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etags(1)                           GNU Tools                          etags(1)

       etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi

       etags [-aCDGIRVh] [-i file] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file]
       [--append] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--include=file] [--ignore-indentation]
       [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex] [--help]
       [--version] file ...

       ctags [-aCdgIRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file]
       [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--ignore-indentation]
       [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--update] [--help]
       [--version] file ...

       The  etags program is used to create a tag table file, in a format understood by emacs(1); the ctags program is
       used to create a similar table in a format understood by vi(1).  Both forms of the program understand the  syn-
       tax of C, Objective C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada, Cobol, Erlang, Forth, HTML, LaTeX, Emacs Lisp/Common Lisp, Lua,
       Makefile, Pascal, Perl, PHP, Postscript, Python, Prolog, Scheme and most assembler-like syntaxes.   Both  forms
       read  the files specified on the command line, and write a tag table (defaults: TAGS for etags, tags for ctags)
       in the current working directory.  Files specified with relative file names will be recorded in the  tag  table
       with  file  names relative to the directory where the tag table resides.  If the tag table is in /dev or is the
       standard output, however, the file names are made relative to the working directory.  Files specified with  ab-
       solute file names will be recorded with absolute file names.  Files generated from a source file--like a C file
       generated from a source Cweb file--will be recorded with the name of the source  file.   Compressed  files  are
       supported  using  gzip  and bzip2.  The programs recognize the language used in an input file based on its file
       name and contents.  The --language switch can be used to force parsing of the file names following  the  switch
       according to the given language, overriding guesses based on filename extensions.

       Some  options make sense only for the vi style tag files produced by ctags; etags does not recognize them.  The
       programs accept unambiguous abbreviations for long option names.

       -a, --append
              Append to existing tag file.  (For vi-format tag files, see also --update.)

       -B, --backward-search
              Tag files written in the format expected by vi contain regular expression search  instructions;  the  -B
              option  writes  them  using the delimiter '?', to search backwards through files.  The default is to use
              the delimiter '/', to search forwards through files.  Only ctags accepts this option.

              In C and derived languages, create tags for function declarations, and create tags for extern  variables
              unless --no-globals is used.

       -D, --no-defines
              Do not create tag entries for C preprocessor constant definitions and enum constants.  This may make the
              tags file much smaller if many header files are tagged.

              Create tag entries for global variables in Perl and Makefile.  This is the default in C and derived lan-

              Do  not  tag  global  variables in C and derived languages.  Typically this reduces the file size by one

       -i file, --include=file
              Include a note in the tag file indicating that, when searching for a tag, one should  also  consult  the
              tags file file after checking the current file.  Only etags accepts this option.

       -I, --ignore-indentation
              Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do.  Currently, this means not to assume that a closing
              brace in the first column is the final brace of a function or structure definition in C and C++.

       -l language, --language=language
              Parse the following files according to the given language.  More than one such options may be intermixed
              with  filenames.   Use --help to get a list of the available languages and their default filename exten-
              sions.  The 'auto' language can be used to restore automatic detection of language  based  on  the  file
              name.   The  'none' language may be used to disable language parsing altogether; only regexp matching is
              done in this case (see the --regex option).

              Create tag entries for variables that are members of structure-like constructs in PHP.  This is the  de-
              fault for C and derived languages.

              Do not tag member variables.

              Only tag packages in Ada files.

              May  be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command line.  etags will read from standard in-
              put and mark the produced tags as belonging to the file FILE.

       -o tagfile, --output=tagfile
              Explicit name of file for tag table; for etags only, a file name of - means standard  output;  overrides
              default TAGS or tags.  (But ignored with -v or -x.)

       -r regexp, --regex=regexp

              Make  tags  based  on  regexp matching for the files following this option, in addition to the tags made
              with the standard parsing based on language. May be freely intermixed with filenames and the -R  option.
              The regexps are cumulative, i.e. each such option will add to the previous ones.  The regexps are of one
              of the forms:

              where tagregexp is used to match the tag.  It should not match useless characters.  If the match is such
              that  more  characters  than  needed  are  unavoidably  matched  by tagregexp, it may be useful to add a
              nameregexp, to narrow down the tag scope.  ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp.   The  syntax  of
              regexps  is  the  same as in emacs.  The following character escape sequences are supported: \a, \b, \d,
              \e, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, which respectively stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL, CR,
              TAB, VT.
              The  modifiers are a sequence of 0 or more characters among i, which means to ignore case when matching;
              m, which means that the tagregexp will be matched against the whole file contents at once,  rather  than
              line  by line, and the matching sequence can match multiple lines; and s, which implies m and means that
              the dot character in tagregexp matches the newline char as well.
              The separator, which is / in the examples, can be any character different from space, tab, braces and @.
              If  the  separator  character is needed inside the regular expression, it must be quoted by preceding it
              with \.
              The optional {language} prefix means that the tag should be created only for files of language language,
              and ignored otherwise.  This is particularly useful when storing many predefined regexps in a file.
              In  its second form, regexfile is the name of a file that contains a number of arguments to the --regex=
              option, one per line.  Lines beginning with a space or tab are assumed to be comments, and ignored.

              Here are some examples.  All the regexps are quoted to protect them from shell interpretation.

              Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files:
              --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"/'

              Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken here for formatting reasons):
              --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\  CONFIGURATION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\  \(AT-
              TRIBUTE\|ENTITY\|FUNCTION\|PACKAGE\( BODY\)?\ \|PROCEDURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/'

              Tag TCL files (this last example shows the usage of a tagregexp):
              --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/'

              A  regexp  can  be preceded by {lang}, thus restricting it to match lines of files of the specified lan-
              guage.  Use etags --help to obtain a list of the recognized languages.   This  feature  is  particularly
              useful  inside regex files.  A regex file contains one regex per line.  Empty lines, and those lines be-
              ginning with space or tab are ignored.  Lines beginning with @ are references to regex files whose  name
              follows the @ sign.  Other lines are considered regular expressions like those following --regex.
              For example, the command
              etags --regex=@regex.file *.c
              reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file.

       -R, --no-regex
              Don't  do  any more regexp matching on the following files.  May be freely intermixed with filenames and
              the --regex option.

       -u, --update
              Update tag entries for files specified on command line, leaving tag entries for other  files  in  place.
              Currently,  this  is implemented by deleting the existing entries for the given files and then rewriting
              the new entries at the end of the tags file.  It is often faster to simply rebuild the entire  tag  file
              than to use this.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -v, --vgrind
              Instead of generating a tag file, write index (in vgrind format) to standard output.  Only ctags accepts
              this option.

       -x, --cxref
              Instead of generating a tag file, write a cross reference (in cxref format) to  standard  output.   Only
              ctags accepts this option.

       -h, -H, --help
              Print  usage information.  Followed by one or more --language=LANG prints detailed information about how
              tags are created for LANG.

       -V, --version
              Print the current version of the program (same as the version of the emacs etags is shipped with).

       'emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman.
       cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).

       Copyright (C) 1992, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright notice and
       this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the conditions for verba-
       tim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission no-
       tice identical to this one.

       Permission  is  granted  to  copy and distribute translations of this document into another language, under the
       above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a  translation  ap-
       proved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Tools                          23nov2001                          etags(1)