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ZSHZFTPSYS(1)                                                    ZSHZFTPSYS(1)

       zshzftpsys - zftp function front-end

       This  describes  the  set  of shell functions supplied with the source distribution as an interface to the zftp
       builtin command, allowing you to perform FTP operations from the shell command  line  or  within  functions  or
       scripts.   The  interface is similar to a traditional FTP client (e.g. the ftp command itself, see ftp(1)), but
       as it is entirely done within the shell all the familiar completion, editing and globbing features, and so  on,
       are present, and macros are particularly simple to write as they are just ordinary shell functions.

       The  prerequisite is that the zftp command, as described in zshmodules(1) , must be available in the version of
       zsh installed at your site.  If the shell is configured to load new commands at run time, it probably is:  typ-
       ing  'zmodload zsh/zftp' will make sure (if that runs silently, it has worked).  If this is not the case, it is
       possible zftp was linked into the shell anyway: to test this, type 'which zftp' and if zftp  is  available  you
       will get the message 'zftp: shell built-in command'.

       Commands  given  directly  with  zftp builtin may be interspersed between the functions in this suite; in a few
       cases, using zftp directly may cause some of the status  information  stored  in  shell  parameters  to  become
       invalid.   Note  in  particular the description of the variables $ZFTP_TMOUT, $ZFTP_PREFS and $ZFTP_VERBOSE for

       You should make sure all the functions from the Functions/Zftp directory of the source distribution are  avail-
       able;  they  all  begin with the two letters 'zf'.  They may already have been installed on your system; other-
       wise, you will need to find them and copy them.  The directory should appear as one  of  the  elements  of  the
       $fpath  array (this should already be the case if they were installed), and at least the function zfinit should
       be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize the use of the system you need  to  call  the
       zfinit  function.   The following code in your .zshrc will arrange for this; assume the functions are stored in
       the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U zfinit

       Note that zfinit assumes you are using the zmodload method to load the zftp command.  If it  is  already  built
       into the shell, change zfinit to zfinit -n.  It is helpful (though not essential) if the call to zfinit appears
       after any code to initialize the new completion system, else unnecessary compctl commands will be given.

       The sequence of operations in performing a file transfer is essentially the same as  that  in  a  standard  FTP
       client.   Note that, due to a quirk of the shell's getopts builtin, for those functions that handle options you
       must use '--' rather than '-' to ensure the remaining arguments are treated literally (a single '-' is  treated
       as an argument).

   Opening a connection
       zfparams [ host [ user [ password ... ] ] ]
              Set  or  show the parameters for a future zfopen with no arguments.  If no arguments are given, the cur-
              rent parameters are displayed (the password will be shown as a line of asterisks).  If a host is  given,
              and either the user or password is not, they will be prompted for; also, any parameter given as '?' will
              be prompted for, and if the '?' is followed by a string, that will be used as  the  prompt.   As  zfopen
              calls zfparams to store the parameters, this usually need not be called directly.

              A  single  argument  '-' will delete the stored parameters.  This will also cause the memory of the last
              directory (and so on) on the other host to be deleted.

       zfopen [ -1 ] [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
              If host is present, open a connection to that host under username user with password password  (and,  on
              the rare occasions when it is necessary, account account).  If a necessary parameter is missing or given
              as '?' it will be prompted for.  If host is not present, use a previously stored set of parameters.

              If the command was successful, and the terminal is compatible with xterm or is sun-cmd, a  summary  will
              appear  in the title bar, giving the local host:directory and the remote host:directory; this is handled
              by the function zftp_chpwd, described below.

              Normally, the host, user and password are internally recorded for later re-opening, either by  a  zfopen
              with no arguments, or automatically (see below).  With the option '-1', no information is stored.  Also,
              if an open command with arguments failed, the parameters will not be retained (and any previous  parame-
              ters will also be deleted).  A zfopen on its own, or a zfopen -1, never alters the stored parameters.

              Both  zfopen  and zfanon (but not zfparams) understand URLs of the form ftp://host/path... as meaning to
              connect to the host, then change directory to path (which  must  be  a  directory,  not  a  file).   The
              'ftp://'  can  be omitted; the trailing '/' is enough to trigger recognition of the path.  Note prefixes
              other than 'ftp:' are not recognized, and that all characters after the first slash beyond host are sig-
              nificant in path.

       zfanon [ -1 ] host
              Open  a  connection host for anonymous FTP.  The username used is 'anonymous'.  The password (which will
              be reported the first time) is generated as user@host; this  is  then  stored  in  the  shell  parameter
              $EMAIL_ADDR which can alternatively be set manually to a suitable string.

   Directory management
       zfcd [ dir ]
       zfcd -
       zfcd old new
              Change  the current directory on the remote server:  this is implemented to have many of the features of
              the shell builtin cd.

              In the first form with dir present, change to the directory dir.  The command 'zfcd ..' is treated  spe-
              cially,  so is guaranteed to work on non-UNIX servers (note this is handled internally by zftp).  If dir
              is omitted, has the effect of 'zfcd ~'.

              The second form changes to the directory previously current.

              The third form attempts to change the current directory by replacing the first occurrence of the  string
              old with the string new in the current directory.

              Note  that  in  this command, and indeed anywhere a remote filename is expected, the string which on the
              local host corresponds to '~' is converted back to a '~' before being  passed  to  the  remote  machine.
              This  is convenient because of the way expansion is performed on the command line before zfcd receives a
              string.  For example, suppose the command is 'zfcd ~/foo'.  The shell will expand this to  a  full  path
              such as 'zfcd /home/user2/pws/foo'.  At this stage, zfcd recognises the initial path as corresponding to
              '~' and will send the directory to the remote host as ~/foo, so that the '~' will  be  expanded  by  the
              server  to  the  correct  remote  host  directory.   Other named directories of the form '~name' are not
              treated in this fashion.

       zfhere Change directory on the remote server to the one corresponding to the current local directory, with spe-
              cial  handling of '~' as in zfcd.  For example, if the current local directory is ~/foo/bar, then zfhere
              performs the effect of 'zfcd ~/foo/bar'.

       zfdir [ -rfd ] [ - ] [ dir-options ] [ dir ]
              Produce a long directory listing.  The arguments dir-options and dir are passed directly to  the  server
              and  their  effect is implementation dependent, but specifying a particular remote directory dir is usu-
              ally possible.  The output is passed through a pager given by the environment variable $PAGER, or 'more'
              if that is not set.

              The  directory  is  usually cached for re-use.  In fact, two caches are maintained.  One is for use when
              there is no dir-options or dir, i.e. a full listing of the current remote directory; it is flushed  when
              the  current  remote directory changes.  The other is kept for repeated use of zfdir with the same argu-
              ments; for example, repeated use of 'zfdir /pub/gnu' will only require the directory to be retrieved  on
              the first call.  Alternatively, this cache can be re-viewed with the -r option.  As relative directories
              will confuse zfdir, the -f option can be used to force the cache to be flushed before the  directory  is
              listed.   The option -d will delete both caches without showing a directory listing; it will also delete
              the cache of file names in the current remote directory, if any.

       zfls [ ls-options ] [ dir ]
              List files on the remote server.  With no arguments, this will produce a simple list of file  names  for
              the current remote directory.  Any arguments are passed directly to the server.  No pager and no caching
              is used.

   Status commands
       zftype [ type ]
              With no arguments, show the type of data to be transferred, usually ASCII or binary.  With an  argument,
              change  the type: the types 'A' or 'ASCII' for ASCII data and 'B' or 'BINARY', 'I' or 'IMAGE' for binary
              data are understood case-insensitively.

       zfstat [ -v ]
              Show the status of the current or last connection, as well as the status of some of zftp's status  vari-
              ables.  With the -v option, a more verbose listing is produced by querying the server for its version of
              events, too.

   Retrieving files
       The commands for retrieving files all take at least two options. -G suppresses remote filename expansion  which
       would otherwise be performed (see below for a more detailed description of that).  -t attempts to set the modi-
       fication time of the local file to that of the remote file: see the description of the function  zfrtime  below
       for more information.

       zfget [ -Gtc ] file1 ...
              Retrieve all the listed files file1 ... one at a time from the remote server.  If a file contains a '/',
              the full name is passed to the remote server, but the file is stored locally under the name given by the
              part  after  the final '/'.  The option -c (cat) forces all files to be sent as a single stream to stan-
              dard output; in this case the -t option has no effect.

       zfuget [ -Gvst ] file1 ...
              As zfget, but only retrieve files where the version on the remote server is newer (has a later modifica-
              tion time), or where the local file does not exist.  If the remote file is older but the files have dif-
              ferent sizes, or if the sizes are the same but the remote file  is  newer,  the  user  will  usually  be
              queried.   With  the option -s, the command runs silently and will always retrieve the file in either of
              those two cases.  With the option -v, the command prints more information about the files  while  it  is
              working out whether or not to transfer them.

       zfcget [ -Gt ] file1 ...
              As  zfget,  but if any of the local files exists, and is shorter than the corresponding remote file, the
              command assumes that it is the result of a partially completed transfer and  attempts  to  transfer  the
              rest of the file.  This is useful on a poor connection which keeps failing.

              Note that this requires a commonly implemented, but non-standard, version of the FTP protocol, so is not
              guaranteed to work on all servers.

       zfgcp [ -Gt ] remote-file local-file
       zfgcp [ -Gt ] rfile1 ... ldir
              This retrieves files from the remote server with arguments behaving similarly to the cp command.

              In the first form, copy remote-file from the server to the local file local-file.

              In the second form, copy all the remote files rfile1 ... into the local  directory  ldir  retaining  the
              same basenames.  This assumes UNIX directory semantics.

   Sending files
       zfput [ -r ] file1 ...
              Send  all  the  file1 ... given separately to the remote server.  If a filename contains a '/', the full
              filename is used locally to find the file, but only the basename is used for the remote file name.

              With the option -r, if any of the files are directories they are sent recursively with all their  subdi-
              rectories,  including  files  beginning with '.'.  This requires that the remote machine understand UNIX
              file semantics, since '/' is used as a directory separator.

       zfuput [ -vs ] file1 ...
              As zfput, but only send files which are newer than their local equivalents, or if the remote  file  does
              not exist.  The logic is the same as for zfuget, but reversed between local and remote files.

       zfcput file1 ...
              As  zfput,  but if any remote file already exists and is shorter than the local equivalent, assume it is
              the result of an incomplete transfer and send the rest of the file to append to the existing  part.   As
              the  FTP  append  command  is  part  of  the standard set, this is in principle more likely to work than

       zfpcp local-file remote-file
       zfpcp lfile1 ... rdir
              This sends files to the remote server with arguments behaving similarly to the cp command.

              With two arguments, copy local-file to the server as remote-file.

              With more than two arguments, copy all the local files lfile1 ... into  the  existing  remote  directory
              rdir retaining the same basenames.  This assumes UNIX directory semantics.

              A  problem  arises if you attempt to use zfpcp lfile1 rdir, i.e. the second form of copying but with two
              arguments, as the command has no simple way of knowing if rdir corresponds to a directory or a filename.
              It  attempts  to  resolve this in various ways.  First, if the rdir argument is '.' or '..' or ends in a
              slash, it is assumed to be a directory.  Secondly, if the operation of copying to a remote file  in  the
              first  form failed, and the remote server sends back the expected failure code 553 and a reply including
              the string 'Is a directory', then zfpcp will retry using the second form.

   Closing the connection
              Close the connection.

   Session management
       zfsession [ -lvod ] [ sessname ]
              Allows you to manage multiple FTP sessions at once.  By default, connections take  place  in  a  session
              called 'default'; by giving the command 'zfsession sessname' you can change to a new or existing session
              with a name of your choice.  The new session remembers its own connection, as well as  associated  shell
              parameters,  and  also  the host/user parameters set by zfparams.  Hence you can have different sessions
              set up to connect to different hosts, each remembering the appropriate host, user and password.

              With no arguments, zfsession prints the name of the current session; with the option  -l  it  lists  all
              sessions  which  currently  exist,  and  with the option -v it gives a verbose list showing the host and
              directory for each session, where the current session is marked with an  asterisk.   With  -o,  it  will
              switch to the most recent previous session.

              With  -d, the given session (or else the current one) is removed; everything to do with it is completely
              forgotten.  If it was the only session, a new session called 'default' is created and made current.   It
              is safest not to delete sessions while background commands using zftp are active.

       zftransfer sess1:file1 sess2:file2
              Transfer  files between two sessions; no local copy is made.  The file is read from the session sess1 as
              file1 and written to session sess2 as file file2; file1 and file2 may be relative to the current  direc-
              tories  of  the  session.   Either sess1 or sess2 may be omitted (though the colon should be retained if
              there is a possibility of a colon appearing in the file name) and defaults to the current session; file2
              may be omitted or may end with a slash, in which case the basename of file1 will be added.  The sessions
              sess1 and sess2 must be distinct.

              The operation is performed using pipes, so it is required that the connections still be valid in a  sub-
              shell, which is not the case under versions of some operating systems, presumably due to a system bug.

       The  two functions zfmark and zfgoto allow you to 'bookmark' the present location (host, user and directory) of
       the current FTP connection for later use.  The file to be used for storing and retrieving bookmarks is given by
       the  parameter  $ZFTP_BMFILE;  if  not  set when one of the two functions is called, it will be set to the file
       .zfbkmarks in the directory where your zsh startup files live (usually ~).

       zfmark [ bookmark ]
              If given an argument, mark the current host, user and directory under the name bookmark for later use by
              zfgoto.   If  there  is no connection open, use the values for the last connection immediately before it
              was closed; it is an error if there was none.  Any  existing  bookmark  under  the  same  name  will  be
              silently replaced.

              If  not  given  an  argument, list the existing bookmarks and the points to which they refer in the form
              user@host:directory; this is the format in which they are stored, and the file may be edited directly.

       zfgoto [ -n ] bookmark
              Return to the location given by bookmark, as previously set by zfmark.  If the location has  user  'ftp'
              or  'anonymous', open the connection with zfanon, so that no password is required.  If the user and host
              parameters match those stored for the current session, if any, those will be used, and again no password
              is required.  Otherwise a password will be prompted for.

              With  the  option -n, the bookmark is taken to be a nickname stored by the ncftp program in its bookmark
              file, which is assumed to be ~/.ncftp/bookmarks.  The function works identically in  other  ways.   Note
              that there is no mechanism for adding or modifying ncftp bookmarks from the zftp functions.

   Other functions
       Mostly,  these  functions will not be called directly (apart from zfinit), but are described here for complete-
       ness.  You may wish to alter zftp_chpwd and zftp_progress, in particular.

       zfinit [ -n ]
              As described above, this is used to initialize the zftp function system.  The -n option should  be  used
              if the zftp command is already built into the shell.

       zfautocheck [ -dn ]
              This  function  is called to implement automatic reopening behaviour, as described in more detail below.
              The options must appear in the first argument; -n prevents the command from changing to the  old  direc-
              tory,  while  -d  prevents  it from setting the variable do_close, which it otherwise does as a flag for
              automatically closing the connection after a transfer.  The host and directory for the last session  are
              stored  in the variable $zflastsession, but the internal host/user/password parameters must also be cor-
              rectly set.

       zfcd_match prefix suffix
              This performs matching for completion of remote directory names.  If the remote server is UNIX, it  will
              attempt  to  persuade  the server to list the remote directory with subdirectories marked, which usually
              works but is not guaranteed.  On other hosts it simply calls zfget_match and hence completes all  files,
              not just directories.  On some systems, directories may not even look like filenames.

       zfget_match prefix suffix
              This  performs  matching  for completion of remote filenames.  It caches files for the current directory
              (only) in the shell parameter $zftp_fcache.  It is in the form to be called by the -K option of compctl,
              but  also works when called from a widget-style completion function with prefix and suffix set appropri-

       zfrglob varname
              Perform remote globbing, as describes in more detail below.  varname is the name of a variable  contain-
              ing the pattern to be expanded; if there were any matches, the same variable will be set to the expanded
              set of filenames on return.

       zfrtime lfile rfile [ time ]
              Set the local file lfile to have the same modification time as the remote file rfile,  or  the  explicit
              time  time in FTP format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS for the GMT timezone.  This uses the shell's zsh/datetime module
              to perform the conversion from GMT to local time.

              This function is called every time a connection is opened, or closed, or the remote  directory  changes.
              This  version  alters  the  title bar of an xterm-compatible or sun-cmd terminal emulator to reflect the
              local and remote hostnames and current directories.  It works  best  when  combined  with  the  function
              chpwd.  In particular, a function of the form

                     chpwd() {
                       if [[ -n $ZFTP_USER ]]; then
                         # usual chpwd e.g put host:directory in title bar

              fits in well.

              This  function  shows the status of the transfer.  It will not write anything unless the output is going
              to a terminal; however, if you transfer files in the background, you should turn off progress reports by
              hand  using  'zstyle  ':zftp:*'  progress  none'.  Note also that if you alter it, any output must be to
              standard error, as standard output may be a file being received.  The form of  the  progress  meter,  or
              whether  it  is  used  at all, can be configured without altering the function, as described in the next

              This is used to implement caching of files in the current directory for each session separately.  It  is
              used by zfget_match and zfrglob.

       Various styles are available using the standard shell style mechanism, described in zshmodules(1). Briefly, the
       command 'zstyle ':zftp:*' style value ...'.  defines the style to have value value; more than one value may  be
       given,  although that is not useful in the cases described here.  These values will then be used throughout the
       zftp function system.  For more precise control, the first argument, which gives a context in which  the  style
       applies,  can  be  modified to include a particular function, as for example ':zftp:zfget': the style will then
       have the given value only in the zfget function.  Values for the same style in different contexts may  be  set;
       the  most  specific function will be used, where strings are held to be more specific than patterns, and longer
       patterns and shorter patterns.  Note that only the top level function name, as called by  the  user,  is  used;
       calling  of  lower  level  functions  is  transparent  to  the  user.   Hence modifications to the title bar in
       zftp_chpwd use the contexts :zftp:zfopen, :zftp:zfcd, etc., depending where it was called from.  The  following
       styles are understood:

              Controls  the way that zftp_progress reports on the progress of a transfer.  If empty, unset, or 'none',
              no progress report is made; if 'bar' a growing bar of inverse video is shown; if 'percent' (or any other
              string,  though  this  may  change in future), the percentage of the file transferred is shown.  The bar
              meter requires that the width of the terminal be available via the $COLUMNS parameter (normally this  is
              set  automatically).  If the size of the file being transferred is not available, bar and percent meters
              will simply show the number of bytes transferred so far.

              When zfinit is run, if this style is not defined for the context :zftp:*, it will be set to 'bar'.

       update Specifies the minimum time interval between updates of the progress meter in seconds.  No update is made
              unless new data has been received, so the actual time interval is limited only by $ZFTP_TIMEOUT.

              As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to 1.

              If  set  to  '1',  'yes'  or  'true',  filename generation (globbing) is performed on the remote machine
              instead of by zsh itself; see below.

              If set to '1', 'yes' or 'true', zftp_chpwd will put the remote host and remote directory into the title-
              bar of terminal emulators such as xterm or sun-cmd that allow this.

              As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to 1.

       chpwd  If  set  to  '1'  'yes'  or 'true', zftp_chpwd will call the function chpwd when a connection is closed.
              This is useful if the remote host details were put into the terminal title bar by  zftp_chpwd  and  your
              usual chpwd also modifies the title bar.

              When  zfinit  is run, it will determine whether chpwd exists and if so it will set the default value for
              the style to 1 if none exists already.

       Note that there is also an associative array zfconfig which contains values used by the function system.   This
       should not be modified or overwritten.

   Remote globbing
       The  commands  for retrieving files usually perform filename generation (globbing) on their arguments; this can
       be turned off by passing the option -G to each of the commands.  Normally this operates by  retrieving  a  com-
       plete  list  of  files for the directory in question, then matching these locally against the pattern supplied.
       This has the advantage that the full range of zsh patterns (respecting the setting of the option EXTENDED_GLOB)
       can  be  used.   However, it means that the directory part of a filename will not be expanded and must be given
       exactly.  If the remote server does not support the UNIX directory semantics, directory handling is problematic
       and  it  is recommended that globbing only be used within the current directory.  The list of files in the cur-
       rent directory, if retrieved, will be cached, so that subsequent globs in the same directory without an  inter-
       vening zfcd are much faster.

       If  the  remote-glob  style (see above) is set, globbing is instead performed on the remote host: the server is
       asked for a list of matching files.  This is highly dependent on how the server is  implemented,  though  typi-
       cally  UNIX  servers  will  provide  support  for basic glob patterns.  This may in some cases be faster, as it
       avoids retrieving the entire list of directory contents.

   Automatic and temporary reopening
       As described for the zfopen command, a subsequent zfopen with no parameters will reopen the connection  to  the
       last  host  (this  includes  connections made with the zfanon command).  Opened in this fashion, the connection
       starts in the default remote directory and will remain open until explicitly closed.

       Automatic re-opening is also available.  If a connection is not currently open and a command requiring  a  con-
       nection  is  given,  the  last connection is implicitly reopened.  In this case the directory which was current
       when the connection was closed again becomes the current  directory  (unless,  of  course,  the  command  given
       changes  it).   Automatic  reopening  will also take place if the connection was close by the remote server for
       whatever reason (e.g. a timeout).  It is not available if the -1 option to zfopen or zfanon was used.

       Furthermore, if the command issued is a file transfer, the connection will be closed after the transfer is fin-
       ished,  hence  providing  a  one-shot mode for transfers.  This does not apply to directory changing or listing
       commands; for example a zfdir may reopen a connection but will leave it open.   Also,  automatic  closure  will
       only  ever happen in the same command as automatic opening, i.e a zfdir directly followed by a zfget will never
       close the connection automatically.

       Information about the previous connection is given by the zfstat function.  So, for example, if that reports:

              Session:        default
              Not connected.
              Last session:

       then the command zfget file.txt will  attempt  to  reopen  a  connection  to,  retrieve  the  file
       /pub/textfiles/file.txt, and immediately close the connection again.  On the other hand, zfcd ..  will open the
       connection in the directory /pub and leave it open.

       Note that all the above is local to each session; if you return to a previous session, the connection for  that
       session is the one which will be reopened.

       Completion  of  local  and  remote  files,  directories,  sessions and bookmarks is supported.  The older, com-
       pctl-style completion is defined when zfinit is called; support for the new widget-based completion  system  is
       provided  in  the  function Completion/Zsh/Command/_zftp, which should be installed with the other functions of
       the completion system and hence should automatically be available.

zsh 4.3.11                     December 20, 2010                 ZSHZFTPSYS(1)