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KEYMAPS(5)                                                          KEYMAPS(5)

       keymaps - keyboard table descriptions for loadkeys and dumpkeys

       These  files  are  used  by loadkeys(1) to modify the translation tables used by the kernel keyboard driver and
       generated by dumpkeys(1) from those translation tables.

       The format of these files is vaguely similar to the one accepted by xmodmap(1).  The file consists  of  charset
       or key or string definition lines interspersed with comments.

       Comments  are introduced with !  or # characters and continue to the end of the line. Anything following one of
       these characters on that line is ignored. Note that comments need not begin from column one as with xmodmap(1).

       The  syntax  of keymap files is line oriented; a complete definition must fit on a single logical line. Logical
       lines can, however, be split into multiple physical lines by ending each subline with the  backslash  character

       A keymap can include other keymaps using the syntax

              include "pathname"

       A character set definition line is of the form:

              charset "iso-8859-x"

       It  defines  how  following keysyms are to be interpreted.  For example, in iso-8859-1 the symbol mu (or micro)
       has code 0265, while in iso-8859-7 the letter mu has code 0354.

       Each complete key definition line is of the form:

              keycode keynumber = keysym keysym keysym...

       keynumber is the internal identification number of the key, roughly equivalent to the scan code of it.  keynum-
       ber can be given in decimal, octal or hexadecimal notation.  Octal is denoted by a leading zero and hexadecimal
       by the prefix 0x.

       Each of the keysyms represent keyboard actions, of which up to 256 can be bound to a single  key.  The  actions
       available include outputting character codes or character sequences, switching consoles or keymaps, booting the
       machine etc. (The complete list can be obtained from dumpkeys(1) by saying  dumpkeys -l .)

       Each keysym may be prefixed by a '+' (plus sign), in wich case this keysym is treated as a "letter" and  there-
       fore  affected  by  the  "CapsLock"  the  same way as by "Shift" (to be correct, the CapsLock inverts the Shift
       state).  The ASCII letters ('a'-'z' and 'A'-'Z') are made CapsLock'able by default.  If  Shift+CapsLock  should
       not produce a lower case symbol, put lines like

              keycode 30 = +a  A

       in the map file.

       Which  of  the actions bound to a given key is taken when it is pressed depends on what modifiers are in effect
       at that moment.  The keyboard driver supports 9 modifiers. These modifiers are labeled (completely arbitrarily)
       Shift, AltGr, Control, Alt, ShiftL, ShiftR, CtrlL, CtrlR and CapsShift.  Each of these modifiers has an associ-
       ated weight of power of two according to the following table:

              modifier                weight

              Shift                     1
              AltGr                     2
              Control                   4
              Alt                       8
              ShiftL                   16
              ShiftR                   32
              CtrlL                    64
              CtrlR                   128
              CapsShift               256

       The effective action of a key is found out by adding up the weights of all the modifiers in effect. By default,
       no  modifiers  are in effect, so action number zero, i.e. the one in the first column in a key definition line,
       is taken when the key is pressed or released. When e.g. Shift and Alt modifiers are in  effect,  action  number
       nine (from the 10th column) is the effective one.

       Changing  the  state  of  what  modifiers  are  in effect can be achieved by binding appropriate key actions to
       desired keys. For example, binding the symbol Shift to a key sets the Shift modifier in effect when that key is
       pressed  and  cancels  the  effect  of that modifier when the key is released. Binding AltGr_Lock to a key sets
       AltGr in effect when the key is pressed and cancels the effect when the key  is  pressed  again.   (By  default
       Shift,  AltGr,  Control and Alt are bound to the keys that bear a similar label; AltGr may denote the right Alt

       Note that you should be very careful when binding the modifier keys, otherwise you can end up with an  unusable
       keyboard mapping. If you for example define a key to have Control in its first column and leave the rest of the
       columns to be VoidSymbols, you're in trouble. This is because pressing the key puts Control modifier in  effect
       and  the  following actions are looked up from the fifth column (see the table above). So, when you release the
       key, the action from the fifth column is taken. It has VoidSymbol in it, so nothing happens.  This  means  that
       the Control modifier is still in effect, although you have released the key.  Re-pressing and releasing the key
       has no effect. To avoid this, you should always define all the columns to have the same modifier symbol.  There
       is a handy short-hand notation for this, see below.

       keysyms  can  be given in decimal, octal, hexadecimal, unicode or symbolic notation.  The numeric notations use
       the same format as with keynumber.  Unicode notation is "U+" followed by four hexadecimal digits.  The symbolic
       notation  resembles  that  used by xmodmap(1).  Notable differences are the number symbols. The numeric symbols
       '0', ..., '9' of xmodmap(1) are replaced with the corresponding words 'zero', 'one', ... 'nine' to avoid confu-
       sion with the numeric notation.

       It  should  be noted that using numeric notation for the keysyms is highly unportable as the key action numbers
       may vary from one kernel version to another and the use of numeric notations is thus strongly discouraged. They
       are  intended  to be used only when you know there is a supported keyboard action in your kernel for which your
       current version of loadkeys(1) has no symbolic name.

       There is a number of short-hand notations to add readability and reduce typing work and the probability of typ-

       First of all, you can give a map specification line, of the form

              keymaps 0-2,4-5,8,12

       to indicate that the lines of the keymap will not specify all 256 columns, but only the indicated ones. (In the
       example: only the plain, Shift, AltGr, Control, Control+Shift, Alt and Control+Alt maps,  that  is,  7  columns
       instead  of 256.)  When no such line is given, the keymaps 0-M will be defined, where M+1 is the maximum number
       of entries found in any definition line.

       Next, you can leave off any trailing VoidSymbol entries from a key definition line. VoidSymbol denotes  a  key-
       board  action which produces no output and has no other effects either. For example, to define key number 30 to
       output 'a' unshifted, 'A' when pressed with Shift and do nothing when pressed with AltGr  or  other  modifiers,
       you can write

              keycode  30 = a     A

       instead of the more verbose

              keycode  30 = a     A    VoidSymbol     VoidSymbol \
                        VoidSymbol VoidSymbol VoidSymbol ...

       For added convenience, you can usually get off with still more terse definitions. If you enter a key definition
       line with only and exactly one action code after the equals sign,  it  has  a  special  meaning.  If  the  code
       (numeric  or  symbolic)  is not an ASCII letter, it means the code is implicitly replicated through all columns
       being defined.  If, on the other hand, the action code is an ASCII character in the range 'a', ..., 'z' or 'A',
       ...,  'Z' in the ASCII collating sequence, the following definitions are made for the different modifier combi-
       nations, provided these are actually being defined.  (The table lists the two possible cases: either the single
       action code is a lower case letter, denoted by 'x' or an upper case letter, denoted by 'Y'.)

           modifier                symbol

           none                    x              Y
           Shift                   X              y
           AltGr                   x              Y
           Shift+AltGr             X              y
           Control                 Control_x      Control_y
           Shift+Control           Control_x      Control_y
           AltGr+Control           Control_x      Control_y
           Shift+AltGr+Control     Control_x      Control_y
           Alt                     Meta_x         Meta_Y
           Shift+Alt               Meta_X         Meta_y
           AltGr+Alt               Meta_x         Meta_Y
           Shift+AltGr+Alt         Meta_X         Meta_y
           Control+Alt             Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           Shift+Control+Alt       Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           AltGr+Control+Alt       Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           Shift+AltGr+Control+Alt Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y

       All  the  previous forms of key definition lines always define all the M+1 possible modifier combinations being
       defined, whether the line actually contains that many action codes or not.  There is, however, a  variation  of
       the  definition  syntax for defining only single actions to a particular modifier combination of a key. This is
       especially useful, if you load a keymap which doesn't match your needs in only some modifier combinations, like
       AltGr+function keys. You can then make a small local file redefining only those modifier combinations and load-
       ing it after the main file.  The syntax of this form is:

       { plain | <modifier sequence> } keycode keynumber = keysym

       , e.g.,
              plain keycode 14 = BackSpace
              control alt keycode 83 = Boot
              alt keycode 105 = Decr_Console
              alt keycode 106 = Incr_Console
       Using "plain" will define only the base entry of a key (i.e. the one  with  no  modifiers  in  effect)  without
       affecting the bindings of other modifier combinations of that key.

       In  addition  to  comments and key definition lines, a keymap can contain string definitions. These are used to
       define what each function key action code sends. The syntax of string definitions is:

              string keysym = "text"

       text can contain literal characters, octal character codes in the format of backslash followed by up  to  three
       octal digits, and the three escape sequences \n, \\, and \", for newline, backslash and quote, respectively.

       Then there may also be compose definitions. They have syntax

              compose 'char' 'char' to 'char'
       and  describe how two bytes are combined to form a third one (when a dead accent or compose key is used).  This
       is used to get accented letters and the like on a standard keyboard.

       Various abbreviations can be used with kbd-0.96 and later.

       strings as usual
              Defines the usual values of the strings (but not the keys they are bound to).

       compose as usual for "iso-8859-1"
              Defines the usual compose combinations.

       To find out what keysyms there are available for use in keymaps, use the command

              dumpkeys --long-info

       Unfortunately, there is currently no description of what each symbol does. It has to be guessed from  the  name
       or figured out from the kernel sources.

       (Be careful to use a keymaps line, like the first line of 'dumpkeys', or "keymaps 0-15" or so.)

       The following entry exchanges the left Control key and the Caps Lock key on the keyboard:

              keycode  58 = Control
              keycode  29 = Caps_Lock

       Key number 58 is normally the Caps Lock key, and key number 29 is normally the Control key.

       The  following  entry  sets the Shift and Caps Lock keys to behave more nicely, like in older typewriters. That
       is, pressing Caps Lock key once or more sets the keyboard in CapsLock state and pressing either  of  the  Shift
       keys releases it.

              keycode  42 = Uncaps_Shift
              keycode  54 = Uncaps_Shift
              keycode  58 = Caps_On

       The  following entry sets the layout of the edit pad in the enhanced keyboard to be more like that in the VT200
       series terminals:

              keycode 102 = Insert
              keycode 104 = Remove
              keycode 107 = Prior
              shift keycode 107 = Scroll_Backward
              keycode 110 = Find
              keycode 111 = Select
              control alt   keycode 111 = Boot
              control altgr keycode 111 = Boot

       Here's an example to bind the string "du\ndf\n" to the key AltGr-D. We use the "spare"  action  code  F100  not
       normally bound to any key.

              altgr keycode 32 = F100
              string F100 = "du\ndf\n"

       loadkeys(1), dumpkeys(1), showkey(1), xmodmap(1)

                                 24 April 1998                      KEYMAPS(5)