in your
setup.  See the installation instructions in the file
constants.el'.

cdlatex.el' by Carsten Dominik
Org mode can make use of the CDLaTeX package to efficiently enter
LaTeX fragments into Org files. See *note CDLaTeX mode::.

imenu.el' by Ake Stenhoff and Lars Lindberg
Imenu allows menu access to an index of items in a file.  Org mode
supports Imenu - all you need to do to get the index is the
following:
By default the index is two levels deep - you can modify the depth
using the option org-imenu-depth'.

remember.el' by John Wiegley
Org cooperates with remember, see *note Remember::.  Remember.el'
is not part of Emacs, find it on the web.

speedbar.el' by Eric M. Ludlam
Speedbar is a package that creates a special frame displaying
files and index items in files.  Org mode supports Speedbar and
allows you to drill into Org files directly from the Speedbar.  It
also allows to restrict the scope of agenda commands to a file or
a subtree by using the command <' in the Speedbar frame.

table.el' by Takaaki Ota
Complex ASCII tables with automatic line wrapping, column- and
row-spanning, and alignment can be created using the Emacs table
package by Takaaki Ota (http://sourceforge.net/projects/table',
and also part of Emacs 22).  When <TAB> or C-c C-c' is pressed in
such a table, Org mode will call table-recognize-table' and move
the cursor into the table.  Inside a table, the keymap of Org mode
is inactive.  In order to execute Org mode-related commands, leave
the table.

C-c C-c'
Recognize table.el' table.  Works when the cursor is in a
table.el table.

C-c ~'
Insert a table.el table.  If there is already a table at
point, this command converts it between the table.el format
and the Org mode format.  See the documentation string of the
command org-convert-table' for the restrictions under which
this is possible.
table.el' is part of Emacs 22.

footnote.el' by Steven L. Baur
Org mode recognizes numerical footnotes as provided by this
package.  However, Org-mode also has its own footnote support
(*note Footnotes::), which makes using footnote.el' unnecessary.

File: org,  Node: Conflicts,  Prev: Cooperation,  Up: Interaction

14.7.2 Packages that lead to conflicts with Org mode
----------------------------------------------------

In Emacs 23, shift-selection-mode' is on by default, meaning that
cursor motions combined with the shift key should start or enlarge
regions.  This conflicts with the use of S-<cursor>' commands in
Org to change timestamps, TODO keywords, priorities, and item
bullet types if the cursor is at such a location.  By default,
S-<cursor>' commands outside special contexts don't do anything,
but you can customize the variable org-support-shift-select'.
Org-mode then tries to accommodate shift selection by (i) using it
outside of the special contexts where special commands apply, and
by (ii) extending an existing active region even if the cursor
moves across a special context.

CUA.el' by Kim. F. Storm
Key bindings in Org conflict with the S-<cursor>' keys used by
CUA mode (as well as pc-select-mode and s-region-mode) to select
and extend the region.  In fact, Emacs 23 has this built-in in the
form of shift-selection-mode', see previous paragraph.  If you
are using Emacs 23 you probably don't want to use another package
for this purpose.  However, if you prefer to leave these keys to a
different package while working in Org-mode, configure the
variable org-replace-disputed-keys'.  When set, Org will move the
following key bindings in Org files, and in the agenda buffer (but
not during date selection).

S-UP      ->  M-p             S-DOWN     ->  M-n
S-LEFT    ->  M--             S-RIGHT    ->  M-+
C-S-LEFT  ->  M-S--           C-S-RIGHT  ->  M-S-+

Yes, these are unfortunately more difficult to remember.  If you
want to have other replacement keys, look at the variable
org-disputed-keys'.

windmove.el' by Hovav Shacham
Also this package uses the S-<cursor>' keys, so everything written
in the paragraph above about CUA mode also applies here.

File: org,  Node: Bugs,  Prev: Interaction,  Up: Miscellaneous

14.8 Bugs
=========

Here is a list of things that should work differently, but which I have
found too hard to fix.

* If a table field starts with a link, and if the corresponding table
column is narrowed (*note Narrow columns::) to a width too small to
display the link, the field would look entirely empty even though
it is not.  To prevent this, Org throws an error.  The work-around
is to make the column wide enough to fit the link, or to add some
text (at least 2 characters) before the link in the same field.

* Narrowing table columns does not work on XEmacs, because the
format' function does not transport text properties.

* Text in an entry protected with the QUOTE' keyword should not
autowrap.

* When the application called by C-c C-o' to open a file link fails
(for example because the application does not exist or refuses to
open the file), it does so silently.  No error message is
displayed.

* Recalculating a table line applies the formulas from left to right.
If a formula uses _calculated_ fields further down the row,
multiple recalculation may be needed to get all fields consistent.
You may use the command org-table-iterate' (C-u C-c *') to
recalculate until convergence.

* The exporters work well, but could be made more efficient.

File: org,  Node: Extensions,  Next: Hacking,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Top

Appendix A Extensions
*********************

This appendix lists the extension modules that have been written for
Org.  Many of these extensions live in the contrib' directory of the
Org distribution, others are available somewhere on the web.

* Extensions in the contrib directory::  These come with the Org distro
* Other extensions::            These you have to find on the web.

File: org,  Node: Extensions in the contrib directory,  Next: Other extensions,  Prev: Extensions,  Up: Extensions

A.1 Extensions in the contrib' directory
=========================================

A number of extension are distributed with Org when you download it
from its homepage.  Please note that these extensions are _not_
distributed as part of Emacs, so if you use Org as delivered with
Emacs, you still need to go to http://orgmode.org' to get access to
these modules.

org-annotate-file.el' by Philip Jackson
Annotate a file with org syntax, in a separate file, with links
back to the annotated file.

org-annotation-helper.el' by Bastien Guerry and Daniel E. German
Call remember directly from Firefox/Opera, or from Adobe Reader.
When activating a special link or bookmark, Emacs receives a
trigger to create a note with a link back to the website.
Requires some setup, a detailed description is in
contrib/packages/org-annotation-helper'.

org-bookmark.el' by Tokuya Kameshima
Support for links to Emacs bookmarks.

org-depend.el' by Carsten Dominik
TODO dependencies for Org-mode.  Make TODO state changes in one
entry trigger changes in another, or be blocked by the state of
another entry.  Also, easily create chains of TODO items with
exactly one active item at any time.

org-elisp-symbol.el' by Bastien Guerry
Org links to emacs-lisp symbols.  This can create annotated links
that exactly point to the definition location of a variable of
function.

org-eval.el' by Carsten Dominik
The <lisp>' tag, adapted from Emacs Wiki and Emacs Muse, allows
text to be included in a document that is the result of evaluating
some code.  Other scripting languages like perl' can be supported
with this package as well.

org-eval-light.el' by Eric Schulte
User-controlled evaluation of code in an Org buffer.

org-exp-blocks.el' by Eric Schulte
Preprocess user-defined blocks for export.

org-expiry.el' by Bastien Guerry
Expiry mechanism for Org entries.

org-indent.el' by Carsten Dominik
Dynamic indentation of Org outlines.  The plan is to indent an
outline according to level, but so far this is too hard for a
proper and stable implementation.  Still, it works somewhat.

org-interactive-query.el' by Christopher League
Interactive modification of tags queries.  After running a general
query in Org, this package allows you to narrow down the results
by adding more tags or keywords.

org-mairix.el' by Georg C. F. Greve
Hook mairix search into Org for different MUAs.

org-man.el' by Carsten Dominik
Support for links to manpages in Org-mode.

org-mtags.el' by Carsten Dominik
Support for some Muse-like tags in Org-mode.  This package allows
you to write <example>' and <src>' and other syntax copied from
Emacs Muse, right inside an Org file.  The goal here is to make it
easy to publish the same file using either org-publish or Muse.

org-panel.el' by Lennart Borgman
Simplified and display-aided access to some Org commands.

org-registry.el' by Bastien Guerry
A registry for Org links, to find out from where links point to a
given file or location.

org2rem.el' by Bastien Guerry
Convert org appointments into reminders for the remind' program.

org-screen.el' by Andrew Hyatt
Visit screen sessions through Org-mode links.

org-toc.el' by Bastien Guerry
sections and easy visibility cycling.

orgtbl-sqlinsert.el' by Jason Riedy
Convert Org-mode tables to SQL insertions.  Documentation for this
can be found on the Worg pages.

File: org,  Node: Other extensions,  Prev: Extensions in the contrib directory,  Up: Extensions

A.2 Other extensions
====================

TO BE DONE

File: org,  Node: Hacking,  Next: History and Acknowledgments,  Prev: Extensions,  Up: Top

Appendix B Hacking
******************

This appendix covers some aspects where users can extend the
functionality of Org.

* Tables in arbitrary syntax::  Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
* Special agenda views::        Customized views
* Using the property API::      Writing programs that use entry properties
* Using the mapping API::       Mapping over all or selected entries

File: org,  Node: Adding hyperlink types,  Next: Tables in arbitrary syntax,  Prev: Hacking,  Up: Hacking

==========================

Org has a large number of hyperlink types built-in (*note
Hyperlinks::).  If you would like to add new link types, it provides an
interface for doing so.  Let's look at an example file org-man.el'
that will add support for creating links like [[man:printf][The printf
manpage]]' to show Unix manual pages inside emacs:

;;; org-man.el - Support for links to manpages in Org

(require 'org)

(defcustom org-man-command 'man
"The Emacs command to be used to display a man page."
:type '(choice (const man) (const woman)))

(defun org-man-open (path)
"Visit the manpage on PATH.
PATH should be a topic that can be thrown at the man command."
(funcall org-man-command path))

"Store a link to a manpage."
(when (memq major-mode '(Man-mode woman-mode))
;; This is a man page, we do make this link
(let* ((page (org-man-get-page-name))
(link (concat "man:" page))
(description (format "Manpage for %s" page)))
:type "man"
:description description))))

(defun org-man-get-page-name ()
"Extract the page name from the buffer name."
;; This works for both Man-mode' and woman-mode'.
(if (string-match " \$$\\S-+\$$\\*" (buffer-name))
(match-string 1 (buffer-name))
(error "Cannot create link to this man page")))

(provide 'org-man)

;;; org-man.el ends here

You would activate this new link type in .emacs' with

(require 'org-man)

Let's go through the file and see what it does.
1. It does (require 'org)' to make sure that org.el' has been

2. The next line calls org-add-link-type' to define a new link type
with prefix man'.  The call also contains the name of a function
that will be called to follow such a link.

3. The next line adds a function to org-store-link-functions', in
order to allow the command C-c l' to record a useful link in a
buffer displaying a man page.

The rest of the file defines the necessary variables and functions.
First there is a customization variable that determines which emacs
command should be used to display man pages.  There are two options,
man' and woman'.  Then the function to follow a link is defined.  It
gets the link path as an argument - in this case the link path is just
a topic for the manual command.  The function calls the value of
org-man-command' to display the man page.

Finally the function org-man-store-link' is defined.  When you try
to store a link with C-c l', also this function will be called to try
to make a link.  The function must first decide if it is supposed to
create the link for this buffer type, we do this by checking the value
of the variable major-mode'.  If not, the function must exit and
return the value nil'.  If yes, the link is created by getting the
manual topic from the buffer name and prefixing it with the string
man:'.  Then it must call the command org-store-link-props' and set
the :type' and :link' properties.  Optionally you can also set the
:description' property to provide a default for the link description
when the link is later inserted into an Org buffer with C-c C-l'.

File: org,  Node: Tables in arbitrary syntax,  Next: Dynamic blocks,  Prev: Adding hyperlink types,  Up: Hacking

B.2 Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
========================================

Since Orgtbl mode can be used as a minor mode in arbitrary buffers, a
frequent feature request has been to make it work with native tables in
specific languages, for example LaTeX.  However, this is extremely hard
to do in a general way, would lead to a customization nightmare, and
would take away much of the simplicity of the Orgtbl mode table editor.

This appendix describes a different approach.  We keep the Orgtbl
mode table in its native format (the source table), and use a custom
function to translate the table to the correct syntax, and to install
it in the right location (the target table).  This puts the burden of
writing conversion functions on the user, but it allows for a very
flexible system.

Bastien added the ability to do the same with lists.  You can use
Org's facilities to edit and structure lists by turning orgstruct-mode'
on, then locally exporting such lists in another format (HTML, LaTeX or
Texinfo.)

* Radio tables::                Sending and receiving
* A LaTeX example::             Step by step, almost a tutorial
* Translator functions::        Copy and modify
* Radio lists::                 Doing the same for lists

File: org,  Node: Radio tables,  Next: A LaTeX example,  Prev: Tables in arbitrary syntax,  Up: Tables in arbitrary syntax

------------------

To define the location of the target table, you first need to create two
lines that are comments in the current mode, but contain magic words for
Orgtbl mode to find.  Orgtbl mode will insert the translated table
between these lines, replacing whatever was there before.  For example:

/* BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL table_name */
/* END RECEIVE ORGTBL table_name */

Just above the source table, we put a special line that tells Orgtbl
mode how to translate this table and where to install it.  For example:
#+ORGTBL: SEND table_name translation_function arguments....

table_name' is the reference name for the table that is also used in
the receiver lines. translation_function' is the Lisp function that
does the translation.  Furthermore, the line can contain a list of
arguments (alternating key and value) at the end.  The arguments will be
passed as a property list to the translation function for
interpretation.  A few standard parameters are already recognized and
acted upon before the translation function is called:

:skip N'
Skip the first N lines of the table.  Hlines do count as separate
lines for this parameter!

:skipcols (n1 n2 ...)'
List of columns that should be skipped.  If the table has a column
with calculation marks, that column is automatically discarded as
well.  Please note that the translator function sees the table
_after_ the removal of these columns, the function never knows
that there have been additional columns.

The one problem remaining is how to keep the source table in the buffer
without disturbing the normal workings of the file, for example during
compilation of a C file or processing of a LaTeX file.  There are a
number of different solutions:

* The table could be placed in a block comment if that is supported
by the language.  For example, in C mode you could wrap the table
between /*' and */' lines.

* Sometimes it is possible to put the table after some kind of END
statement, for example \bye' in TeX and \end{document}' in LaTeX.

* You can just comment the table line by line whenever you want to
process the file, and uncomment it whenever you need to edit the
table.  This only sounds tedious - the command M-x
orgtbl-toggle-comment' does make this comment-toggling very easy,
in particular if you bind it to a key.

File: org,  Node: A LaTeX example,  Next: Translator functions,  Prev: Radio tables,  Up: Tables in arbitrary syntax

B.2.2 A LaTeX example of radio tables
-------------------------------------

The best way to wrap the source table in LaTeX is to use the comment'
environment provided by comment.sty'.  It has to be activated by
placing \usepackage{comment}' into the document header.  Orgtbl mode
can insert a radio table skeleton(1)  with the command M-x
orgtbl-insert-radio-table'.  You will be prompted for a table name,
let's say we use salesfigures'.  You will then get the following
template:

% BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures
% END RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures
\begin{comment}
#+ORGTBL: SEND salesfigures orgtbl-to-latex
| | |
\end{comment}

The #+ORGTBL: SEND' line tells Orgtbl mode to use the function
orgtbl-to-latex' to convert the table into LaTeX and to put it into
the receiver location with name salesfigures'.  You may now fill in
the table, feel free to use the spreadsheet features(2):

% BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures
% END RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures
\begin{comment}
#+ORGTBL: SEND salesfigures orgtbl-to-latex
| Month | Days | Nr sold | per day |
|-------+------+---------+---------|
| Jan   |   23 |      55 |     2.4 |
| Feb   |   21 |      16 |     0.8 |
| March |   22 |     278 |    12.6 |
#+TBLFM: $4=$3/$2;%.1f %$ (optional extra dollar to keep font-lock happy, see footnote)
\end{comment}

When you are done, press C-c C-c' in the table to get the converted
table inserted between the two marker lines.

Now let's assume you want to make the table header by hand, because
you want to control how columns are aligned etc.  In this case we make
sure that the table translator does skip the first 2 lines of the source
table, and tell the command to work as a splice, i.e. to not produce
header and footer commands of the target table:

\begin{tabular}{lrrr}
Month & \multicolumn{1}{c}{Days} & Nr.\ sold & per day\\
% BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures
% END RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures
\end{tabular}
%
\begin{comment}
#+ORGTBL: SEND salesfigures orgtbl-to-latex :splice t :skip 2
| Month | Days | Nr sold | per day |
|-------+------+---------+---------|
| Jan   |   23 |      55 |     2.4 |
| Feb   |   21 |      16 |     0.8 |
| March |   22 |     278 |    12.6 |
#+TBLFM: $4=$3/$2;%.1f \end{comment} The LaTeX translator function orgtbl-to-latex' is already part of Orgtbl mode. It uses a tabular' environment to typeset the table and marks horizontal lines with \hline'. Furthermore, it interprets the following parameters (see also *note Translator functions::): :splice nil/t' When set to t, return only table body lines, don't wrap them into a tabular environment. Default is nil. :fmt fmt' A format to be used to wrap each field, should contain %s' for the original field value. For example, to wrap each field value in dollars, you could use :fmt "$%s$"'. This may also be a property list with column numbers and formats. for example :fmt (2 "$%s$" 4 "%s\\%%")'. A function of one argument can be used in place of the strings; the function must return a formatted string. :efmt efmt' Use this format to print numbers with exponentials. The format should have %s' twice for inserting mantissa and exponent, for example "%s\\times10^{%s}"'. The default is "%s\\,(%s)"'. This may also be a property list with column numbers and formats, for example :efmt (2 "$%s\\times10^{%s}$" 4 "$%s\\cdot10^{%s}")'. After efmt' has been applied to a value, fmt' will also be applied. Similar to fmt', functions of two arguments can be supplied instead of strings. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) By default this works only for LaTeX, HTML, and Texinfo. Configure the variable orgtbl-radio-tables' to install templates for other modes. (2) If the #+TBLFM' line contains an odd number of dollar characters, this may cause problems with font-lock in LaTeX mode. As shown in the example you can fix this by adding an extra line inside the comment' environment that is used to balance the dollar expressions. If you are using AUCTeX with the font-latex library, a much better solution is to add the comment' environment to the variable LaTeX-verbatim-environments'. File: org, Node: Translator functions, Next: Radio lists, Prev: A LaTeX example, Up: Tables in arbitrary syntax B.2.3 Translator functions -------------------------- Orgtbl mode has several translator functions built-in: orgtbl-to-csv' (comma-separated values), orgtbl-to-tsv' (TAB-separated values) orgtbl-to-latex', orgtbl-to-html', and orgtbl-to-texinfo'. Except for orgtbl-to-html'(1), these all use a generic translator, orgtbl-to-generic'. For example, orgtbl-to-latex' itself is a very short function that computes the column definitions for the tabular' environment, defines a few field and line separators and then hands over to the generic translator. Here is the entire code: (defun orgtbl-to-latex (table params) "Convert the Orgtbl mode TABLE to LaTeX." (let* ((alignment (mapconcat (lambda (x) (if x "r" "l")) org-table-last-alignment "")) (params2 (list :tstart (concat "\\begin{tabular}{" alignment "}") :tend "\\end{tabular}" :lstart "" :lend " \\\\" :sep " & " :efmt "%s\\,(%s)" :hline "\\hline"))) (orgtbl-to-generic table (org-combine-plists params2 params)))) As you can see, the properties passed into the function (variable PARAMS) are combined with the ones newly defined in the function (variable PARAMS2). The ones passed into the function (i.e. the ones set by the ORGTBL SEND' line) take precedence. So if you would like to use the LaTeX translator, but wanted the line endings to be \\[2mm]' instead of the default \\', you could just overrule the default with #+ORGTBL: SEND test orgtbl-to-latex :lend " \\\\[2mm]" For a new language, you can either write your own converter function in analogy with the LaTeX translator, or you can use the generic function directly. For example, if you have a language where a table is started with !BTBL!', ended with !ETBL!', and where table lines are started with !BL!', ended with !EL!' and where the field separator is a TAB, you could call the generic translator like this (on a single line!): #+ORGTBL: SEND test orgtbl-to-generic :tstart "!BTBL!" :tend "!ETBL!" :lstart "!BL! " :lend " !EL!" :sep "\t" Please check the documentation string of the function orgtbl-to-generic' for a full list of parameters understood by that function and remember that you can pass each of them into orgtbl-to-latex', orgtbl-to-texinfo', and any other function using the generic function. Of course you can also write a completely new function doing complicated things the generic translator cannot do. A translator function takes two arguments. The first argument is the table, a list of lines, each line either the symbol hline' or a list of fields. The second argument is the property list containing all parameters specified in the #+ORGTBL: SEND' line. The function must return a single string containing the formatted table. If you write a generally useful translator, please post it on emacs-orgmodeATgnu.org' so that others can benefit from your work. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) The HTML translator uses the same code that produces tables during HTML export. File: org, Node: Radio lists, Prev: Translator functions, Up: Tables in arbitrary syntax B.2.4 Radio lists ----------------- Sending and receiving radio lists works exactly the same way than sending and receiving radio tables (*note Radio tables::) (1). As for radio tables, you can insert radio lists templates in HTML, LaTeX and Texinfo modes by calling org-list-insert-radio-list'. Here are the differences with radio tables: - Use ORGLST' instead of ORGTBL'. - The available translation functions for radio lists don't take parameters. - C-c C-c' will work when pressed on the first item of the list. Here is a LaTeX example. Let's say that you have this in your LaTeX file: % BEGIN RECEIVE ORGLST to-buy % END RECEIVE ORGLST to-buy \begin{comment} #+ORGLIST: SEND to-buy orgtbl-to-latex - a new house - a new computer + a new keyboard + a new mouse - a new life \end{comment} Pressing C-c C-c' on a new house' and will insert the converted LaTeX list between the two marker lines. ---------- Footnotes ---------- (1) You need to load the org-export-latex.el' package to use radio lists since the relevant code is there for now. File: org, Node: Dynamic blocks, Next: Special agenda views, Prev: Tables in arbitrary syntax, Up: Hacking B.3 Dynamic blocks ================== Org documents can contain _dynamic blocks_. These are specially marked regions that are updated by some user-written function. A good example for such a block is the clock table inserted by the command C-c C-x C-r' (*note Clocking work time::). Dynamic block are enclosed by a BEGIN-END structure that assigns a name to the block and can also specify parameters for the function producing the content of the block. #+BEGIN:dynamic block #+BEGIN: myblock :parameter1 value1 :parameter2 value2 ... #+END: Dynamic blocks are updated with the following commands C-c C-x C-u' Update dynamic block at point. C-u C-c C-x C-u' Update all dynamic blocks in the current file. Updating a dynamic block means to remove all the text between BEGIN and END, parse the BEGIN line for parameters and then call the specific writer function for this block to insert the new content. If you want to use the original content in the writer function, you can use the extra parameter :content'. For a block with name myblock', the writer function is org-dblock-write:myblock' with as only parameter a property list with the parameters given in the begin line. Here is a trivial example of a block that keeps track of when the block update function was last run: #+BEGIN: block-update-time :format "on %m/%d/%Y at %H:%M" #+END: The corresponding block writer function could look like this: (defun org-dblock-write:block-update-time (params) (let ((fmt (or (plist-get params :format) "%d. %m. %Y"))) (insert "Last block update at: " (format-time-string fmt (current-time))))) If you want to make sure that all dynamic blocks are always up-to-date, you could add the function org-update-all-dblocks' to a hook, for example before-save-hook'. org-update-all-dblocks' is written in a way that is does nothing in buffers that are not in org-mode'. File: org, Node: Special agenda views, Next: Using the property API, Prev: Dynamic blocks, Up: Hacking B.4 Special agenda views ======================== Org provides a special hook that can be used to narrow down the selection made by any of the agenda views. You may specify a function that is used at each match to verify if the match should indeed be part of the agenda view, and if not, how much should be skipped. Let's say you want to produce a list of projects that contain a WAITING tag anywhere in the project tree. Let's further assume that you have marked all tree headings that define a project with the TODO keyword PROJECT. In this case you would run a TODO search for the keyword PROJECT, but skip the match unless there is a WAITING tag anywhere in the subtree belonging to the project line. To achieve this, you must write a function that searches the subtree for the tag. If the tag is found, the function must return nil' to indicate that this match should not be skipped. If there is no such tag, return the location of the end of the subtree, to indicate that search should continue from there. (defun my-skip-unless-waiting () "Skip trees that are not waiting" (let ((subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t)))) (if (re-search-forward ":waiting:" subtree-end t) nil ; tag found, do not skip subtree-end))) ; tag not found, continue after end of subtree Now you may use this function in an agenda custom command, for example like this: (org-add-agenda-custom-command '("b" todo "PROJECT" ((org-agenda-skip-function 'my-skip-unless-waiting) (org-agenda-overriding-header "Projects waiting for something: ")))) Note that this also binds org-agenda-overriding-header' to get a meaningful header in the agenda view. A general way to create custom searches is to base them on a search for entries with a certain level limit. If you want to study all entries with your custom search function, simply do a search for LEVEL>0', and then use org-agenda-skip-function' to select the entries you really want to have. You may also put a Lisp form into org-agenda-skip-function'. In particular, you may use the functions org-agenda-skip-entry-if' and org-agenda-skip-subtree-if' in this form, for example: '(org-agenda-skip-entry-if 'scheduled)' Skip current entry if it has been scheduled. '(org-agenda-skip-entry-if 'notscheduled)' Skip current entry if it has not been scheduled. '(org-agenda-skip-entry-if 'deadline)' Skip current entry if it has a deadline. '(org-agenda-skip-entry-if 'scheduled 'deadline)' Skip current entry if it has a deadline, or if it is scheduled. '(org-agenda-skip-entry 'regexp "regular expression")' Skip current entry if the regular expression matches in the entry. '(org-agenda-skip-entry 'notregexp "regular expression")' Skip current entry unless the regular expression matches. '(org-agenda-skip-subtree-if 'regexp "regular expression")' Same as above, but check and skip the entire subtree. Therefore we could also have written the search for WAITING projects like this, even without defining a special function: (org-add-agenda-custom-command '("b" todo "PROJECT" ((org-agenda-skip-function '(org-agenda-skip-subtree-if 'regexp ":waiting:")) (org-agenda-overriding-header "Projects waiting for something: ")))) File: org, Node: Using the property API, Next: Using the mapping API, Prev: Special agenda views, Up: Hacking B.5 Using the property API ========================== Here is a description of the functions that can be used to work with properties. -- Function: org-entry-properties &optional pom which Get all properties of the entry at point-or-marker POM. This includes the TODO keyword, the tags, time strings for deadline, scheduled, and clocking, and any additional properties defined in the entry. The return value is an alist, keys may occur multiple times if the property key was used several times. POM may also be nil, in which case the current entry is used. If WHICH is nil or all', get all properties. If WHICH is special' or standard', only get that subclass. -- Function: org-entry-get pom property &optional inherit Get value of PROPERTY for entry at point-or-marker POM. By default, this only looks at properties defined locally in the entry. If INHERIT is non-nil and the entry does not have the property, then also check higher levels of the hierarchy. If INHERIT is the symbol selective', use inheritance if and only if the setting of org-use-property-inheritance' selects PROPERTY for inheritance. -- Function: org-entry-delete pom property Delete the property PROPERTY from entry at point-or-marker POM. -- Function: org-entry-put pom property value Set PROPERTY to VALUE for entry at point-or-marker POM. -- Function: org-buffer-property-keys &optional include-specials Get all property keys in the current buffer. -- Function: org-insert-property-drawer Insert a property drawer at point. -- Function: org-entry-put-multivalued-property pom property &rest values Set PROPERTY at point-or-marker POM to VALUES. VALUES should be a list of strings. They will be concatenated, with spaces as separators. -- Function: org-entry-get-multivalued-property pom property Treat the value of the property PROPERTY as a whitespace-separated list of values and return the values as a list of strings. -- Function: org-entry-add-to-multivalued-property pom property value Treat the value of the property PROPERTY as a whitespace-separated list of values and make sure that VALUE is in this list. -- Function: org-entry-remove-from-multivalued-property pom property value Treat the value of the property PROPERTY as a whitespace-separated list of values and make sure that VALUE is _not_ in this list. -- Function: org-entry-member-in-multivalued-property pom property value Treat the value of the property PROPERTY as a whitespace-separated list of values and check if VALUE is in this list. File: org, Node: Using the mapping API, Prev: Using the property API, Up: Hacking B.6 Using the mapping API ========================= Org has sophisticated mapping capabilities to find all entries satisfying certain criteria. Internally, this functionality is used to produce agenda views, but there is also an API that can be used to execute arbitrary functions for each or selected entries. The main entry point for this API is: -- Function: org-map-entries func &optional match scope &rest skip Call FUNC at each headline selected by MATCH in SCOPE. FUNC is a function or a lisp form. The function will be called without arguments, with the cursor positioned at the beginning of the headline. The return values of all calls to the function will be collected and returned as a list. MATCH is a tags/property/todo match as it is used in the agenda match view. Only headlines that are matched by this query will be considered during the iteration. When MATCH is nil or t, all headlines will be visited by the iteration. SCOPE determines the scope of this command. It can be any of: nil the current buffer, respecting the restriction if any tree the subtree started with the entry at point file the current buffer, without restriction file-with-archives the current buffer, and any archives associated with it agenda all agenda files agenda-with-archives all agenda files with any archive files associated with them (file1 file2 ...) if this is a list, all files in the list will be scanned The remaining args are treated as settings for the skipping facilities of the scanner. The following items can be given here: archive skip trees with the archive tag comment skip trees with the COMMENT keyword function or Lisp form will be used as value for org-agenda-skip-function', so whenever the function returns t, FUNC will not be called for that entry and search will continue from the point where the function leaves it The function given to that mapping routine can really do anything you like. It can use the property API (*note Using the property API::) to gather more information about the entry, or in order to change metadata in the entry. Here are a couple of functions that might be handy: -- Function: org-todo &optional arg Change the TODO state of the entry, see the docstring of the functions for the many possible values for the argument ARG. -- Function: org-priority &optional action Change the priority of the entry, see the docstring of this function for the possible values for ACTION. -- Function: org-toggle-tag tag &optional onoff Toggle the tag TAG in the current entry. Setting ONOFF to either on' or off' will not toggle tag, but ensure that it is either on or off. -- Function: org-promote Promote the current entry. -- Function: org-demote Demote the current entry. Here is a simple example that will turn all entries in the current file with a tag TOMORROW' into TODO entries with the keyword UPCOMING'. Entries in comment trees and in archive trees will be ignored. (org-map-entries '(org-todo "UPCOMING") "+TOMORROW" 'file 'archive 'comment) The following example counts the number of entries with TODO keyword WAITING', in all agenda files. (length (org-map-entries t "/+WAITING" 'agenda)) File: org, Node: History and Acknowledgments, Next: Main Index, Prev: Hacking, Up: Top Appendix C History and Acknowledgments ************************************** Org was borne in 2003, out of frustration over the user interface of the Emacs Outline mode. I was trying to organize my notes and projects, and using Emacs seemed to be the natural way to go. However, having to remember eleven different commands with two or three keys per command, only to hide and show parts of the outline tree, that seemed entirely unacceptable to me. Also, when using outlines to take notes, I constantly want to restructure the tree, organizing it parallel to my thoughts and plans. _Visibility cycling_ and _structure editing_ were originally implemented in the package outline-magic.el', but quickly moved to the more general org.el'. As this environment became comfortable for project planning, the next step was adding _TODO entries_, basic _time stamps_, and _table support_. These areas highlight the two main goals that Org still has today: To create a new, outline-based, plain text mode with innovative and intuitive editing features, and to incorporate project planning functionality directly into a notes file. A special thanks goes to Bastien Guerry who has not only written a large number of extensions to Org (most of them integrated into the core by now), but has also helped the development and maintenance of Org so much that he should be considered the main co-contributor to this package. Since the first release, literally thousands of emails to me or on emacs-orgmodeATgnu.org' have provided a constant stream of bug reports, feedback, new ideas, and sometimes patches and add-on code. Many thanks to everyone who has helped to improve this package. I am trying to keep here a list of the people who had significant influence in shaping one or more aspects of Org. The list may not be complete, if I have forgotten someone, please accept my apologies and let me know. * Russel Adams came up with the idea for drawers. * Thomas Baumann wrote org-bbdb.el' and org-mhe.el'. * Christophe Bataillon created the great unicorn logo that we use on the Org-mode website. * Alex Bochannek provided a patch for rounding time stamps. * Charles Cave's suggestion sparked the implementation of templates for Remember. * Pavel Chalmoviansky influenced the agenda treatment of items with specified time. * Gregory Chernov patched support for lisp forms into table calculations and improved XEmacs compatibility, in particular by porting nouline.el' to XEmacs. * Sacha Chua suggested to copy some linking code from Planner. * Eddward DeVilla proposed and tested checkbox statistics. He also came up with the idea of properties, and that there should be an API for them. * Kees Dullemond used to edit projects lists directly in HTML and so inspired some of the early development, including HTML export. He also asked for a way to narrow wide table columns. * Christian Egli converted the documentation into Texinfo format, patched CSS formatting into the HTML exporter, and inspired the agenda. * David Emery provided a patch for custom CSS support in exported HTML agendas. * Nic Ferrier contributed mailcap and XOXO support. * Miguel A. Figueroa-Villanueva implemented hierarchical checkboxes. * John Foerch figured out how to make incremental search show context around a match in a hidden outline tree. * Niels Giesen had the idea to automatically archive DONE trees. * Bastien Guerry wrote the LaTeX exporter and org-bibtex.el', and has been prolific with patches, ideas, and bug reports. * Kai Grossjohann pointed out key-binding conflicts with other packages. * Bernt Hansen has driven much of the support for auto-repeating tasks, task state change logging, and the clocktable. His clear explanations have been critical when we started to adopt the GIT version control system. * Manuel Hermenegildo has contributed various ideas, small fixed and patches. * Phil Jackson wrote org-irc.el'. * Scott Jaderholm proposed footnotes, control over whitespace between folded entries, and column view for properties. * Tokuya Kameshima wrote org-wl.el' and org-mew.el'. * Shidai Liu ("Leo") asked for embedded LaTeX and tested it. He also provided frequent feedback and some patches. * Matt Lundin has proposed last-row references for table formulas and named invisible anchors. He has also worked a lot on the FAQ. * Jason F. McBrayer suggested agenda export to CSV format. * Max Mikhanosha came up with the idea of refiling. * Dmitri Minaev sent a patch to set priority limits on a per-file basis. * Stefan Monnier provided a patch to keep the Emacs-Lisp compiler happy. * Rick Moynihan proposed to allow multiple TODO sequences in a file and to be able to quickly restrict the agenda to a subtree. * Todd Neal provided patches for links to Info files and elisp forms. * Tim O'Callaghan suggested in-file links, search options for general file links, and TAGS. * Takeshi Okano translated the manual and David O'Toole's tutorial into Japanese. * Oliver Oppitz suggested multi-state TODO items. * Scott Otterson sparked the introduction of descriptive text for links, among other things. * Pete Phillips helped during the development of the TAGS feature, and provided frequent feedback. * T.V. Raman reported bugs and suggested improvements. * Matthias Rempe (Oelde) provided ideas, Windows support, and quality control. * Paul Rivier provided the basic implementation of named footnotes. * Kevin Rogers contributed code to access VM files on remote hosts. * Sebastian Rose wrote org-info.js', a Java script for displaying webpages derived from Org using an Info-like, or a folding interface with single key navigation. * Frank Ruell solved the mystery of the keymapp nil' bug, a conflict with allout.el'. * Jason Riedy generalized the send-receive mechanism for orgtbl tables with extensive patches. * Philip Rooke created the Org reference card, provided lots of feedback, developed and applied standards to the Org documentation. * Christian Schlauer proposed angular brackets around links, among other things. * Eric Schulte wrote org-plot.el'. * Linking to VM/BBDB/Gnus was first inspired by Tom Shannon's organizer-mode.el'. * Ilya Shlyakhter proposed the Archive Sibling, line numbering in literal examples, and remote highlighting for referenced code lines. * Stathis Sideris wrote the ditaa.jar' ASCII to PNG converter that is now packaged into Org's contrib' directory. * Daniel Sinder came up with the idea of internal archiving by locking subtrees. * Dale Smith proposed link abbreviations. * James TD Smith has contributed a large number of patches for useful tweaks and features. * Adam Spiers asked for global linking commands, inspired the link extension system, added support for mairix, and proposed the mapping API. * Andy Stewart contributed code to org-w3m.el', to copy HTML content with links transformation to Org syntax. * David O'Toole wrote org-publish.el' and drafted the manual chapter about publishing. * Ju"rgen Vollmer contributed code generating the table of contents in HTML output. * Chris Wallace provided a patch implementing the QUOTE' keyword. * David Wainberg suggested archiving, and improvements to the linking system. * John Wiegley wrote emacs-wiki.el', planner.el', and muse.el', which have some overlap with Org. Initially the development of Org was fully independent because I was not aware of the existence of these packages. But with time I have occasionally looked at John's code and learned a lot from it. John has also contributed a number of great ideas and patches directly to Org, including the attachment system (org-attach.el'), integration with Apple Mail (org-mac-message.el'), and hierarchical dependencies of TODO items. * Carsten Wimmer suggested some changes and helped fix a bug in linking to Gnus. * Roland Winkler requested additional key bindings to make Org work on a tty. * Piotr Zielinski wrote org-mouse.el', proposed agenda blocks and contributed various ideas and code snippets. File: org, Node: Main Index, Next: Key Index, Prev: History and Acknowledgments, Up: Top The Main Index ************** [index] * Menu: * #+AUTHOR:: Export options. (line 16) * #+BEGIN: clocktable: Clocking work time. (line 62) * #+BEGIN: columnview: Capturing column view. (line 11) * #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE: Literal examples. (line 8) * #+BEGIN_HTML: Quoting HTML tags. (line 14) * #+BEGIN_LaTeX: Quoting LaTeX code. (line 14) * #+BEGIN_SRC: Literal examples. (line 25) * #+DATE:: Export options. (line 16) * #+EMAIL:: Export options. (line 16) * #+EXPORT_EXCLUDE_TAGS:: Export options. (line 16) * #+EXPORT_SELECT_TAGS:: Export options. (line 16) * #+INCLUDE: Include files. (line 7) * #+LANGUAGE:: Export options. (line 16) * #+LINK_HOME:: Export options. (line 16) * #+LINK_UP:: Export options. (line 16) * #+OPTIONS:: Export options. (line 16) * #+ORGTBL: SEND: A LaTeX example. (line 14) * #+TEXT: Initial text. (line 6) * #+TEXT:: Export options. (line 16) * #+TITLE:: Export options. (line 16) * abbreviation, links: Link abbreviations. (line 6) * acknowledgments: History and Acknowledgments. (line 6) * action, for publishing: Publishing action. (line 6) * activation: Activation. (line 6) * active region <1>: LaTeX/PDF export commands. (line 6) * active region <2>: HTML Export commands. (line 6) * active region <3>: ASCII export. (line 9) * active region <4>: Built-in table editor. (line 150) * active region: Structure editing. (line 108) * agenda: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 6) * agenda dispatcher: Agenda dispatcher. (line 6) * agenda files: Agenda files. (line 6) * agenda files, removing buffers: Agenda commands. (line 357) * agenda views: Agenda Views. (line 6) * agenda views, custom: Custom agenda views. (line 6) * agenda views, exporting <1>: Exporting Agenda Views. (line 6) * agenda views, exporting: Agenda commands. (line 346) * agenda views, user-defined: Special agenda views. (line 6) * agenda, column view: Agenda column view. (line 6) * agenda, pipe: Using the agenda elsewhere. (line 6) * agenda, with block views: Block agenda. (line 6) * align, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 85) * angular brackets, around links: External links. (line 51) * API, for mapping: Using the mapping API. (line 6) * API, for properties <1>: Using the property API. (line 6) * API, for properties: Property API. (line 6) * appointment reminders: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 64) * appt.el: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 64) * archive locations: Moving subtrees. (line 32) * archiving: Archiving. (line 6) * ASCII export: ASCII export. (line 6) * attachments: Attachments. (line 6) * author: Feedback. (line 6) * author info, in export: Export options. (line 30) * autoload: Activation. (line 6) * backtrace of an error: Feedback. (line 29) * BBDB links: External links. (line 6) * block agenda: Block agenda. (line 6) * bold text, markup rules: Emphasis and monospace. (line 6) * Boolean logic, for tag searches: Tag searches. (line 24) * bug reports: Feedback. (line 6) * bugs: Bugs. (line 6) * C-c C-c, overview: The very busy C-c C-c key. (line 6) * calc package: The spreadsheet. (line 6) * calc.el: Cooperation. (line 6) * calculations, in tables <1>: The spreadsheet. (line 6) * calculations, in tables: Built-in table editor. (line 150) * calendar commands, from agenda: Agenda commands. (line 308) * calendar integration: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 23) * calendar, for selecting date: The date/time prompt. (line 58) * capture: Capture. (line 6) * category: Categories. (line 6) * category, require for tags/property match: Tag searches. (line 83) * CDLaTeX: CDLaTeX mode. (line 6) * cdlatex.el: Cooperation. (line 29) * checkbox statistics: Checkboxes. (line 30) * checkboxes: Checkboxes. (line 6) * checkboxes and TODO dependencies: TODO dependencies. (line 40) * children, subtree visibility state: Visibility cycling. (line 10) * clean outline view: Clean view. (line 6) * code line refenences, markup rules: Literal examples. (line 6) * code text, markup rules: Emphasis and monospace. (line 6) * column formula: Column formulas. (line 6) * column view, for properties: Defining columns. (line 6) * column view, in agenda: Agenda column view. (line 6) * commands, in agenda buffer: Agenda commands. (line 6) * comment lines: Comment lines. (line 6) * completion, of dictionary words: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of file names: Handling links. (line 55) * completion, of link abbreviations: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of links: Handling links. (line 36) * completion, of option keywords <1>: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of option keywords <2>: Export options. (line 6) * completion, of option keywords: Per-file keywords. (line 23) * completion, of property keys: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of tags <1>: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of tags: Setting tags. (line 11) * completion, of TeX symbols: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of TODO keywords <1>: Completion. (line 6) * completion, of TODO keywords: Workflow states. (line 15) * constants, in calculations: References. (line 86) * constants.el: Cooperation. (line 14) * constcgs, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 114) * constSI, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 114) * content, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 78) * contents, global visibility state: Visibility cycling. (line 22) * copying, of subtrees: Structure editing. (line 6) * creating timestamps: Creating timestamps. (line 6) * CSS, for HTML export: CSS support. (line 6) * CUA.el: Conflicts. (line 18) * custom agenda views: Custom agenda views. (line 6) * custom date/time format: Custom time format. (line 6) * custom search strings: Custom searches. (line 6) * customization: Customization. (line 6) * customtime, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 111) * cutting, of subtrees: Structure editing. (line 6) * cycling, of TODO states: TODO basics. (line 13) * cycling, visibility: Visibility cycling. (line 6) * daily agenda: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 6) * date format, custom: Custom time format. (line 6) * date range: Timestamps. (line 40) * date stamps <1>: Timestamps. (line 6) * date stamps: Dates and Times. (line 6) * date, reading in minibuffer: The date/time prompt. (line 6) * dates: Dates and Times. (line 6) * DEADLINE keyword: Deadlines and scheduling. (line 9) * deadlines: Timestamps. (line 6) * debugging, of table formulas: Editing and debugging formulas. (line 96) * demotion, of subtrees: Structure editing. (line 6) * dependencies, of TODO states: TODO dependencies. (line 6) * diary entries, creating from agenda: Agenda commands. (line 313) * diary integration: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 23) * dictionary word completion: Completion. (line 6) * directories, for publishing: Sources and destinations. (line 6) * dispatcher, for export commands: The export dispatcher. (line 6) * dispatching agenda commands: Agenda dispatcher. (line 6) * display changing, in agenda: Agenda commands. (line 86) * document structure: Document Structure. (line 6) * document title, markup rules: Document title. (line 6) * DONE, final TODO keyword: Per-file keywords. (line 26) * drawer, for properties: Property syntax. (line 6) * drawers: Drawers. (line 6) * dynamic blocks: Dynamic blocks. (line 6) * dynamic indentation: Clean view. (line 6) * editing tables: Tables. (line 6) * editing, of table formulas: Editing and debugging formulas. (line 6) * effort estimates: Effort estimates. (line 6) * effort filtering, in agenda: Agenda commands. (line 147) * elisp links: External links. (line 6) * emphasized text: Export options. (line 30) * evaluate time range: Creating timestamps. (line 50) * even, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 102) * export, selective by tags: Selective export. (line 6) * exporting: Exporting. (line 6) * exporting agenda views <1>: Exporting Agenda Views. (line 13) * exporting agenda views: Agenda commands. (line 346) * exporting, not: Comment lines. (line 6) * extended TODO keywords: TODO extensions. (line 6) * external archiving: Moving subtrees. (line 6) * external links: External links. (line 6) * external links, in HTML export: Links. (line 6) * faces, for TODO keywords: Faces for TODO keywords. (line 6) * FAQ: Summary. (line 54) * feedback: Feedback. (line 6) * field formula: Field formulas. (line 6) * field references: References. (line 15) * file links: External links. (line 6) * file links, searching: Search options. (line 6) * file name completion: Handling links. (line 55) * files for agenda: Agenda files. (line 6) * files, adding to agenda list: Agenda files. (line 15) * files, selecting for publishing: Selecting files. (line 6) * filtering, by tag and effort, in agenda: Agenda commands. (line 147) * fixed-width sections: Export options. (line 30) * fnauto, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * fnconfirm, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * fninline, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * fnlocal, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * fnnoinline, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * fnplain, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * fnprompt, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 119) * folded, subtree visibility state: Visibility cycling. (line 10) * folding, sparse trees: Sparse trees. (line 6) * following links: Handling links. (line 70) * footnote.el <1>: Cooperation. (line 72) * footnote.el: Footnote markup. (line 6) * footnotes <1>: Export options. (line 30) * footnotes: Footnotes. (line 6) * footnotes, markup rules: Footnote markup. (line 6) * format specifier: Formula syntax for Calc. (line 14) * format, of links: Link format. (line 6) * formatting source code, markup rules: Literal examples. (line 21) * formula debugging: Editing and debugging formulas. (line 96) * formula editing: Editing and debugging formulas. (line 6) * formula syntax, Calc: Formula syntax for Calc. (line 6) * formula, for individual table field: Field formulas. (line 6) * formula, for table column: Column formulas. (line 6) * formula, in tables: Built-in table editor. (line 150) * global cycling: Visibility cycling. (line 22) * global key bindings: Activation. (line 6) * global TODO list: Global TODO list. (line 6) * global visibility states: Visibility cycling. (line 22) * Gnus links: External links. (line 6) * graph, in tables: Org Plot. (line 6) * grouping columns in tables: Column groups. (line 6) * headings and sections, markup rules: Headings and sections. (line 6) * headline levels: Export options. (line 30) * headline levels, for exporting <1>: LaTeX/PDF export commands. (line 39) * headline levels, for exporting <2>: HTML Export commands. (line 45) * headline levels, for exporting: ASCII export. (line 21) * headline navigation: Motion. (line 6) * headline tagging: Tags. (line 6) * headline, promotion and demotion: Structure editing. (line 6) * headlines: Headlines. (line 6) * hide text: Visibility cycling. (line 6) * hidestars, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 102) * hiding leading stars: Clean view. (line 6) * history: History and Acknowledgments. (line 6) * horizontal rules, markup rules: Horizontal rules. (line 6) * HTML entities: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments. (line 6) * HTML export: HTML export. (line 6) * HTML export, CSS: CSS support. (line 6) * HTML, and Orgtbl mode: Translator functions. (line 6) * hyperlinks: Hyperlinks. (line 6) * hyperlinks, adding new types: Adding hyperlink types. (line 6) * iCalendar export: iCalendar export. (line 6) * images, inline in HTML: Images in HTML export. (line 6) * images, inline in LaTeX: Images in LaTeX export. (line 6) * imenu.el: Cooperation. (line 33) * in-buffer settings: In-buffer settings. (line 6) * inactive timestamp: Timestamps. (line 49) * include files, markup rules: Include files. (line 6) * index, of published pages: Project page index. (line 6) * Info links: External links. (line 6) * inheritance, of properties: Property inheritance. (line 6) * inheritance, of tags: Tag inheritance. (line 6) * inlined images, markup rules: Inlined images. (line 6) * inlining images in HTML: Images in HTML export. (line 6) * inlining images in LaTeX: Images in LaTeX export. (line 6) * inserting links: Handling links. (line 36) * installation: Installation. (line 6) * internal archiving: ARCHIVE tag. (line 6) * internal links: Internal links. (line 6) * internal links, in HTML export: Links. (line 6) * introduction: Introduction. (line 6) * IRC links: External links. (line 6) * italic text, markup rules: Emphasis and monospace. (line 6) * jumping, to headlines: Motion. (line 6) * key bindings, global: Activation. (line 6) * keyword options: Per-file keywords. (line 6) * keyword search: Keyword search. (line 6) * LaTeX class: Sectioning structure. (line 6) * LaTeX entities: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments. (line 6) * LaTeX export: LaTeX and PDF export. (line 6) * LaTeX fragments <1>: Export options. (line 30) * LaTeX fragments: LaTeX fragments. (line 6) * LaTeX fragments, markup rules: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments. (line 6) * LaTeX fragments, preview: Processing LaTeX fragments. (line 6) * LaTeX interpretation: Embedded LaTeX. (line 6) * LaTeX sectioning structure: Sectioning structure. (line 6) * LaTeX, and Orgtbl mode: A LaTeX example. (line 6) * level, require for tags/property match: Tag searches. (line 83) * line-break preservation: Export options. (line 30) * link abbreviations: Link abbreviations. (line 6) * link abbreviations, completion of: Completion. (line 6) * link completion: Handling links. (line 36) * link format: Link format. (line 6) * links, external: External links. (line 6) * links, finding next/previous: Handling links. (line 104) * links, handling: Handling links. (line 6) * links, in HTML export: Links. (line 6) * links, internal: Internal links. (line 6) * links, publishing: Publishing links. (line 6) * links, radio targets: Radio targets. (line 6) * links, returning to: Handling links. (line 98) * Lisp forms, as table formulas: Formula syntax for Lisp. (line 6) * lists, in other modes: Tables in arbitrary syntax. (line 6) * lists, markup rules: Lists. (line 6) * lists, ordered: Plain lists. (line 6) * lists, plain: Plain lists. (line 6) * literal examples, markup rules: Literal examples. (line 6) * logdone, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * logging, of progress: Progress logging. (line 6) * lognoteclock-out, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * lognotedone, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * lognoterepeat, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * logrepeat, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * maintainer: Feedback. (line 6) * mapping entries, API: Using the mapping API. (line 6) * mark ring: Handling links. (line 94) * marking characters, tables: Advanced features. (line 38) * match view: Matching tags and properties. (line 6) * matching, of properties: Matching tags and properties. (line 6) * matching, of tags: Matching tags and properties. (line 6) * matching, tags: Tags. (line 6) * math symbols: Math symbols. (line 6) * MH-E links: External links. (line 6) * minor mode for structure editing: Orgstruct mode. (line 6) * minor mode for tables: Orgtbl mode. (line 6) * mode, for calc: Formula syntax for Calc. (line 14) * motion commands in agenda: Agenda commands. (line 19) * motion, between headlines: Motion. (line 6) * name, of column or field: References. (line 86) * named references: References. (line 86) * names as TODO keywords: TODO types. (line 6) * narrow columns in tables: Narrow columns. (line 6) * noalign, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 85) * nologdone, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * nolognoteclock-out, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * nologrepeat, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 90) * occur, command: Sparse trees. (line 6) * odd, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 102) * odd-levels-only outlines: Clean view. (line 6) * option keyword completion: Completion. (line 6) * options, for custom agenda views: Setting Options. (line 6) * options, for customization: Customization. (line 6) * options, for export: Export options. (line 6) * options, for publishing: Publishing options. (line 6) * ordered lists: Plain lists. (line 6) * Org mode, turning on: Activation. (line 23) * org-agenda, command: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 9) * org-list-insert-radio-list: Radio lists. (line 6) * org-publish-project-alist: Project alist. (line 6) * Orgstruct mode: Orgstruct mode. (line 6) * Orgtbl mode <1>: Tables in arbitrary syntax. (line 6) * Orgtbl mode: Orgtbl mode. (line 6) * Outline mode: Outlines. (line 6) * outline tree: Headlines. (line 6) * outlines: Outlines. (line 6) * overview, global visibility state: Visibility cycling. (line 22) * overview, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 78) * packages, interaction with other: Interaction. (line 6) * paragraphs, markup rules: Paragraphs. (line 6) * pasting, of subtrees: Structure editing. (line 6) * PDF export: LaTeX and PDF export. (line 6) * per-file keywords: Per-file keywords. (line 6) * plain lists: Plain lists. (line 6) * plain text external links: External links. (line 51) * plot tables using gnuplot: Org Plot. (line 6) * presentation, of agenda items: Presentation and sorting. (line 6) * printing sparse trees: Sparse trees. (line 47) * priorities: Priorities. (line 6) * priorities, of agenda items: Sorting of agenda items. (line 6) * progress logging: Progress logging. (line 6) * projects, for publishing: Project alist. (line 6) * promotion, of subtrees: Structure editing. (line 6) * properties: Properties and Columns. (line 6) * properties, API <1>: Using the property API. (line 6) * properties, API: Property API. (line 6) * properties, column view: Defining columns. (line 6) * properties, inheritance: Property inheritance. (line 6) * properties, searching: Property searches. (line 6) * properties, special: Special properties. (line 6) * property syntax: Property syntax. (line 6) * publishing: Publishing. (line 6) * query editing, in agenda: Agenda commands. (line 147) * quoted HTML tags: Export options. (line 30) * radio lists: Radio lists. (line 6) * radio tables: Radio tables. (line 6) * radio targets: Radio targets. (line 6) * range references: References. (line 64) * ranges, time: Timestamps. (line 6) * recomputing table fields: Updating the table. (line 6) * references: References. (line 6) * references, named: References. (line 86) * references, remote: References. (line 107) * references, to a different table: References. (line 107) * references, to fields: References. (line 15) * references, to ranges: References. (line 64) * refiling notes: Refiling notes. (line 6) * region, active <1>: LaTeX/PDF export commands. (line 6) * region, active <2>: HTML Export commands. (line 6) * region, active <3>: ASCII export. (line 9) * region, active <4>: Built-in table editor. (line 150) * region, active: Structure editing. (line 108) * regular expressions, with tags search: Tag searches. (line 76) * relative timer: Relative timer. (line 6) * remember.el <1>: Cooperation. (line 42) * remember.el: Remember. (line 6) * remote editing, from agenda: Agenda commands. (line 198) * remote editing, undo: Agenda commands. (line 199) * remote references: References. (line 107) * RMAIL links: External links. (line 6) * SCHEDULED keyword: Deadlines and scheduling. (line 27) * scheduling: Timestamps. (line 6) * Scripts, for agenda processing: Using the agenda elsewhere. (line 6) * search option in file links: Search options. (line 6) * search strings, custom: Custom searches. (line 6) * searching for tags: Tag searches. (line 6) * searching, for keywords: Keyword search. (line 6) * searching, of properties: Property searches. (line 6) * section-numbers: Export options. (line 30) * setting tags: Setting tags. (line 6) * SHELL links: External links. (line 6) * shift-selection-mode <1>: Conflicts. (line 6) * shift-selection-mode: Plain lists. (line 78) * show all, command: Visibility cycling. (line 33) * show all, global visibility state: Visibility cycling. (line 22) * show hidden text: Visibility cycling. (line 6) * showall, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 78) * showstars, STARTUP keyword: In-buffer settings. (line 102) * sorting, of agenda items: Sorting of agenda items. (line 6) * sparse tree, for deadlines: Inserting deadline/schedule. (line 13) * sparse tree, for TODO: TODO basics. (line 33) * sparse tree, tag based: Tags. (line 6) * sparse trees: Sparse trees. (line 6) * special keywords: In-buffer settings. (line 6) * special strings: Export options. (line 30) * speedbar.el: Cooperation. (line 46) * spreadsheet capabilities: The spreadsheet. (line 6) * statistics, for checkboxes: Checkboxes. (line 30) * storing links: Handling links. (line 9) * strike-through text, markup rules: Emphasis and monospace. (line 6) * structure editing: Structure editing. (line 6) * structure of document: Document Structure. (line 6) * sublevels, inclusion into tags match: Tag inheritance. (line 6) * sublevels, inclusion into TODO list: Global TODO list. (line 34) * subscript: Subscripts and superscripts. (line 6) * subtree cycling: Visibility cycling. (line 10) * subtree visibility states: Visibility cycling. (line 10) * subtree, cut and paste: Structure editing. (line 6) * subtree, subtree visibility state: Visibility cycling. (line 10) * subtrees, cut and paste: Structure editing. (line 6) * summary: Summary. (line 6) * superscript: Subscripts and superscripts. (line 6) * syntax, of formulas: Formula syntax for Calc. (line 6) * table editor, built-in: Built-in table editor. (line 6) * table editor, table.el: Cooperation. (line 53) * table of contents: Export options. (line 30) * table of contents, markup rules: Table of contents. (line 6) * table.el: Cooperation. (line 50) * tables <1>: Export options. (line 30) * tables: Tables. (line 6) * tables, in LaTeX export: Tables in LaTeX export. (line 6) * tables, in other modes: Tables in arbitrary syntax. (line 6) * tables, markup rules: Tables exported. (line 6) * tag completion: Completion. (line 6) * tag filtering, in agenda: Agenda commands. (line 147) * tag inheritance: Tag inheritance. (line 6) * tag searches: Tag searches. (line 6) * tags: Tags. (line 6) * tags view: Matching tags and properties. (line 6) * tags, setting: Setting tags. (line 6) * targets, for links: Internal links. (line 6) * targets, radio: Radio targets. (line 6) * tasks, breaking down: Breaking down tasks. (line 6) * templates, for remember: Remember templates. (line 6) * TeX interpretation: Embedded LaTeX. (line 6) * TeX macros <1>: Export options. (line 30) * TeX macros: Math symbols. (line 6) * TeX macros, markup rules: TeX macros and LaTeX fragments. (line 6) * TeX symbol completion: Completion. (line 6) * TeX-like syntax for sub- and superscripts: Export options. (line 30) * text areas, in HTML: Text areas in HTML export. (line 6) * text before first headline, markup rules: Initial text. (line 6) * thanks: History and Acknowledgments. (line 6) * time format, custom: Custom time format. (line 6) * time grid: Time-of-day specifications. (line 26) * time info, in export: Export options. (line 30) * time stamps <1>: Timestamps. (line 6) * time stamps: Dates and Times. (line 6) * time, reading in minibuffer: The date/time prompt. (line 6) * time-of-day specification: Time-of-day specifications. (line 6) * time-sorted view: Timeline. (line 6) * timeline, single file: Timeline. (line 6) * timerange: Timestamps. (line 40) * times: Dates and Times. (line 6) * timestamp: Timestamps. (line 14) * timestamp, inactive: Timestamps. (line 49) * timestamp, with repeater interval: Timestamps. (line 24) * timestamps, creating: Creating timestamps. (line 6) * TODO dependencies: TODO dependencies. (line 6) * TODO items: TODO Items. (line 6) * TODO keyword matching: Global TODO list. (line 17) * TODO keyword matching, with tags search: Tag searches. (line 41) * TODO keyword sets: Multiple sets in one file. (line 6) * TODO keywords completion: Completion. (line 6) * TODO list, global: Global TODO list. (line 6) * TODO types: TODO types. (line 6) * TODO workflow: Workflow states. (line 6) * Transient mark mode <1>: Built-in table editor. (line 150) * Transient mark mode: Structure editing. (line 108) * transient-mark-mode <1>: LaTeX/PDF export commands. (line 6) * transient-mark-mode <2>: HTML Export commands. (line 6) * transient-mark-mode: ASCII export. (line 9) * translator function: Translator functions. (line 6) * trees, sparse: Sparse trees. (line 6) * trees, visibility: Visibility cycling. (line 6) * tty key bindings: TTY keys. (line 6) * types as TODO keywords: TODO types. (line 6) * underlined text, markup rules: Emphasis and monospace. (line 6) * undoing remote-editing events: Agenda commands. (line 199) * updating, table: Updating the table. (line 6) * URL links: External links. (line 6) * USENET links: External links. (line 6) * variables, for customization: Customization. (line 6) * vectors, in table calculations: Formula syntax for Calc. (line 11) * verbatim text, markup rules: Emphasis and monospace. (line 6) * visibility cycling: Visibility cycling. (line 6) * visibility cycling, drawers: Drawers. (line 6) * visible text, printing: Sparse trees. (line 47) * VM links: External links. (line 6) * WANDERLUST links: External links. (line 6) * weekly agenda: Weekly/daily agenda. (line 6) * windmove.el: Conflicts. (line 39) * workflow states as TODO keywords: Workflow states. (line 6) * XEmacs: Installation. (line 6) * XOXO export: XOXO export. (line 6) File: org, Node: Key Index, Prev: Main Index, Up: Top Key Index ********* [index] * Menu: *:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 220)
* ':                                     CDLaTeX mode.        (line  42)
* +:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 242)
* ,:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 234)
* -:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 248)
* .:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 130)
* /:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 147)
* ::                                     Agenda commands.     (line 230)
* < <1>:                                 Agenda files.        (line  56)
* < <2>:                                 The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* <:                                     Using column view.   (line  67)
* <left>:                                Agenda commands.     (line 127)
* <RET> <1>:                             Agenda commands.     (line  41)
* <RET> <2>:                             The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* <RET> <3>:                             Setting tags.        (line  95)
* <RET>:                                 Built-in table editor.
(line  65)
* <right>:                               Agenda commands.     (line 122)
* <SPC> <1>:                             Agenda commands.     (line  28)
* <SPC>:                                 Setting tags.        (line  92)
* <TAB> <1>:                             CDLaTeX mode.        (line  22)
* <TAB> <2>:                             Agenda commands.     (line  35)
* <TAB> <3>:                             Setting tags.        (line  87)
* <TAB> <4>:                             Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  56)
* <TAB> <5>:                             Built-in table editor.
(line  58)
* <TAB> <6>:                             Plain lists.         (line  53)
* <TAB>:                                 Visibility cycling.  (line  10)
* > <1>:                                 Agenda commands.     (line 285)
* > <2>:                                 Agenda files.        (line  60)
* > <3>:                                 The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* >:                                     Using column view.   (line  67)
* [:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 186)
* \:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 179)
* ]:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 186)
* ^:                                     CDLaTeX mode.        (line  32)
* _:                                     CDLaTeX mode.        (line  32)
* :                                     CDLaTeX mode.        (line  38)
* A:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 216)
* a <1>:                                 Agenda commands.     (line 213)
* a:                                     Using column view.   (line  56)
* b:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  51)
* C:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 328)
* c:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 308)
* C-#:                                   Advanced features.   (line   9)
* C-':                                   Agenda files.        (line  22)
* C-,:                                   Agenda files.        (line  22)
* C-<RET>:                               Structure editing.   (line  18)
* C-_:                                   Agenda commands.     (line 199)
* C-c !:                                 Creating timestamps. (line  20)
* C-c #:                                 Checkboxes.          (line  66)
* C-c %:                                 Handling links.      (line  94)
* C-c &:                                 Handling links.      (line  98)
* C-c ' <1>:                             Include files.       (line  22)
* C-c ' <2>:                             Literal examples.    (line  61)
* C-c ':                                 Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  35)
* C-c * <1>:                             Updating the table.  (line  13)
* C-c *:                                 Structure editing.   (line  97)
* C-c +:                                 Built-in table editor.
(line 150)
* C-c ,:                                 Priorities.          (line  21)
* C-c - <1>:                             Built-in table editor.
(line  94)
* C-c -:                                 Plain lists.         (line 103)
* C-c .:                                 Creating timestamps. (line  10)
* C-c /:                                 Sparse trees.        (line  15)
* C-c / d:                               Inserting deadline/schedule.
(line  13)
* C-c / p:                               Property searches.   (line  51)
* C-c / r:                               Sparse trees.        (line  17)
* C-c / T:                               Tag searches.        (line   9)
* C-c / t:                               TODO basics.         (line  33)
* C-c ;:                                 Comment lines.       (line  11)
* C-c <:                                 Creating timestamps. (line  24)
* C-c <RET>:                             Built-in table editor.
(line  98)
* C-c = <1>:                             Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  13)
* C-c =:                                 Column formulas.     (line  25)
* C-c >:                                 Creating timestamps. (line  28)
* C-c ?:                                 Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  23)
* C-c [:                                 Agenda files.        (line  15)
* C-c \:                                 Tag searches.        (line   9)
* C-c ]:                                 Agenda files.        (line  19)
* C-c ^ <1>:                             Built-in table editor.
(line 102)
* C-c ^:                                 Structure editing.   (line  79)
* C-c :                                 Built-in table editor.
(line 168)
* C-c a !:                               Stuck projects.      (line  14)
* C-c a #:                               Stuck projects.      (line  13)
* C-c a a:                               Weekly/daily agenda. (line   9)
* C-c a C:                               Storing searches.    (line   9)
* C-c a e:                               Exporting Agenda Views.
(line  63)
* C-c a L:                               Timeline.            (line  10)
* C-c a M:                               Matching tags and properties.
(line  15)
* C-c a m:                               Matching tags and properties.
(line  10)
* C-c a M:                               Tag searches.        (line  17)
* C-c a m:                               Tag searches.        (line  13)
* C-c a s:                               Keyword search.      (line   9)
* C-c a T:                               Global TODO list.    (line  14)
* C-c a t <1>:                           Global TODO list.    (line   9)
* C-c a t:                               TODO basics.         (line  44)
* C-c C-a <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line 252)
* C-c C-a:                               Attachments.         (line  26)
* C-c C-a a:                             Attachments.         (line  31)
* C-c C-a c:                             Attachments.         (line  37)
* C-c C-a D:                             Attachments.         (line  66)
* C-c C-a d:                             Attachments.         (line  63)
* C-c C-a F:                             Attachments.         (line  60)
* C-c C-a f:                             Attachments.         (line  57)
* C-c C-a i:                             Attachments.         (line  75)
* C-c C-a l:                             Attachments.         (line  37)
* C-c C-a m:                             Attachments.         (line  37)
* C-c C-a n:                             Attachments.         (line  41)
* C-c C-a O:                             Attachments.         (line  54)
* C-c C-a o:                             Attachments.         (line  48)
* C-c C-a s:                             Attachments.         (line  70)
* C-c C-a z:                             Attachments.         (line  44)
* C-c C-b:                               Motion.              (line  15)
* C-c C-c <1>:                           Cooperation.         (line  53)
* C-c C-c <2>:                           The very busy C-c C-c key.
(line   6)
* C-c C-c <3>:                           Processing LaTeX fragments.
(line  15)
* C-c C-c <4>:                           Clocking work time.  (line 111)
* C-c C-c <5>:                           Capturing column view.
(line  51)
* C-c C-c <6>:                           Using column view.   (line  49)
* C-c C-c <7>:                           Property syntax.     (line  58)
* C-c C-c <8>:                           Setting tags.        (line  18)
* C-c C-c <9>:                           Checkboxes.          (line  45)
* C-c C-c <10>:                          Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  45)
* C-c C-c <11>:                          Built-in table editor.
(line  57)
* C-c C-c <12>:                          Footnotes.           (line  75)
* C-c C-c:                               Plain lists.         (line  96)
* C-c C-d <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line 258)
* C-c C-d:                               Inserting deadline/schedule.
(line   9)
* C-c C-e:                               The export dispatcher.
(line  12)
* C-c C-e a:                             ASCII export.        (line   9)
* C-c C-e b:                             HTML Export commands.
(line  13)
* C-c C-e c:                             iCalendar export.    (line  37)
* C-c C-e d:                             LaTeX/PDF export commands.
(line  33)
* C-c C-e H:                             HTML Export commands.
(line  16)
* C-c C-e h:                             HTML Export commands.
(line   6)
* C-c C-e I:                             iCalendar export.    (line  33)
* C-c C-e i:                             iCalendar export.    (line  31)
* C-c C-e L:                             LaTeX/PDF export commands.
(line  13)
* C-c C-e l:                             LaTeX/PDF export commands.
(line   6)
* C-c C-e p:                             LaTeX/PDF export commands.
(line  30)
* C-c C-e R:                             HTML Export commands.
(line  19)
* C-c C-e t:                             Export options.      (line  13)
* C-c C-e v <1>:                         XOXO export.         (line  11)
* C-c C-e v <2>:                         The export dispatcher.
(line  17)
* C-c C-e v:                             Sparse trees.        (line  47)
* C-c C-e v a:                           ASCII export.        (line  16)
* C-c C-e v b:                           HTML Export commands.
(line  25)
* C-c C-e v H:                           HTML Export commands.
(line  25)
* C-c C-e v h:                           HTML Export commands.
(line  25)
* C-c C-e v L:                           LaTeX/PDF export commands.
(line  16)
* C-c C-e v l:                           LaTeX/PDF export commands.
(line  16)
* C-c C-e v R:                           HTML Export commands.
(line  25)
* C-c C-e x:                             XOXO export.         (line  10)
* C-c C-f:                               Motion.              (line  12)
* C-c C-j:                               Motion.              (line  21)
* C-c C-l:                               Handling links.      (line  36)
* C-c C-n:                               Motion.              (line   8)
* C-c C-o <1>:                           Creating timestamps. (line  33)
* C-c C-o <2>:                           Handling links.      (line  70)
* C-c C-o:                               Footnotes.           (line  80)
* C-c C-p:                               Motion.              (line   9)
* C-c C-q <1>:                           Setting tags.        (line  10)
* C-c C-q:                               Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  49)
* C-c C-r <1>:                           Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  52)
* C-c C-r:                               Visibility cycling.  (line  34)
* C-c C-s <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line 255)
* C-c C-s:                               Inserting deadline/schedule.
(line  20)
* C-c C-t <1>:                           Clocking work time.  (line  34)
* C-c C-t:                               TODO basics.         (line  13)
* C-c C-u:                               Motion.              (line  18)
* C-c C-v:                               TODO basics.         (line  33)
* C-c C-w <1>:                           Refiling notes.      (line  13)
* C-c C-w:                               Structure editing.   (line  75)
* C-c C-x ,:                             Relative timer.      (line  21)
* C-c C-x -:                             Relative timer.      (line  13)
* C-c C-x .:                             Relative timer.      (line  10)
* C-c C-x 0:                             Relative timer.      (line  30)
* C-c C-x <:                             Agenda files.        (line  42)
* C-c C-x >:                             Agenda files.        (line  49)
* C-c C-x A:                             Moving subtrees.     (line  11)
* C-c C-x a:                             ARCHIVE tag.         (line  30)
* C-c C-x b:                             Visibility cycling.  (line  42)
* C-c C-x C-b:                           Checkboxes.          (line  47)
* C-c C-x C-c <1>:                       Agenda column view.  (line  11)
* C-c C-x C-c <2>:                       Agenda commands.     (line 133)
* C-c C-x C-c:                           Using column view.   (line   9)
* C-c C-x C-d:                           Clocking work time.  (line  47)
* C-c C-x C-i:                           Clocking work time.  (line  12)
* C-c C-x C-j:                           Clocking work time.  (line  42)
* C-c C-x C-k:                           Inserting deadline/schedule.
(line  26)
* C-c C-x C-l:                           Processing LaTeX fragments.
(line   9)
* C-c C-x C-n:                           Handling links.      (line 104)
* C-c C-x C-o:                           Clocking work time.  (line  21)
* C-c C-x C-p:                           Handling links.      (line 104)
* C-c C-x C-r:                           Clocking work time.  (line  55)
* C-c C-x C-s:                           Moving subtrees.     (line  17)
* C-c C-x C-t:                           Custom time format.  (line  12)
* C-c C-x C-u <1>:                       Dynamic blocks.      (line  22)
* C-c C-x C-u <2>:                       Clocking work time.  (line 113)
* C-c C-x C-u:                           Capturing column view.
(line  54)
* C-c C-x C-w <1>:                       Built-in table editor.
(line 122)
* C-c C-x C-w:                           Structure editing.   (line  49)
* C-c C-x C-x:                           Clocking work time.  (line  38)
* C-c C-x C-y <1>:                       Built-in table editor.
(line 126)
* C-c C-x C-y:                           Structure editing.   (line  57)
* C-c C-x f:                             Footnotes.           (line  49)
* C-c C-x i:                             Capturing column view.
(line  49)
* C-c C-x M-w <1>:                       Built-in table editor.
(line 119)
* C-c C-x M-w:                           Structure editing.   (line  53)
* C-c C-x o:                             TODO dependencies.   (line  29)
* C-c C-x p:                             Property syntax.     (line  49)
* C-c C-y <1>:                           Clocking work time.  (line  29)
* C-c C-y:                               Creating timestamps. (line  50)
* C-c l <1>:                             Literal examples.    (line  68)
* C-c l:                                 Handling links.      (line   9)
* C-c { <1>:                             CDLaTeX mode.        (line  20)
* C-c {:                                 Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  32)
* C-c |:                                 Built-in table editor.
(line  41)
* C-c }:                                 Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  27)
* C-c ~:                                 Cooperation.         (line  64)
* C-k:                                   Agenda commands.     (line 207)
* C-S-<left>:                            Multiple sets in one file.
(line  25)
* C-S-<RET>:                             Structure editing.   (line  26)
* C-S-<right>:                           Multiple sets in one file.
(line  25)
* C-TAB:                                 ARCHIVE tag.         (line  40)
* C-u C-c *:                             Updating the table.  (line  16)
* C-u C-c .:                             Creating timestamps. (line  15)
* C-u C-c = <1>:                         Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  13)
* C-u C-c =:                             Field formulas.      (line  26)
* C-u C-c C-c:                           Updating the table.  (line  19)
* C-u C-c C-l:                           Handling links.      (line  55)
* C-u C-c C-t:                           TODO basics.         (line  22)
* C-u C-c C-w:                           Refiling notes.      (line  26)
* C-u C-c C-x ,:                         Relative timer.      (line  25)
* C-u C-c C-x a:                         ARCHIVE tag.         (line  33)
* C-u C-c C-x C-s:                       Moving subtrees.     (line  23)
* C-u C-c C-x C-u <1>:                   Dynamic blocks.      (line  23)
* C-u C-c C-x C-u <2>:                   Clocking work time.  (line 115)
* C-u C-c C-x C-u:                       Capturing column view.
(line  56)
* C-u C-u <TAB>:                         Visibility cycling.  (line  62)
* C-u C-u C-c *:                         Updating the table.  (line  22)
* C-u C-u C-c =:                         Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  17)
* C-u C-u C-c C-c:                       Updating the table.  (line  22)
* C-u C-u C-c C-e:                       The export dispatcher.
(line  21)
* C-u C-u C-c C-t:                       Multiple sets in one file.
(line  25)
* C-u C-u C-c C-w:                       Refiling notes.      (line  29)
* C-u C-u C-u <TAB>:                     Visibility cycling.  (line  33)
* C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t:                   TODO dependencies.   (line  30)
* C-x C-s <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line 118)
* C-x C-s:                               Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  45)
* C-x C-w <1>:                           Exporting Agenda Views.
(line  12)
* C-x C-w:                               Agenda commands.     (line 345)
* C-x n s:                               Structure editing.   (line  91)
* C-x n w:                               Structure editing.   (line  94)
* C-y:                                   Structure editing.   (line  63)
* D:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 100)
* d:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  87)
* e:                                     Using column view.   (line  43)
* f:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  44)
* g:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 115)
* G:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 104)
* g:                                     Using column view.   (line  21)
* H:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 332)
* i:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 313)
* I:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 290)
* J:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 302)
* k:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 261)
* k a:                                   Inserting deadline/schedule.
(line  26)
* k s:                                   Inserting deadline/schedule.
(line  26)
* l:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  58)
* L:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  32)
* M:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 319)
* m:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  87)
* M-<down> <1>:                          Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  75)
* M-<down>:                              Built-in table editor.
(line  83)
* M-<left> <1>:                          Built-in table editor.
(line  75)
* M-<left>:                              Structure editing.   (line  31)
* M-<RET> <1>:                           Relative timer.      (line  17)
* M-<RET> <2>:                           Built-in table editor.
(line 133)
* M-<RET> <3>:                           Plain lists.         (line  61)
* M-<RET>:                               Structure editing.   (line   6)
* M-<right> <1>:                         Built-in table editor.
(line  75)
* M-<right>:                             Structure editing.   (line  34)
* M-<TAB> <1>:                           Completion.          (line  10)
* M-<TAB> <2>:                           Property syntax.     (line  46)
* M-<TAB> <3>:                           Setting tags.        (line   6)
* M-<TAB> <4>:                           Per-file keywords.   (line  23)
* M-<TAB>:                               Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  63)
* M-<up> <1>:                            Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  75)
* M-<up>:                                Built-in table editor.
(line  83)
* M-S-<down> <1>:                        Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  71)
* M-S-<down> <2>:                        Built-in table editor.
(line  90)
* M-S-<down> <3>:                        Plain lists.         (line  81)
* M-S-<down>:                            Structure editing.   (line  46)
* M-S-<left> <1>:                        The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* M-S-<left> <2>:                        Built-in table editor.
(line  77)
* M-S-<left> <3>:                        Plain lists.         (line  87)
* M-S-<left>:                            Structure editing.   (line  37)
* M-S-<RET> <1>:                         Checkboxes.          (line  63)
* M-S-<RET> <2>:                         Plain lists.         (line  71)
* M-S-<RET>:                             Structure editing.   (line  23)
* M-S-<right> <1>:                       The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* M-S-<right> <2>:                       Built-in table editor.
(line  80)
* M-S-<right> <3>:                       Plain lists.         (line  87)
* M-S-<right>:                           Structure editing.   (line  40)
* M-S-<up> <1>:                          Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  71)
* M-S-<up> <2>:                          Built-in table editor.
(line  87)
* M-S-<up> <3>:                          Plain lists.         (line  81)
* M-S-<up>:                              Structure editing.   (line  43)
* M-x org-iswitchb:                      Agenda files.        (line  26)
* mouse-1 <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line  35)
* mouse-1 <2>:                           The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* mouse-1 <3>:                           Handling links.      (line  85)
* mouse-1:                               Footnotes.           (line  80)
* mouse-2 <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line  35)
* mouse-2 <2>:                           Handling links.      (line  85)
* mouse-2:                               Footnotes.           (line  80)
* mouse-3 <1>:                           Agenda commands.     (line  28)
* mouse-3:                               Handling links.      (line  90)
* n <1>:                                 Agenda commands.     (line  19)
* n:                                     Using column view.   (line  40)
* O:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 294)
* o:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  86)
* P:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 239)
* p <1>:                                 Agenda commands.     (line  20)
* p:                                     Using column view.   (line  40)
* q <1>:                                 Agenda commands.     (line 356)
* q:                                     Using column view.   (line  24)
* r:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 108)
* R:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  74)
* r <1>:                                 Global TODO list.    (line  22)
* r:                                     Using column view.   (line  17)
* RET:                                   Handling links.      (line  70)
* S:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 323)
* s:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 118)
* S-<down> <1>:                          Agenda commands.     (line 248)
* S-<down> <2>:                          The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* S-<down> <3>:                          Creating timestamps. (line  42)
* S-<down> <4>:                          Priorities.          (line  26)
* S-<down> <5>:                          Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  66)
* S-<down>:                              Plain lists.         (line  74)
* S-<left> <1>:                          Agenda commands.     (line 281)
* S-<left> <2>:                          Clocking work time.  (line 119)
* S-<left> <3>:                          The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* S-<left> <4>:                          Creating timestamps. (line  37)
* S-<left> <5>:                          Using column view.   (line  33)
* S-<left> <6>:                          Property syntax.     (line  66)
* S-<left> <7>:                          Multiple sets in one file.
(line  32)
* S-<left> <8>:                          TODO basics.         (line  28)
* S-<left> <9>:                          Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  66)
* S-<left>:                              Plain lists.         (line 113)
* S-<RET>:                               Built-in table editor.
(line 153)
* S-<right> <1>:                         Agenda commands.     (line 273)
* S-<right> <2>:                         Clocking work time.  (line 119)
* S-<right> <3>:                         The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* S-<right> <4>:                         Creating timestamps. (line  37)
* S-<right> <5>:                         Using column view.   (line  33)
* S-<right> <6>:                         Property syntax.     (line  66)
* S-<right> <7>:                         Multiple sets in one file.
(line  32)
* S-<right> <8>:                         TODO basics.         (line  28)
* S-<right> <9>:                         Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  66)
* S-<right>:                             Plain lists.         (line 113)
* S-<TAB> <1>:                           Built-in table editor.
(line  62)
* S-<TAB>:                               Visibility cycling.  (line  22)
* S-<up> <1>:                            Agenda commands.     (line 242)
* S-<up> <2>:                            The date/time prompt.
(line  64)
* S-<up> <3>:                            Creating timestamps. (line  42)
* S-<up> <4>:                            Priorities.          (line  26)
* S-<up> <5>:                            Editing and debugging formulas.
(line  66)
* S-<up>:                                Plain lists.         (line  74)
* S-M-<left>:                            Using column view.   (line  71)
* S-M-<RET>:                             TODO basics.         (line  51)
* S-M-<right>:                           Using column view.   (line  68)
* T:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 225)
* t:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 203)
* v <1>:                                 Agenda commands.     (line  68)
* v:                                     Using column view.   (line  52)
* w:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  87)
* x:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 357)
* X:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 297)
* y:                                     Agenda commands.     (line  87)
* {:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 186)
* }:                                     Agenda commands.     (line 186)

`