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ZSHZLE(1)                                                            ZSHZLE(1)



NAME
       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION
       If  the ZLE option is set (which it is by default in interactive shells) and the shell input is attached to the
       terminal, the user is able to edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the default.  It only works if the  TERM  parameter
       is  set to a valid terminal type that can move the cursor up.  The second, single line mode, is used if TERM is
       invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up, or if the SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to
       ksh, and uses no termcap sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset by default.

       The  parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line editor.  See Parameters Used By The Shell in
       zshparam(1).

       The parameter zle_highlight is also used by the line editor; see Character Highlighting below.  Highlighting of
       special  characters and the region between the cursor and the mark (as set with set-mark-command in Emacs mode)
       is enabled by default; consult this reference for more information.  Irascible conservatives will wish to  know
       that all highlighting may be disabled by the following setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)



KEYMAPS
       A keymap in ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and ZLE commands.  The empty key sequence can-
       not be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one or more names.  If all  of  a  keymap's
       names are deleted, it disappears.  bindkey can be used to manipulate keymap names.

       Initially, there are six keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The '.safe' keymap is special.  It can never be altered, and the name can never be removed.  However, it can be
       linked to other names, which can be removed.  In the future other special keymaps may be  added;  users  should
       avoid using names beginning with '.' for their own keymaps.

       In  addition to these names, either 'emacs' or 'viins' is also linked to the name 'main'.  If one of the VISUAL
       or EDITOR environment variables contain the string 'vi' when the shell starts up then it will be 'viins',  oth-
       erwise  it  will  be  'emacs'.   bindkey's  -e and -v options provide a convenient way to override this default
       choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the 'main' keymap.  If that keymap doesn't exist, it will use '.safe'
       instead.

       In the '.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except for ^J (line feed) and ^M (return) which
       are bound to accept-line.  This is deliberately not pleasant to use; if you are using it, it means you  deleted
       the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When  ZLE  is  reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence that is bound to some command and is
       also a prefix of a longer bound string.  In this case ZLE will wait a certain time to see  if  more  characters
       are  typed,  and  if  not (or they don't match any longer string) it will execute the binding.  This timeout is
       defined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix string  is  not
       itself bound to a command.

       The  key  timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a multibyte character string when it is in
       the appropriate mode.  (This requires that the shell was compiled with multibyte mode enabled;  typically  also
       the  locale has characters with the UTF-8 encoding, although any multibyte encoding known to the operating sys-
       tem is supported.)  If the second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period, the shell acts as
       if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As  well  as  ZLE  commands,  key  sequences can be bound to other strings, by using 'bindkey -s'.  When such a
       sequence is read, the replacement string is pushed back as input, and the command reading process starts  again
       using  these fake keystrokes.  This input can itself invoke further replacement strings, but in order to detect
       loops the process will be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for use in  user-defined  widgets  with  the
       read-command widget, described below.


ZLE BUILTINS
       The  ZLE  module contains three related builtin commands. The bindkey command manipulates keymaps and key bind-
       ings; the vared command invokes ZLE on the value of a shell parameter; and the zle command manipulates  editing
       widgets and allows command line access to ZLE commands from within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's options can be divided into three categories: keymap selection for the current command, opera-
              tion selection, and others.  The keymap selection options are:

              -e     Selects keymap 'emacs' for any operations by the current  command,  and  also  links  'emacs'  to
                     'main' so that it is selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -v     Selects  keymap  'viins'  for  any  operations  by the current command, and also links 'viins' to
                     'main' so that it is selected by default the next time the editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap 'vicmd' for any operations by the current command.

              -M keymap
                     The keymap specifies a keymap name that is selected for any operations by the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of the options above are used, the  'main'  keymap  is  used.
              Some operations do not permit a keymap to be selected, namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap names; if any arguments are given, list just those keymaps.

                     If  the  -L  option  is  also  used,  list  in the form of bindkey commands to create or link the
                     keymaps.  'bindkey -lL main' shows which keymap is linked to 'main', if any,  and  hence  if  the
                     standard  emacs or vi emulation is in effect.  This option does not show the .safe keymap because
                     it cannot be created in that fashion; however, neither is 'bindkey  -lL  .safe'  reported  as  an
                     error, it simply outputs nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make  the  new-keymap  name an alias for old-keymap, so that both names refer to the same keymap.
                     The names have equal standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.  If there  is  already  a
                     keymap with the new-keymap name, it is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap already has that name, it is deleted.  If an
                     old-keymap name is given, the new keymap is initialized to be a duplicate of  it,  otherwise  the
                     new keymap will be empty.

              To  use  a  newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.  Hence the sequence of commands to create
              and use a new keymap 'mymap' initialized from the emacs keymap (which remains unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note that while 'bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap is emacs or viins, it will not  work  for
              vicmd, as switching from vi insert to command mode becomes impossible.

              The following operations act on the 'main' keymap if no keymap selection option was given:

              -m     Add  the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected keymap.  Only keys that are unbound or
                     bound to self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind the specified in-strings in the selected keymap.  This is exactly  equivalent  to  binding
                     the strings to undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When  -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.  Any binding that has the given in-string
                     as a prefix, not including the binding for the in-string itself, if any, will  be  removed.   For
                     example,

                             bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will  remove  all  bindings  in the vi-insert keymap beginning with an escape character (probably
                     cursor keys), but leave the binding for the escape character itself (probably vi-cmd-mode).  This
                     is incompatible with the option -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind  each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string is typed, out-string will be pushed back
                     and treated as input to the line editor.  When -R is  also  used,  interpret  the  in-strings  as
                     ranges.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind each in-string to each command.  When -R is used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List  key  bindings.   If  an  in-string is specified, the binding of that string in the selected
                     keymap is displayed.  Otherwise, all key bindings in the selected keymap are  displayed.   (As  a
                     special  case,  if  the -e or -v option is used alone, the keymap is not displayed - the implicit
                     linking of keymaps is the only thing that happens.)

                     When the option -p is used, the in-string must be present.  The listing shows all bindings  which
                     have  the given key sequence as a prefix, not including any bindings for the key sequence itself.

                     When the -L option is used, the list is in the form of bindkey commands to create the  key  bind-
                     ings.

       When  the  -R  option  is  used  as noted above, a valid range consists of two characters, with an optional '-'
       between them.  All characters between the two specified, inclusive, are bound as specified.

       For either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, '\' escapes the following character.  Delete is written as  '^?'.   Note  that  '\M^?'  and
       '^\M?' are not the same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings '\M-X' and '\eX' are entirely distinct, although
       they are initialized to the same bindings by 'bindkey -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
         [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
         [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer, and the line editor  is  invoked.   When
              the  editor  exits,  name is set to the string value returned by the editor.  When the -c flag is given,
              the parameter is created if it doesn't already exist.  The -a flag may be given with  -c  to  create  an
              array  parameter,  or  the -A flag to create an associative array.  If the type of an existing parameter
              does not match the type to be created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters as defined in $IFS will be shown quoted
              with  a  backslash,  as  will backslashes themselves.  Conversely, when the edited text is split into an
              array, a backslash quotes an immediately following separator character or backslash;  no  other  special
              handling of backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual  elements  of existing array or associative array parameters may be edited by using subscript
              syntax on name.  New elements are created automatically, even without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string will be taken as the prompt to display at  the  left.   If
              the  -r flag is given, the following string gives the prompt to display at the right.  If the -h flag is
              specified, the history can be accessed from ZLE. If the -e flag is given, typing ^D  (Control-D)  on  an
              empty line causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The -M option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during editing, and the -m option gives a keymap
              to link to the vicmd keymap during editing.  For vi-style editing, this allows  a  pair  of  keymaps  to
              override  viins  and  vicmd.   For emacs-style editing, only -M is normally needed but the -m option may
              still be used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              If '-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be used instead of the  default  /dev/tty.
              If tty does not refer to a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The zle builtin performs a number of different actions concerning ZLE.

              With  no  options  and no arguments, only the return status will be set.  It is zero if ZLE is currently
              active and widgets could be invoked using this builtin command and non-zero otherwise.  Note  that  even
              if  non-zero status is returned, zle may still be active as part of the completion system; this does not
              allow direct calls to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option is used, list in the form of  zle  com-
                     mands to create the widgets.

                     When  combined  with  the  -a option, all widget names are listed, including the builtin ones. In
                     this case the -L option is ignored.

                     If at least one string is given, nothing will be printed but the return status will  be  zero  if
                     all  strings  are  names  of  existing  widgets (or of user-defined widgets if the -a flag is not
                     given) and non-zero if at least one string is not a name of an defined widget.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that both names refer to  the  same  widget.
                     The  names  have  equal standing; if either is deleted, the other remains.  If there is already a
                     widget with the new-widget name, it is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.  If there is already a widget with the specified name, it is  over-
                     written.   When the new widget is invoked from within the editor, the specified shell function is
                     called.  If no function name is specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.  For  fur-
                     ther information, see the section Widgets in zshzle(1).

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create  a user-defined completion widget named widget. The completion widget will behave like the
                     built-in completion-widget whose name is given as completion-widget. To generate the completions,
                     the shell function function will be called.  For further information, see zshcompwid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay  the  command  line;  this  is  to be called from within a user-defined widget to allow
                     changes to become visible.  If a display-string is given and not empty, this is shown in the sta-
                     tus line (immediately below the line being edited).

                     If  the optional strings are given they are listed below the prompt in the same way as completion
                     lists are printed. If no strings are given but the -c option is used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that this option is only useful for widgets that do not  exit  immediately  after  using  it
                     because the strings displayed will be erased immediately after return from the widget.

                     This  command  can  safely  be called outside user defined widgets; if zle is active, the display
                     will be refreshed, while if zle is not active, the command has no effect.   In  this  case  there
                     will usually be no other arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below the command line; unlike the -R option,
                     the string will not be put into the status line but will instead be printed  normally  below  the
                     prompt.  This means that the string will still be displayed after the widget returns (until it is
                     overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input stack of ZLE.  After the widget currently
                     executed finishes ZLE will behave as if the characters in the string were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option is used repeatedly the last string pushed onto the stack will
                     be processed first.  However, the characters in each string will be processed  in  the  order  in
                     which they appear in the string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects  the keymap named keymap.  An error message will be displayed if there is no such keymap.

                     This keymap selection affects the interpretation of following keystrokes within  this  invocation
                     of  ZLE.   Any  following  invocation  (e.g., the next command line) will start as usual with the
                     'main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the 'poll' or 'select' system  calls;  most  modern
                     systems do.

                     Installs  handler  (the  name of a shell function) to handle input from file descriptor fd.  When
                     zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both the terminal and the list of  handled  fd's.
                     If  data  becomes available on a handled fd, zle will call handler with the fd which is ready for
                     reading as the only argument.  If the handler produces output to the  terminal,  it  should  call
                     'zle  -I' before doing so (see below).  The handler should not attempt to read from the terminal.
                     Note that zle makes no attempt to check whether this fd is actually readable when installing  the
                     handler.   The user must make their own arrangements for handling the file descriptor when zle is
                     not active.

                     Any number of handlers for any number of readable file descriptors may be installed.   Installing
                     a handler for an fd which is already handled causes the existing handler to be replaced.

                     If  no  handler  is given, but an fd is present, any handler for that fd is removed.  If there is
                     none, an error message is printed and status 1 is returned.

                     If no arguments are given, or the -L option is supplied, a list of handlers is printed in a  form
                     which can be stored for later execution.

                     An  fd (but not a handler) may optionally be given with the -L option; in this case, the function
                     will list the handler if any, else silently return status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.  Activity on one of the fd's which is not  prop-
                     erly handled can cause the terminal to become unusable.

                     Here  is  a  simple  example of using this feature.  A connection to a remote TCP port is created
                     using the ztcp command; see the description of the zsh/net/tcp module in zshmodules(1).   Then  a
                     handler  is  installed  which  simply prints out any data which arrives on this connection.  Note
                     that 'select' will indicate that the file descriptor needs handling if the remote side has closed
                     the connection; we handle that by testing for a failed read.
                             if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                               tcpfd=$REPLY
                               handler() {
                                 zle -I
                                 local line
                                 if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                   # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                   # so handle this specially.
                                   print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                   zle -F $1
                                   return 1
                                 fi
                                 print -r - $line
                               }
                               zle -F $tcpfd handler
                             fi

              -I     Unusually,  this  option  is most useful outside ordinary widget functions, though it may be used
                     within if normal output to the terminal is required.  It invalidates the current zle  display  in
                     preparation  for output; typically this will be from a trap function.  It has no effect if zle is
                     not active.  When a trap exits, the shell checks to see if the display needs restoring, hence the
                     following will print output in such a way as not to disturb the line being edited:

                             TRAPUSR1() {
                                 # Invalidate zle display
                               [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                                 # Show output
                               print Hello
                             }

                     In general, the trap function may need to test whether zle is active before using this method (as
                     shown in the example), since the zsh/zle module may not even be loaded; if it is not, the command
                     can be skipped.

                     It  is possible to call 'zle -I' several times before control is returned to the editor; the dis-
                     play will only be invalidated the first time to minimise disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of manipulating the display  from  within  zle  widgets;
                     see, for example, 'zle -R' above.

                     The  returned status is zero if zle was invalidated, even though this may have been by a previous
                     call to 'zle -I' or by a system notification.  To test if a zle widget  may  be  called  at  this
                     point, execute zle with no arguments and examine the return status.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke  the  specified  widget.   This can only be done when ZLE is active; normally this will be
                     within a user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numerical argument will be saved and then restored  after
                     the  call  to widget; '-n num' sets the numerical argument temporarily to num, while '-N' sets it
                     to the default, i.e. as if there were none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used as the current keymap during the execution of the widget.
                     The previous keymap will be restored when the widget exits.

                     Normally,  calling  a  widget  in  this way does not set the special parameter WIDGET and related
                     parameters, so that the environment appears as if the top-level widget called by  the  user  were
                     still  active.   With  the option -w, WIDGET and related parameters are set to reflect the widget
                     being executed by the zle call.

                     Any further arguments will be passed to the widget; note that as standard  argument  handling  is
                     performed,  any general argument list should be preceded by --.  If it is a shell function, these
                     are passed down as positional parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in  question
                     what it does with them.  Currently arguments are only handled by the incremental-search commands,
                     the history-search-forward and -backward and the corresponding functions prefixed by vi-, and  by
                     universal-argument.   No error is flagged if the command does not use the arguments, or only uses
                     some of them.

                     The return status reflects the success or failure of the operation carried out by the widget,  or
                     if it is a user-defined widget the return status of the shell function.

                     A  non-zero return status causes the shell to beep when the widget exits, unless the BEEP options
                     was unset or the widget was called via the zle command.  Thus if a user defined  widget  requires
                     an immediate beep, it should call the beep widget directly.


WIDGETS
       All  actions  in the editor are performed by 'widgets'.  A widget's job is simply to perform some small action.
       The ZLE commands that key sequences in keymaps are bound to are in fact widgets.  Widgets can  be  user-defined
       or built in.

       The  standard  widgets  built  into  ZLE  are  listed in Standard Widgets below.  Other built-in widgets can be
       defined by other modules (see zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two names: its normal  canonical  name,
       and the same name preceded by a '.'.  The '.' name is special: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This
       makes the widget available even when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using 'zle -N', and implemented as shell functions.  When the widget  is  exe-
       cuted,  the corresponding shell function is executed, and can perform editing (or other) actions.  It is recom-
       mended that user-defined widgets should not have names starting with '.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS
       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute any normal  shell  command.   They  can
       also run other widgets (whether built-in or user-defined) using the zle builtin command.  The standard input of
       the function is closed to prevent external commands from unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the  ter-
       minal,  but  read  -k  or  read  -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine and edit the ZLE
       buffer being edited by reading and setting the special parameters described below.

       These special parameters are always available in widget functions, but are not in any way special outside  ZLE.
       If  they  have  some normal value outside ZLE, that value is temporarily inaccessible, but will return when the
       widget function exits.  These special parameters in fact have local scope, like parameters created in  a  func-
       tion using local.

       Inside completion widgets and traps called while ZLE is active, these parameters are available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The  entire  contents  of  the edit buffer.  If it is written to, the cursor remains at the same offset,
              unless that would put it outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently displayed on screen  (i.e.  without  any
              changes to the preceding parameters done after the last redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a line; read-only.  One of the values:
       start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

       cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

       select In a select loop.

       vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.  This is in the range 0 to $#BUFFER, and is by defini-
              tion equal to $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor outside the buffer will result in the cursor being
              moved to the appropriate end of the buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The  last item cut using one of the 'kill-' commands; the string which the next yank would insert in the
              line.  Later entries in the  kill  ring  are  in  the  array  killring.   Note  that  the  command  'zle
              copy-region-as-kill  string'  can  be  used  to set the text of the cut buffer from a shell function and
              cycle the kill ring in the same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as moving up or down in the history to the
              corresponding  history  line.  An attempt to set it is ignored if the line is not stored in the history.
              Note this is not the same as the parameter HISTCMD, which always gives the number of  the  history  line
              being added to the main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line being retrieved within zle.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string; read-only.

       killring (array)
              The  array  of  previously killed items, with the most recently killed first.  This gives the items that
              would be retrieved by a yank-pop in the same order.  Note, however, that the most recently  killed  item
              is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the array of previous entries.

              The  default  size  for the kill ring is eight, however the length may be changed by normal array opera-
              tions.  Any empty string in the kill ring is ignored by the yank-pop command,  hence  the  size  of  the
              array  effectively  sets the maximum length of the kill ring, while the number of non-zero strings gives
              the current length, both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search that was aborted by the user (status 3 returned  by
              the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The  last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.  This is set even if the search failed
              (status 0, 1 or 2 returned by the search widget), but not if it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the cursor position.  If it is assigned  to,  only  that
              part of the buffer is replaced, and the cursor remains between the new $LBUFFER and the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric argument was given, this parameter is unset. When this is set inside
              a widget function, builtin widgets called with the zle builtin command will use the value  assigned.  If
              it is unset inside a widget function, builtin widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes which have already been  typed  and  can
              immediately be read. On systems where the shell is not able to get this information, this parameter will
              always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In a multi-line input at the secondary prompt, this read-only parameter contains  the  contents  of  the
              lines before the one the cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to be displayed before the start of the editable text buffer.  This does not have to be a complete
              line; to display a complete line, a newline must be appended explicitly.  The text is reset on each  new
              invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to  be  displayed  after the end of the editable text buffer.  This does not have to be a complete
              line; to display a complete line, a newline must be prepended explicitly.  The text is reset on each new
              invocation (but not recursive invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The  part  of the buffer that lies to the right of the cursor position.  If it is assigned to, only that
              part of the buffer is replaced, and the cursor remains between the old $LBUFFER and the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates if the region is currently active.  It can be assigned 0 or 1 to deactivate and  activate  the
              region respectively; see Character Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes highlighting for an arbitrary region of
              the command line that will take effect the next time the command line is redisplayed.   Highlighting  of
              the non-editable parts of the command line in PREDISPLAY and POSTDISPLAY are possible, but note that the
              P flag is needed for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              Optionally, a 'P' to signify that the start and end offset that
                     follow include any string set by the PREDISPLAY special parameter; this is needed if the  predis-
                     play string itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may follow the 'P'.
              A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              A highlight specification in the same format as
                     used  for contexts in the parameter zle_highlight, see Character Highlighting below; for example,
                     standout or fg=red,bold.

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies that the first twenty characters of the text including any predisplay string should  be  high-
              lighted in bold.

              Note  that  the  effect of region_highlight is not saved and disappears as soon as the line is accepted.
              The line editor makes no attempt to keep the highlighting effect synchronised with the  line  as  it  is
              edited; hence region highlighting is best limited to static effects within user widgets.

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The  name  of  the shell function that implements a widget defined with either zle -N or zle -C.  In the
              former case, this is the second argument to the zle -N command that defined the  widget,  or  the  first
              argument  if there was no second argument.  In the latter case this is the the third argument to the zle
              -C command that defined the widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion widget currently being executed; the second  argument
              that followed zle -C when the widget was defined.  This is the name of a builtin completion widget.  For
              widgets defined with zle -N this is set to the empty string.  Read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains a set of space-separated words that describe the current zle state.

              Currently, the only state shown is the insert mode as set by the overwrite-mode or  vi-replace  widgets.
              The  string  contains 'insert' if characters to be inserted on the command line move existing characters
              to the right, 'overwrite' if characters to be inserted overwrite existing characters.


   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special to the shell.  If they do not exist, no  special  action
       is taken.  The environment provided is identical to that for any other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the isearch prompt is removed from the dis-
              play.  See zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed within incremental search when the display is about to be redrawn.  Additional output below the
              incremental search prompt can be generated by using 'zle -M' within the widget.  For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note  the line output by 'zle -M' is not deleted on exit from incremental search.  This can be done from
              a zle-isearch-exit widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-init
              Executed every time the line editor is started to read a new line of input.  The following example  puts
              the line editor into vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is equivalent to zle vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This  is similar to zle-line-init but is executed every time the line editor has finished reading a line
              of input.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parameter KEYMAP is set to a  different  value,
              while the line editor is active.  Initialising the keymap when the line editor starts does not cause the
              widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.  The old keymap is  passed  as  the  sole
              argument.

              This  can  be  used  for  detecting  switches  between  the vi command (vicmd) and insert (usually main)
              keymaps.


STANDARD WIDGETS
       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default bindings in emacs mode, vi command  mode
       and vi insert mode (the 'emacs', 'vicmd' and 'viins' keymaps, respectively).

       Note  that  cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps; the shell assumes that the cursor keys
       send the key sequences reported by the terminal-handling library (termcap  or  terminfo).   The  key  sequences
       shown in the list are those based on the VT100, common on many modern terminals, but in fact these are not nec-
       essarily bound.  In the case of the viins keymap, the initial escape character of the sequences serves also  to
       return to the vicmd keymap: whether this happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the line, move to the beginning of
              the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line, move to the end of the  next  line,  if
              any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move  to  the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this command, the cursor will be moved to the
              end of the line (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the current word, to the end of the next word,
              where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from the keyboard, and move to the position just before the next occurrence of it in
              the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the position just after the previous occurrence of it in
              the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  beginning  of the next word.  The editor's idea of a word is specified with the WORDCHARS
              parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move to the first event in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the buffer, move to the previous his-
              tory line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move  down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the next event in the history
              list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the next event in the  history
              list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move  down  a  line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, search forward in the history for a
              line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is taken as  the  string
              for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the cursor.  This leaves
              the cursor in its original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the last event in the history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the buffer, move to the next history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.  This defaults to  the  current  history  line
              (i.e. the one that isn't history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  backward  incrementally  for  a  specified string.  The search is case-insensitive if the search
              string does not have uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin with '^'
              to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the
              following statuses: 0, if the search succeeded; 1, if the search failed; 2, if the search term was a bad
              pattern; 3, if the search was aborted by the send-break command.

              A  restricted  set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the spe-
              cial isearch keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap (note that by default the isearch  keymap
              is empty).  An interrupt signal, as defined by the stty setting, will stop the search and go back to the
              original line.  An undefined key will have the same effect.  Note that the following always perform  the
              same task within incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can the set of
              functions be extended.  The supported functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform the usual function after exiting incremental search.  The command line displayed is  exe-
                     cuted.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back  up  one place in the search history.  If the search has been repeated this does not immedi-
                     ately erase a character in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit incremental search, retaining the command line but performing no further action.  Note  that
                     this function is not bound by default and has no effect outside incremental search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back up one character in the minibuffer; if multiple searches have been performed since the char-
                     acter was inserted the search history is rewound to the  point  just  before  the  character  was
                     entered.  Hence this has the effect of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find the next occurrence of the contents of the mini-buffer.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay the command line, remaining in incremental search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Toggle  between  the 'main' and 'vicmd' keymaps; the 'main' keymap (insert mode) will be selected
                     initially.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat the search.  The direction of the search is indicated in the mini-buffer.

              Any character that is not bound to one of the above functions,  or  self-insert  or  self-insert-unmeta,
              will  cause the mode to be exited.  The character is then looked up and executed in the keymap in effect
              at that point.

              When called from a widget function by the zle command, the incremental search commands can take a string
              argument.   This  will be treated as a string of keys, as for arguments to the bindkey command, and used
              as initial input for the command.  Any characters in the string which  are  unused  by  the  incremental
              search will be silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will search backwards for forceps, leaving the minibuffer containing the string 'forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  incrementally  for  a  specified  string.  The search is case-insensitive if the search
              string does not have uppercase letters and no numeric argument was given.  The string may begin with '^'
              to  anchor  the search to the beginning of the line.  The functions available in the mini-buffer are the
              same as for history-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with no  -pattern,  but  the  search  string
              typed  by  the  user  is  treated  as  a pattern, respecting the current settings of the various options
              affecting pattern matching.  See FILENAME GENERATION in zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no
              numeric  argument  was  given  lowercase letters in the search string may match uppercase letters in the
              history.  The string may begin with '^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this may simply indicate the pattern is not yet  com-
              plete.

              Note  that  only  non-overlapping matches are reported, so an expression with wildcards may return fewer
              matches on a line than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is taken as  the  string
              for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search  backward  in  the  history  for a specified string.  The string may begin with '^' to anchor the
              search to the beginning of the line.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  An interrupt signal, as  defined
              by  the  stty  setting,   will  stop  the  search.   The  functions  available  in  the mini-buffer are:
              accept-line, backward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char,  backward-kill-word,  vi-backward-kill-word,
              clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode  is treated the same as accept-line, and magic-space is treated as a space.  Any other char-
              acter that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta will beep and be ignored. If  the  function
              is called from vi command mode, the bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

              If  called  from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is taken as the string
              for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is taken as  the  string
              for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for  a specified string.  The string may begin with '^' to anchor the
              search to the beginning of the line. The functions available in the mini-buffer  are  the  same  as  for
              vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling is also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the current one and fetch the event following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  the  last  word  from  the previous history event at the cursor position.  If a positive numeric
              argument is given, insert that word from the end of the previous history event.  If the argument is zero
              or  negative  insert  that  word from the left (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this
              command replaces the word just inserted with the last word from the history event prior to the one  just
              used; numeric arguments can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When  called from a shell function invoked from a user-defined widget, the command can take one to three
              arguments.  The first argument specifies a history offset which applies to successive calls to this wid-
              get:  if  it is -1, the default behaviour is used, while if it is 1, successive calls will move forwards
              through the history.  The value 0 can be used to indicate that the history line examined by the previous
              execution  of  the  command will be reexamined.  Note that negative numbers should be preceded by a '--'
              argument to avoid confusing them with options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the command  line  in  normal  array  index
              notation (as a more natural alternative to the prefix argument).  Hence 1 is the first word, and -1 (the
              default) is the last word.

              If a third argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is used to signify that the history offset is
              relative  to  the current history line, rather than the one remembered after the previous invocations of
              insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always copies the first word of the line in the history immediately before the line being edited.   This
              has the side effect that later invocations of the widget will be relative to that line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move  up  a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to the previous event in the history
              list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to the previous event in  the  history
              list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move  up  a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, search backward in the history for a line
              beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is taken as  the  string
              for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search  forward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the cursor.  This leaves
              the cursor in its original position.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.  If in insert mode,  this  won't  delete
              past the point where insert mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point where insert mode was last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from  the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement.  Then enter insert mode.  If the command is vi-change, change the current line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If called from a ZLE widget function in the form 'zle copy-region-as-kill string' then  string  will  be
              taken as the text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the mark and the text on the command line are
              not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like copy-prev-word, but the word is found by using shell  parsing,  whereas  copy-prev-word  looks  for
              blanks. This makes a difference when the word is quoted and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from  the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the endpoint of the
              movement.  If the command is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the end of the line, kill the newline  char-
              acter.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move  to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches the one under the cursor.  If the cur-
              sor is not on a bracket character, move forward without going past the end of the line to find one,  and
              then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
              Read  a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of all characters from the cursor position
              to the endpoint of the movement.  If the movement command is vi-oper-swap-case, swap  the  case  of  all
              characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert  the  contents  of  the kill buffer before the cursor.  If the kill buffer contains a sequence of
              lines (as opposed to characters), paste it above the current line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer after the cursor.  If the kill  buffer  contains  a  sequence  of
              lines (as opposed to characters), paste it below the current line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt character will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display a '^' at the cursor position, and insert the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An
              interrupt character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote  the  current line; that is, put a ''' character at the beginning and the end, and convert all '''
              characters to ''\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi mode text modification.  If a count was used with the modification, it is remembered.
              If  a  count  is  given to this command, it overrides the remembered count, and is remembered for future
              uses of this command.  The cut buffer specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace the character under the cursor with a character read from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable characters) (unbound) (printable characters and some control characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit and converting ^M to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor if at end of line,  else  exchange  the  character
              under the cursor with the character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove  the  text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring (the history of previously killed text) and yank the
              new top.  Only works following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and copy the region from the cursor position to the  endpoint
              of the movement into the kill buffer.  If the command is vi-yank, copy the current line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy the region from the cursor position to the end of the line into the kill buffer.  Arguably, this is
              what Y should do in vi, but it isn't what it actually does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start a new numeric argument, or add to the current one.  See also vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.   This
              only works if bound to a key sequence ending in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget function, a call to this function treats the last key of the key sequence which called
              the widget as the digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively, if this command is followed by an  inte-
              ger  (positive  or  negative),  use  that  as  the argument for the next command.  Thus digits cannot be
              repeated using this command.  For example, if this command occurs twice, followed  immediately  by  for-
              ward-char,  move  forward sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed by -2, then forward-char, move back-
              ward two spaces.

              Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. 'zle universal-argument num', the numerical  argu-
              ment will be set to num; this is equivalent to 'NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must be in the range 2 to 36 inclusive.  Sub-
              sequent use of digit-argument and universal-argument will input a new prefix in  the  given  base.   The
              usual  hexadecimal  convention  is  used:  the letter a or A corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments in
              bases requiring digits from 10 upwards are more conveniently input with universal-argument, since  ESC-a
              etc. are not usually bound to digit-argument.

              The  function can be used with a command argument inside a user-defined widget.  The following code sets
              the base to 16 and lets the user input a hexadecimal argument until a key out  of  the  digit  range  is
              typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In  a  menu  completion, insert the current completion into the buffer, and advance to the next possible
              completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the end of the line, list  possible  comple-
              tions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails, attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.  This is intended to be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion is used.  See the MENU_COMPLETE option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a menu completion is already in progress,
              move to the previous completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt, this widget can be used to move the prompt
              below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute  the  contents  of the buffer.  Then search the history list for a line matching the current one
              and push the event following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to be executed as a shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the the buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to the word on the command line,  remove  it.
              Otherwise do nothing.  Removing the suffix ends any active menu completion or menu selection.

              This  widget  is  intended  to  be  called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired suffix-removal
              behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash, etc.) to the word on the command line, force it  to
              be  preserved.   Otherwise  do  nothing.   Retaining  the suffix ends any active menu completion or menu
              selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired  suffix-preservation
              behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter command mode; that is, select the 'vicmd' keymap.  Yes, this is bound by default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for vi users without the mental capacity to keep track
              of their caps lock key (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position (point) with the position of the mark.  Unless a negative  prefix  argument
              is  given, the region between point and mark is activated so that it can be highlighted.  If a zero pre-
              fix argument is given, the region is activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A restricted set of editing functions  is  available
              in  the  mini-buffer.   Keys  are looked up in the special command keymap, and if not found there in the
              main keymap.  An interrupt signal, as defined by the stty setting, will abort the function.   Note  that
              the  following  always  perform  the  same  task within the executed-named-cmd environment and cannot be
              replaced by user defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The allowed functions  are:
              backward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert, vi-quoted-insert,
              backward-kill-word,   vi-backward-kill-word,    kill-whole-line,    vi-kill-line,    backward-kill-line,
              list-choices,  delete-char-or-list,  complete-word,  accept-line,  expand-or-complete and expand-or-com-
              plete-prefix.

              kill-region kills the last word, and vi-cmd-mode is treated the same as accept-line.  The space and  tab
              characters,  if not bound to one of these functions, will complete the name and then list the possibili-
              ties if the AUTO_LIST option is  set.   Any  other  character  that  is  not  bound  to  self-insert  or
              self-insert-unmeta will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If  there  is  no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add one to the beginning of each line.  If
              there is one, remove a # from each line that has one.  In either case, accept  the  current  line.   The
              INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If  there  is no # character at the beginning of the current line, add one.  If there is one, remove it.
              The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to have any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer stack and  return  to  the  top-level  (PS1)
              prompt.   If  the  current parser construct is only a single line, this is exactly like push-line.  Next
              time the editor starts up or is popped with get-line, the construct will be popped off the  top  of  the
              buffer stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the buffer.  Next time the editor starts up, the
              buffer will be popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At the top-level (PS1) prompt, equivalent to push-line.  At a secondary (PS2) prompt,  move  the  entire
              current  multiline construct into the editor buffer.  The latter is equivalent to push-input followed by
              get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  A keystroke is read just as in normal operation, but instead of
              the command being executed the name of the command that would be executed is stored in the shell parame-
              ter REPLY.  This can be used as the argument of a future zle command.  If the key sequence is not bound,
              status  1  is  returned;  typically,  however,  REPLY  is set to undefined-key to indicate a useless key
              sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this point in the function, the editor regains control until
              one  of  the standard widgets which would normally cause zle to exit (typically an accept-line caused by
              hitting the return key) is executed.  Instead, control returns to the user-defined widget.   The  status
              returned  is  non-zero  if the return was caused by an error, but the function still continues executing
              and hence may tidy up.  This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to alter the command line or  key
              bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.
                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat
              This causes typed letters to be inserted capitalised until either accept-line (i.e. typically the return
              key) is typed or the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the later is handled by saving the  old  defini-
              tion  of  caps-lock  as  save-caps-lock and then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.  Note that an error
              from the recursive edit is detected as a non-zero return status and propagated by using  the  send-break
              widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force  the  prompts  on both the left and right of the screen to be re-expanded, then redisplay the edit
              buffer.  This reflects changes both to the prompt variables themselves and changes in the  expansion  of
              the  values (for example, changes in time or directory, or changes to the value of variables referred to
              by the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and when the display as been interrupted by
              output  from  another part of the shell (such as a job notification) which causes the command line to be
              reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current editor function, e.g. execute-named-command, or the editor itself, e.g. if you are  in
              vared.  Otherwise  abort  the parsing of the current line; in this case the aborted line is available in
              the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command 'run-help cmd', where cmd is the  current
              command.  run-help is normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify  a  buffer to be used in the following command.  There are 35 buffers that can be specified: the
              26 'named' buffers "a to "z and the nine 'queued' buffers "1 to "9.  The named buffers can also be spec-
              ified as "A to "Z.

              When  a  buffer is specified for a cut command, the text being cut replaces the previous contents of the
              specified buffer.  If a named buffer is specified using a capital, the newly cut text is appended to the
              buffer instead of overwriting it.

              If  no  buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the contents of "1 to "8 are each shifted
              along one buffer; the contents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative prefix argument, do not set the mark but
              deactivate the region so that it is no longer highlighted (it is still usable for other purposes).  Oth-
              erwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is not bound to any command is typed.  By  default  it
              beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
              Undo the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modification.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
              Print  the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, decimal and hexadecimal number, the current
              cursor position within the buffer and the column of the cursor in the current line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and and print the listing of key sequences that invoke the  specified
              command.   A restricted set of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in
              the special command keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command 'which-command cmd'.  where  cmd  is  the
              current command.  which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as part of an argument, continue the argument.  Otherwise, exe-
              cute vi-beginning-of-line.


CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING
       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or regions of the line that have a particular  signifi-
       cance.  This is controlled by the array parameter zle_highlight, if it has been set by the user.

       If  the  parameter  contains the single entry none all highlighting is turned off.  Note the parameter is still
       expected to be an array.

       Otherwise each entry of the array should consist of a word indicating a context for highlighting, then a colon,
       then a comma-separated list of the types of highlighting to apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any text within the command line not affected by any other highlighting.  Text outside the editable area
              of the command line is not affected.

       isearch
              When one of the incremental history search widgets is active, the area of the command  line  matched  by
              the search string or pattern.

       region The  region  between  the  cursor (point) and the mark as set with set-mark-command.  The region is only
              highlighted if it is active, which is the case if set-mark-command or exchange-point-and-mark  has  been
              called  and  the  line  has  not  been  subsequently modified.  The region can be deactivated by calling
              set-mark-command with a negative prefix argument, or reactivated by calling exchange-point-and-mark with
              a  zero  prefix argument.  Note that whether or not the region is active has no effect on its use within
              widgets, it simply determines whether it is highlighted.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable representation but are shown in a special manner  by
              the line editor.  These characters are described below.

       suffix This  context  is  used in completion for characters that are marked as suffixes that will be removed if
              the completion ends at that point, the most obvious example being a slash (/) after  a  directory  name.
              Note  that  suffix removal is configurable; the circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may
              differ for different completions.

       zle_highlight may contain additional fields for controlling how terminal sequences to change colours  are  out-
       put.   Each  of  the  following is followed by a colon and a string in the same form as for key bindings.  This
       will not be necessary for the vast majority of terminals as the defaults shown in parentheses are widely  used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The  start  of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.  This is followed by an ASCII digit repre-
              senting the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The start of the escape sequence for the background colour.  This is followed by an ASCII  digit  repre-
              senting the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The  available  types of highlighting are the following.  Note that not all types of highlighting are available
       on all terminals:

       none   No highlighting is applied to the given context.  It is not useful for this to appear with  other  types
              of highlighting; it is used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The  foreground  colour  should be set to colour, a decimal integer or the name of one of the eight most
              widely-supported colours.

              Not all terminals support this and, of those that do, not all provide facilities to  test  the  support,
              hence the user should decide based on the terminal type.  Most terminals support the colours black, red,
              green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and white, which can be set by name.  In  addition.  default  may  be
              used to set the terminal's default foreground colour.  Abbreviations are allowed; b or bl selects black.
              Some terminals may generate additional colours if the bold attribute is also present.

              On recent terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal database the number of colours  supported
              may  be  tested  by  the  command  'echotc  Co'; if this succeeds, it indicates a limit on the number of
              colours which will be enforced by the line editor.  The number of colours is in any case limited to  256
              (i.e. the range 0 to 255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The  background  colour  should be set to colour.  This works similarly to the foreground colour, except
              the background is not usually affected by the bold attribute.

       bold   The characters in the given context are shown in a bold font.  Not all terminals distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The  characters  in  the  given context are shown in the terminal's standout mode.  The actual effect is
              specific to the terminal; on many terminals it is inverse video.  On  some  such  terminals,  where  the
              cursor  does not blink it appears with standout mode negated, making it less than clear where the cursor
              actually is.  On such terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for highlighting  the  region
              and matched search string.

       underline
              The  characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some terminals show the foreground in a dif-
              ferent colour instead; in this case whitespace will not be highlighted.

       The characters described above as 'special' are as follows.  The formatting described here is used irrespective
       of whether the characters are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control characters in the ASCII range are shown as '^' followed by the base character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This  item  applies  to control characters not in the ASCII range, plus other characters as follows.  If
              the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, multibyte characters not in the ASCII character set that are reported
              as  having zero width are treated as combining characters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If the
              option is off, or if a character appears where a combining character is  not  valid,  the  character  is
              treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable  multibyte  characters are shown as a hexadecimal number between angle brackets.  The number
              is the code point of the character in the wide character set; this may or may not be Unicode,  depending
              on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any sequence of one or more bytes that does not form a valid char-
              acter in the current character set is treated as a series of bytes each shown as  a  special  character.
              This  case  can  be  distinguished from other unprintable characters as the bytes are represented as two
              hexadecimal digits between angle brackets, as distinct from the four or eight digits that are  used  for
              unprintable characters that are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not  all  systems  support  this: for it to work, the system's representation of wide characters must be
              code values from the Universal Character Set, as defined by IS0 10646 (also known as Unicode).

       If zle_highlight is not set or no value applies to a particular context, the defaults applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within  widgets,  arbitrary regions may be highlighted by setting the special array parameter region_highlight;
       see above.




zsh 4.3.11                     December 20, 2010                     ZSHZLE(1)