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ZSHOPTIONS(1)                                                    ZSHOPTIONS(1)

       zshoptions - zsh options

       Options  are primarily referred to by name.  These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored.  For
       example, 'allexport' is equivalent to 'A__lleXP_ort'.

       The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with 'no', so 'setopt  No_Beep'  is  equivalent  to
       'unsetopt  beep'.  This inversion can only be done once, so 'nonobeep' is not a synonym for 'beep'.  Similarly,
       'tify' is not a synonym for 'nonotify' (the inversion of 'notify').

       Some options also have one or more single letter names.  There are two sets of single letter options: one  used
       by  default,  and  another  used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set).  The single
       letter options can be used on the shell command line, or with the set, setopt and unsetopt builtins, as  normal
       Unix options preceded by '-'.

       The  sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using '+' instead of '-'.  Some of the single letter
       option names refer to an option being off, in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option  being
       on.  For example, '+n' is the short name of 'exec', and '-n' is the short name of its inversion, 'noexec'.

       In  strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup, trailing whitespace will be ignored; for
       example the string '-f    ' will be treated just as '-f', but the string '-f i' is an error.  This  is  because
       many systems which implement the '#!' mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace.

       In  the  following  list, options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>; those set by default only in
       csh, ksh, sh, or zsh emulations are marked <C>, <K>,  <S>,  <Z>  as  appropriate.   When  listing  options  (by
       'setopt',  'unsetopt', 'set -o' or 'set +o'), those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with 'no'.
       Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set), 'setopt' shows all options whose settings are changed from the default.

   Changing Directories
       AUTO_CD (-J)
              If  a  command  is  issued  that can't be executed as a normal command, and the command is the name of a
              directory, perform the cd command to that directory.

       AUTO_PUSHD (-N)
              Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

       CDABLE_VARS (-T)
              If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a  directory,  and
              does  not begin with a slash, try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a '~' (see the sec-
              tion 'Filename Expansion').

              When changing to a directory containing a path segment '..' which would otherwise be treated as  cancel-
              ing  the  previous  segment  in the path (in other words, 'foo/..' would be removed from the path, or if
              '..' is the first part of the path, the last part of the current working directory  would  be  removed),
              instead resolve the path to the physical directory.  This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS.

              For  example,  suppose  /foo/bar  is  a  link  to  the directory /alt/rod.  Without this option set, 'cd
              /foo/bar/..' changes to /foo; with it set, it changes to /alt.  The same applies if the  current  direc-
              tory  is  /foo/bar  and  'cd  ..'  is used.  Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be

       CHASE_LINKS (-w)
              Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing  directory.   This  also  has  the  effect  of
              CHASE_DOTS,  i.e.  a  '..' path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent, even if the
              preceding path segment is a symbolic link.

              Modifies the behaviour of cd, chdir and pushd commands to make them more compatible with the POSIX stan-
              dard.  The  behaviour  with  the  option  unset  is described in the documentation for the cd builtin in
              zshbuiltins(1).  If the option is set, the shell does not test for directories beneath the local  direc-
              tory ('.') until after all directories in cdpath have been tested.

              Also, if the option is set, the conditions under which the shell prints the new directory after changing
              to it are modified.  It is no longer restricted to interactive shells (although printing of  the  direc-
              tory  stack  with  pushd  is still limited to interactive shells); and any use of a component of CDPATH,
              including a '.' but excluding an empty component that is otherwise treated as '.', causes the  directory
              to be printed.

              Don't push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack.

              Exchanges the meanings of '+' and '-' when used with a number to specify a directory in the stack.

       PUSHD_SILENT (-E)
              Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.

       PUSHD_TO_HOME (-D)
              Have pushd with no arguments act like 'pushd $HOME'.

              If  unset, key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argu-
              ment. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument.

              If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word, and a full completion is inserted, the  cur-
              sor  is  moved  to the end of the word.  That is, the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a
              single match is inserted or menu completion is performed.

       AUTO_LIST (-9) <D>
              Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion.

       AUTO_MENU <D>
              Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion,  for  example  by
              pressing the tab key repeatedly. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE.

              Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that direc-
              tory, that will be used by the '%~' and related prompt sequences, and will be available when  completion
              is  performed  on a word starting with '~'.  (Otherwise, the parameter must be used in the form '~param'

              If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space)  automatically  inserted,
              and  the  next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like '}', ':',
              etc.), the automatically added character is deleted, so that the character typed comes immediately after
              the  parameter  name.   Completion  in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a
              ',', which will be removed if '}' is typed next.

              If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory, then add a trailing slash  instead
              of a space.

              When  the  last  character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word
              delimiter, a slash, or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand), remove the

              On  an  ambiguous completion, automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in
              succession.  This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST.  The setting  of  LIST_AMBIGUOUS  is  respected.   If
              AUTO_MENU is set, the menu behaviour will then start with the third press.  Note that this will not work
              with MENU_COMPLETE, since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case.

              Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion  is  attempted.
              The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes.

              If  unset,  the  cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. Otherwise it stays there
              and completion is done from both ends.

              When the current word has a glob pattern, do not insert all the words resulting from the  expansion  but
              generate  matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. The matches are generated
              as if a '*' was added to the end of the word, or inserted at the cursor when  COMPLETE_IN_WORD  is  set.
              This  actually  uses  pattern matching, not globbing, so it works not only for files but for any comple-
              tion, such as options, user names, etc.

              Note that when the pattern matcher is used, matching control (for example, case-insensitive or  anchored
              matching) cannot be used.  This limitation only applies when the current word contains a pattern; simply
              turning on the GLOB_COMPLETE option does not have this effect.

       HASH_LIST_ALL <D>
              Whenever a command completion is attempted, make sure the entire command path  is  hashed  first.   This
              makes the first completion slower.

              This  option  works  when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set.  If there is an unambiguous prefix to
              insert on the command line, that is done without a completion list  being  displayed;  in  other  words,
              auto-listing  behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted.  In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST,
              this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function.

       LIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep on an ambiguous completion.  More accurately, this forces the completion widgets to return status 1
              on  an  ambiguous completion, which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set; this may be
              modified if completion is called from a user-defined widget.

              Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in  columns  with
              different widths.

              Lay  out  the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally, that is, the second match is to the right
              of the first one, not under it as usual.

       LIST_TYPES (-X) <D>
              When listing files that are possible completions, show the type of each file with a trailing identifying

              On  an ambiguous completion, instead of listing possibilities or beeping, insert the first match immedi-
              ately.  Then when completion is requested again, remove the first match and  insert  the  second  match,
              etc.  When there are no more matches, go back to the first one again.  reverse-menu-complete may be used
              to loop through the list in the other direction. This option overrides AUTO_MENU.

       REC_EXACT (-S)
              In completion, recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous.

   Expansion and Globbing
       BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z>
              If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed, print an error message.  (If this option is unset,
              the pattern will be left unchanged.)

              In  a  glob pattern, treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list, if it contains no '|', '('
              or (if special) '~' characters.  See the section 'Filename Generation'.

              Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to  a  lexically  ordered
              list of all the characters.  See the section 'Brace Expansion'.

       CASE_GLOB <D>
              Make globbing (filename generation) sensitive to case.  Note that other uses of patterns are always sen-
              sitive to case.  If the option is unset, the presence of any character which is special to filename gen-
              eration  will cause case-insensitive matching.  For example, cvs(/) can match the directory CVS owing to
              the presence of the globbing flag (unless the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is unset).

       CASE_MATCH <D>
              Make regular expressions using the zsh/regex module (including matches with =~) sensitive to case.

       CSH_NULL_GLOB <C>
              If a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete the pattern from the argument list;  do  not
              report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches.  Overrides NOMATCH.

       EQUALS <Z>
              Perform = filename expansion.  (See the section 'Filename Expansion'.)

              Treat  the  '#',  '~'  and '^' characters as part of patterns for filename generation, etc.  (An initial
              unquoted '~' always produces named directory expansion.)

       GLOB (+F, ksh: +f) <D>
              Perform filename generation (globbing).  (See the section 'Filename Generation'.)

       GLOB_ASSIGN <C>
              If this option is set, filename generation (globbing) is performed on the  right  hand  side  of  scalar
              parameter  assignments  of  the form 'name=pattern (e.g. 'foo=*').  If the result has more than one word
              the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. This option is provided for  backwards
              compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form
              'name=(value)' (e.g. 'foo=(*)') and this form is recommended for clarity; with this option  set,  it  is
              not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar.

       GLOB_DOTS (-4)
              Do not require a leading '.' in a filename to be matched explicitly.

       GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S>
              Treat  any  characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and file-
              name generation, and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible  for  filename
              generation.  Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion.

              Substitutions  using  the  :s  and  :&  history modifiers are performed with pattern matching instead of
              string matching.  This occurs wherever history modifiers are valid, including glob qualifiers and param-
              eters.  See the section Modifiers in zshexpn(1).

       IGNORE_BRACES (-I) <S>
              Do not perform brace expansion.

       KSH_GLOB <K>
              In  pattern matching, the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding '@', '*', '+', '?' or
              '!'.  See the section 'Filename Generation'.

              All unquoted arguments of the form 'anything=expression' appearing after the command name have  filename
              expansion  (that  is, where expression has a leading '~' or '=') performed on expression as if it were a
              parameter assignment.  The argument is not otherwise treated specially; it is passed to the command as a
              single  argument, and not used as an actual parameter assignment.  For example, in echo foo=~/bar:~/rod,
              both occurrences of ~ would be replaced.  Note that this happens anyway with typeset and similar  state-

              This  option  respects  the  setting  of the KSH_TYPESET option.  In other words, if both options are in
              effect, arguments looking like assignments will not undergo word splitting.

       MARK_DIRS (-8, ksh: -X)
              Append a trailing '/' to all directory names resulting from filename generation (globbing).

       MULTIBYTE <C> <K> <Z>
              Respect multibyte characters when found in strings.  When this option is set, strings are examined using
              the  system library to determine how many bytes form a character, depending on the current locale.  This
              affects the way characters are counted in pattern matching, parameter values and various delimiters.

              The option is on by default if the shell was compiled with MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT  except  in  sh  emulation;
              otherwise it is off by default and has no effect if turned on.  The mode is off in sh emulation for com-
              patibility but for interactive use may need to be turned on if the terminal interprets multibyte charac-

              If  the  option  is off a single byte is always treated as a single character.  This setting is designed
              purely for examining strings known to contain raw bytes or other values that may not  be  characters  in
              the  current  locale.   It is not necessary to unset the option merely because the character set for the
              current locale does not contain multibyte characters.

              The option does not affect the shell's editor,  which always uses  the  locale  to  determine  multibyte
              characters.   This  is  because  the  character set displayed by the terminal emulator is independent of
              shell settings.

       NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z>
              If a pattern for filename generation has no matches, print an error, instead of leaving it unchanged  in
              the argument list.  This also applies to file expansion of an initial '~' or '='.

       NULL_GLOB (-G)
              If  a  pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete the pattern from the argument list instead
              of reporting an error.  Overrides NOMATCH.

              If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern, sort the filenames numerically rather
              than lexicographically.

              Array  expansions  of  the form 'foo${xx}bar', where the parameter xx is set to (a b c), are substituted
              with 'fooabar foobbar foocbar' instead of the default 'fooa b cbar'.  Note  that  an  empty  array  will
              therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

              If  set,  regular  expression matching with the =~ operator will use Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions
              from the PCRE library, if available.  If not set, regular expressions will use the extended regexp  syn-
              tax provided by the system libraries.

       SH_GLOB <K> <S>
              Disables  the  special meaning of '(', '|', ')' and '<' for globbing the result of parameter and command
              substitutions, and in some other places where the shell accepts patterns.  This option is set by default
              if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh.

       UNSET (+u, ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z>
              Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting.  Otherwise they are treated as an error.

              Print a warning message when a global parameter is created in a function by an assignment.   This  often
              indicates  that a parameter has not been declared local when it should have been.  Parameters explicitly
              declared global from within a function using typeset -g do not cause a warning.  Note that there  is  no
              warning when a local parameter is assigned to in a nested function, which may also indicate an error.

              If this is set, zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file, rather than replace it.
              Thus, multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have the new entries from their history lists added to the
              history  file,  in  the order that they exit.  The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it
              when  the  number  of  lines  grows  20%  beyond  the  value  specified  by  $SAVEHIST  (see  also   the
              HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z>
              Perform textual history expansion, csh-style, treating the character '!' specially.

              Save  each  command's  beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to
              the history file.  The format of this prefixed data is:

              ': <beginning time>:<elapsed seconds>;<command>'.

              Add '|' to output redirections in the history.  This allows history references  to  clobber  files  even
              when CLOBBER is unset.

       HIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn't there.

              If  the  internal  history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line, setting this option will
              cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a  unique  event  from  the
              list.  You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give
              you  some  room  for  the  duplicated  events,   otherwise   this   option   will   behave   just   like
              HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events.

              When  writing out the history file, by default zsh uses ad-hoc file locking to avoid known problems with
              locking on some operating systems.  With this option locking is done by  means  of  the  system's  fcntl
              call,  where this method is available.  On recent operating systems this may provide better performance,
              in particular avoiding history corruption when files are stored on NFS.

              When searching for history entries in the line editor, do not display duplicates of  a  line  previously
              found, even if the duplicates are not contiguous.

              If  a  new  command  line  being added to the history list duplicates an older one, the older command is
              removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event).

       HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (-h)
              Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event.

              Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space, or when  one
              of  the  expanded  aliases contains a leading space.  Only normal aliases (not global or suffix aliases)
              have this behaviour.  Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the  next  command  is
              entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line.  If you want to make it van-
              ish right away without entering another command, type a space and press return.

              By default, shell history that is read in from files is split into words on all white space.  This means
              that arguments with quoted whitespace are not correctly handled, with the consequence that references to
              words in history lines that have been read from a file may be inaccurate.   When  this  option  is  set,
              words  read in from a history file are divided up in a similar fashion to normal shell command line han-
              dling.  Although this produces more accurately delimited words, if the size of the history file is large
              this can be slow.  Trial and error is necessary to decide.

              Remove  function definitions from the history list.  Note that the function lingers in the internal his-
              tory until the next command is entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly  reuse  or  edit  the

              Remove the history (fc -l) command from the history list when invoked.  Note that the command lingers in
              the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse
              or edit the line.

              Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list.

              When  the  history  file is re-written, we normally write out a copy of the file named $ and
              then rename it over the old one.  However, if this option is unset, we instead truncate the old  history
              file  and  write out the new version in-place.  If one of the history-appending options is enabled, this
              option only has an effect when the enlarged history file needs to be re-written to trim it down to size.
              Disable  this  only  if you have special needs, as doing so makes it possible to lose history entries if
              zsh gets interrupted during the save.

              When writing out a copy of the history file, zsh preserves the old file's permissions and group informa-
              tion, but will refuse to write out a new file if it would change the history file's owner.

              When writing out the history file, older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted.

              Whenever  the  user enters a line with history expansion, don't execute the line directly; instead, per-
              form history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer.

              This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the  $HISTFILE  incre-
              mentally  (as soon as they are entered), rather than waiting until the shell exits.  The file will still
              be periodically re-written to trim it when the number of lines grows 20% beyond the value  specified  by
              $SAVEHIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).


              This  option  both imports new commands from the history file, and also causes your typed commands to be
              appended to the history file (the latter is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY).  The history lines  are
              also  output  with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left
              off reading the file after it gets re-written).

              By default, history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local lines, but  you  can
              toggle this on and off with the set-local-history zle binding.  It is also possible to create a zle wid-
              get that will make some commands ignore imported commands, and some include them.

              If you find that you want more control over when commands get imported, you may wish to turn  SHARE_HIS-
              TORY  off,  INC_APPEND_HISTORY  on,  and  then manually import commands whenever you need them using 'fc

       ALL_EXPORT (-a, ksh: -a)
              All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported.

       GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>)
              If this option is set, passing the -x flag to the builtins declare, float, integer, readonly and typeset
              (but  not  local)  will  also set the -g flag;  hence parameters exported to the environment will not be
              made local to the enclosing function, unless they were already or the flag +g is given  explicitly.   If
              the option is unset, exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter.

              This option is set by default for backward compatibility; it is not recommended that  its  behaviour  be
              relied  upon.   Note  that the builtin export always sets both the -x and -g flags, and hence its effect
              extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function; this is  the  most  portable  way  to  achieve  this

       GLOBAL_RCS (-d) <D>
              If  this option is unset, the startup files /etc/zprofile, /etc/zshrc, /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will
              not be run.  It can be disabled and re-enabled  at  any  time,  including  inside  local  startup  files
              (.zshrc, etc.).

       RCS (+f) <D>
              After  /etc/zshenv  is  sourced  on  startup,  source the .zshenv, /etc/zprofile, .zprofile, /etc/zshrc,
              .zshrc, /etc/zlogin, .zlogin, and .zlogout files, as described in the section 'Files'.  If  this  option
              is unset, the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced, but any of the others will not be; it can be set at any
              time to prevent the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced.

       ALIASES <D>
              Expand aliases.

       CLOBBER (+C, ksh: +C) <D>
              Allows '>' redirection to truncate existing files, and '>>' to create files.   Otherwise  '>!'  or  '>|'
              must be used to truncate a file, and '>>!' or '>>|' to create a file.

       CORRECT (-0)
              Try  to  correct  the spelling of commands.  Note that, when the HASH_LIST_ALL option is not set or when
              some directories in the path are not readable, this may falsely report spelling errors  the  first  time
              some commands are used.

              The  shell  variable CORRECT_IGNORE may be set to a pattern to match words that will never be offered as

       CORRECT_ALL (-O)
              Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line.

       DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining  spelling  mis-
              takes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell-word editor command.

              If  this  option  is unset, output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ^S/^Q) is
              disabled in the shell's editor.

       IGNORE_EOF (-7)
              Do not exit on end-of-file.  Require the use of exit or logout instead.  However, ten  consecutive  EOFs
              will cause the shell to exit anyway, to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away.

              Also,  if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used, widgets implemented by shell functions can
              be bound to EOF (normally Control-D) without printing the normal warning message.  This works  only  for
              normal widgets, not for completion widgets.

              Allow comments even in interactive shells.

       HASH_CMDS <D>
              Note  the  location  of  each command the first time it is executed.  Subsequent invocations of the same
              command will use the saved location, avoiding a path search.  If this option is unset, no  path  hashing
              is  done  at  all.  However, when CORRECT is set, commands whose names do not appear in the functions or
              aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors.

       HASH_DIRS <D>
              Whenever a command name is hashed, hash the directory containing it, as well  as  all  directories  that
              occur earlier in the path.  Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.

       MAIL_WARNING (-U)
              Print a warning message if a mail file has been accessed since the shell last checked.

       PATH_DIRS (-Q)
              Perform  a  path  search even on command names with slashes in them.  Thus if '/usr/local/bin' is in the
              user's path, and he or she types 'X11/xinit', the command '/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit'  will  be  executed
              (assuming it exists).  Commands explicitly beginning with '/', './' or '../' are not subject to the path
              search.  This also applies to the '.' builtin.

              Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for executables specified in  this
              form.  This takes place before any search indicated by this option, and regardless of whether '.' or the
              current directory appear in the command search path.

       PATH_SCRIPT <K> <S>
              If this option is not set, a script passed as the first non-option argument to the  shell  must  contain
              the  name of the file to open.  If this option is set, and the script does not specify a directory path,
              the script is looked for first in the current directory, then in the  command  path.   See  the  section
              INVOCATION in zsh(1).

              Print  eight  bit  characters  literally in completion lists, etc.  This option is not necessary if your
              system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)).

       PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (-1)
              Print the exit value of programs with non-zero exit status.

              Allow the character sequence '''' to signify a single quote within singly  quoted  strings.   Note  this
              does  not apply in quoted strings using the format $'...', where a backslashed single quote can be used.

       RM_STAR_SILENT (-H) <K> <S>
              Do not query the user before executing 'rm *' or 'rm path/*'.

              If querying the user before executing 'rm *' or 'rm path/*', first wait ten seconds and ignore  anything
              typed in that time.  This avoids the problem of reflexively answering 'yes' to the query when one didn't
              really mean it.  The wait and query can always be avoided by expanding the '*' in ZLE (with tab).

       SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z>
              Allow the short forms of for, repeat, select, if, and function constructs.

              If a line ends with a backquote, and there are an odd number of  backquotes  on  the  line,  ignore  the
              trailing  backquote.   This is useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small, and the back-
              quote key lies annoyingly close to it.  As an alternative the variable KEYBOARD_HACK lets you choose the
              character to be removed.

   Job Control
              With  this  option set, stopped jobs that are removed from the job table with the disown builtin command
              are automatically sent a CONT signal to make them running.

       AUTO_RESUME (-W)
              Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job.

       BG_NICE (-6) <C> <Z>
              Run all background jobs at a lower priority.  This option is set by default.

       CHECK_JOBS <Z>
              Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with  job  control;  a  second
              attempt  to  exit  the  shell will succeed.  NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP,
              else such jobs will be killed automatically.

              The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a 'jobs' command, since
              it  is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs.  A 'jobs' command run from
              one of the hook functions defined in the section SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in zshmisc(1) is not counted for this

       HUP <Z>
              Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.

       LONG_LIST_JOBS (-R)
              List jobs in the long format by default.

       MONITOR (-m, ksh: -m)
              Allow job control.  Set by default in interactive shells.

       NOTIFY (-5, ksh: -b) <Z>
              Report  the  status  of  background  jobs  immediately, rather than waiting until just before printing a

       POSIX_JOBS <K> <S>
              This option makes job control more compliant with the POSIX standard.

              When the option is not set, the MONITOR option is unset on entry to subshells, so that job control is no
              longer  active.   When  the  option is set, the MONITOR option and job control remain active in the sub-
              shell, but note that the subshell has no access to jobs in the parent shell.

              When the option is not set, jobs put in the background or foreground with bg or fg  are  displayed  with
              the  same information that would be reported by jobs.  When the option is set, only the text is printed.
              The output from jobs itself is not affected by the option.

              When the option is not set, job information from the parent shell is saved for output within a  subshell
              (for  example,  within  a pipeline).  When the option is set, the output of jobs is empty until a job is
              started within the subshell.

              When the option is set, it becomes possible to use the wait builtin to wait for the last job started  in
              the  background  (as given by $!) even if that job has already exited.  This works even if the option is
              turned on temporarily around the use of the wait builtin.

       PROMPT_BANG <K>
              If set, '!' is treated specially in prompt expansion.  See EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in  zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_CR (+V) <D>
              Print  a  carriage  return  just  before printing a prompt in the line editor.  This is on by default as
              multi-line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the start of the line appears.

       PROMPT_SP <D>
              Attempt to preserve a partial line (i.e. a line that did not end with a newline) that would otherwise be
              covered up by the command prompt due to the PROMPT_CR option.  This works by outputting some cursor-con-
              trol characters, including a series of spaces, that should make the terminal wrap to the next line  when
              a  partial  line  is  present (note that this is only successful if your terminal has automatic margins,
              which is typical).

              When a partial line is preserved, by default you will see an inverse+bold character at the  end  of  the
              partial  line:   a "%" for a normal user or a "#" for root.  If set, the shell parameter PROMPT_EOL_MARK
              can be used to customize how the end of partial lines are shown.

              NOTE: if the PROMPT_CR option is not set, enabling this option will have no effect.  This option  is  on
              by default.

              If  set, '%' is treated specially in prompt expansion.  See EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_SUBST <K> <S>
              If set, parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic expansion  are  performed  in  prompts.
              Substitutions within prompts do not affect the command status.

              Remove  any  right prompt from display when accepting a command line.  This may be useful with terminals
              with other cut/paste methods.

   Scripts and Functions
              Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format, for example '0xFF' instead of  the  usual  '16#FF'.
              If  the  option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default), octal numbers will be treated similarly
              and hence appear as '077' instead of '8#77'.  This option has no effect on  the  choice  of  the  output
              base,  nor  on  the  output  of bases other than hexadecimal and octal.  Note that these formats will be
              understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES.

              This alters the precedence of arithmetic operators to be more like C and  other  programming  languages;
              the section ARITHMETIC EVALUATION in zshmisc(1) has an explicit list.

              Run  the  DEBUG  trap  before each command; otherwise it is run after each command.  Setting this option
              mimics the behaviour of ksh 93; with the option unset the behaviour is that of ksh 88.

       ERR_EXIT (-e, ksh: -e)
              If a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ZERR trap, if set,  and  exit.   This  is  disabled
              while running initialization scripts.

              The  behaviour is also disabled inside DEBUG traps.  In this case the option is handled specially: it is
              unset on entry to the trap.  If the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set, as it is by default, and the  option
              ERR_EXIT  is found to have been set on exit, then the command for which the DEBUG trap is being executed
              is skipped.  The option is restored after the trap exits.

              If a command has a non-zero exit status, return immediately from the enclosing function.  The  logic  is
              identical to that for ERR_EXIT, except that an implicit return statement is executed instead of an exit.
              This will trigger an exit at the outermost level of a non-interactive script.

       EVAL_LINENO <Z>
              If set, line numbers of expressions evaluated using the builtin  eval  are  tracked  separately  of  the
              enclosing  environment.   This  applies  both  to the parameter LINENO and the line number output by the
              prompt escape %i.  If the option is set, the prompt escape %N will output the string '(eval)' instead of
              the script or function name as an indication.   (The two prompt escapes are typically used in the param-
              eter PS4 to be output when the option XTRACE is set.)  If EVAL_LINENO is unset, the line number  of  the
              surrounding script or function is retained during the evaluation.

       EXEC (+n, ksh: +n) <D>
              Do execute commands.  Without this option, commands are read and checked for syntax errors, but not exe-
              cuted.  This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell, except when '-n' is  supplied  to  the
              shell at startup.

              When  executing  a  shell  function  or  sourcing  a script, set $0 temporarily to the name of the func-

              If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function, most options  (including  this  one)
              which  were  in  force upon entry to the function are restored; options that are not restored are PRIVI-
              LEGED and RESTRICTED.  Otherwise, only this option and  the  XTRACE  and  PRINT_EXIT_VALUE  options  are
              restored.  Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point
              of return will remain so.  A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a
              formulation like 'emulate -L zsh'; the -L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS.

       LOCAL_TRAPS <K>
              If  this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function, then the previous status of the trap
              for that signal will be restored when the function exits.  Note that this option must be  set  prior  to
              altering  the trap behaviour in a function; unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS, the value on exit from the function is
              irrelevant.  However, it does not need to be set before  any  global  trap  for  that  to  be  correctly
              restored by a function.  For example,

                     unsetopt localtraps
                     trap - INT
                     fn() { setopt localtraps; trap '' INT; sleep 3; }

              will restore normal handling of SIGINT after the function exits.

              Allow  definitions  of  multiple functions at once in the form 'fn1 fn2...()'; if the option is not set,
              this causes a parse error.  Definition of  multiple  functions  with  the  function  keyword  is  always
              allowed.  Multiple function definitions are not often used and can cause obscure errors.

       MULTIOS <Z>
              Perform  implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are attempted (see the section 'Redirection').

              Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal, per IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (ISO  9945-2:1993).
              This is not enabled by default as it causes problems with parsing of, for example, date and time strings
              with leading zeroes.

              Sequences of digits indicating a numeric base such as the '08' component in '08#77'  are  always  inter-
              preted as decimal, regardless of leading zeroes.

              If  set,  zsh will print an informational message announcing the name of each file it loads.  The format
              of the output is similar to that for the XTRACE option, with the message <sourcetrace>.  A file  may  be
              loaded  by  the  shell itself when it starts up and shuts down (Startup/Shutdown Files) or by the use of
              the 'source' and 'dot' builtin commands.

              If this is unset, executing any of the 'typeset' family of commands with no options and a list of param-
              eters  that have no values to be assigned but already exist will display the value of the parameter.  If
              the option is set, they will only be shown when parameters are  selected  with  the  '-m'  option.   The
              option '-p' is available whether or not the option is set.

       VERBOSE (-v, ksh: -v)
              Print shell input lines as they are read.

       XTRACE (-x, ksh: -x)
              Print  commands  and their arguments as they are executed.  The output is proceded by the value of $PS4,
              formatted as described in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

   Shell Emulation
              When set, matches performed with the =~ operator will set the BASH_REMATCH array  variable,  instead  of
              the  default  MATCH  and  match variables.  The first element of the BASH_REMATCH array will contain the
              entire matched text and subsequent elements will contain extracted substrings.  This option  makes  more
              sense when KSH_ARRAYS is also set, so that the entire matched portion is stored at index 0 and the first
              substring is at index 1.  Without this option, the MATCH variable contains the entire matched  text  and
              the match array variable contains substrings.

       BSD_ECHO <S>
              Make  the  echo  builtin  compatible  with  the  BSD  echo(1) command.  This disables backslashed escape
              sequences in echo strings unless the -e option is specified.

              A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command.  Without  this
              option,  such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference, defaulting
              to the previous command.

              Allow loop bodies to take the form 'list; end' instead of 'do list; done'.

              Changes the rules for single- and double-quoted text to match that of csh.  These require that  embedded
              newlines  be  preceded by a backslash; unescaped newlines will cause an error message.  In double-quoted
              strings, it is made impossible to escape '$', ''' or '"' (and '\'  itself  no  longer  needs  escaping).
              Command substitutions are only expanded once, and cannot be nested.

       CSH_NULLCMD <C>
              Do  not  use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command.  This make
              such redirections fail (see the section 'Redirection').

       KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S>
              Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible.  If this option is set, array elements  are  numbered
              from  zero, an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array,
              and braces are required to delimit a subscript ('${path[2]}' rather than just '$path[2]').

       KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S>
              Emulate ksh function autoloading.  This means that when a function is autoloaded, the corresponding file
              is  merely  executed,  and must define the function itself.  (By default, the function is defined to the
              contents of the file.  However, the most common ksh-style case - of the file containing  only  a  simple
              definition of the function - is always handled in the ksh-compatible manner.)

              Alters  the  way  options  settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options, all
              options are shown, marked 'on' if they are in the non-default state, 'off' otherwise.

       KSH_TYPESET <K>
              Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands, including declare, export,  float,  integer,
              local  and  readonly,  are processed.  Without this option, zsh will perform normal word splitting after
              command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment; with it, word  splitting  does  not  take
              place in those cases.

              Treat  use  of a subscript of value zero in array or string expressions as a reference to the first ele-
              ment, i.e. the element that usually has the subscript 1.  Ignored if KSH_ARRAYS is also set.

              If neither this option nor KSH_ARRAYS is set, accesses to an element of an array  or  string  with  sub-
              script  zero return an empty element or string, while attempts to set element zero of an array or string
              are treated as an error.  However, attempts to set an otherwise valid subscript range that includes zero
              will succeed.  For example, if KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT is not set,


              is an error, while


              is not and will replace the first element of the array.

              This option is for compatibility with older versions of the shell and is not recommended in new code.

       POSIX_ALIASES <K> <S>
              When this option is set, reserved words are not candidates for alias expansion:  it is still possible to
              declare any of them as an alias, but the alias will never be expanded.  Reserved words are described  in
              the section RESERVED WORDS in zshmisc(1).

              Alias  expansion  takes  place  while text is being read; hence when this option is set it does not take
              effect until the end of any function or other piece of shell code parsed as one  unit.   Note  this  may
              cause differences from other shells even when the option is in effect.  For example, when running a com-
              mand with 'zsh -c', or even 'zsh -o posixaliases -c', the entire command argument is parsed as one unit,
              so aliases defined within the argument are not available even in later lines.  If in doubt, avoid use of
              aliases in non-interactive code.

              When this option is set the command builtin can be used to execute shell  builtin  commands.   Parameter
              assignments  specified  before shell functions and special builtins are kept after the command completes
              unless the special builtin is prefixed with the command builtin.  Special builtins are ., :, break, con-
              tinue,  declare,  eval,  exit, export, integer, local, readonly, return, set, shift, source, times, trap
              and unset.

              When this option is set, only the ASCII characters a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9 and _ may be used  in  identi-
              fiers (names of shell parameters and modules).

              When  the  option  is  unset  and multibyte character support is enabled (i.e. it is compiled in and the
              option MULTIBYTE is set), then additionally any alphanumeric characters in the local character  set  may
              be used in identifiers.  Note that scripts and functions written with this feature are not portable, and
              also that both options must be set before the script or function is parsed; setting them  during  execu-
              tion  is not sufficient as the syntax variable=value has already been parsed as a command rather than an

              If multibyte character support is not compiled into the shell this option is ignored;  all  octets  with
              the  top bit set may be used in identifiers.  This is non-standard but is the traditional zsh behaviour.

       POSIX_STRINGS <K> <S>
              This option affects processing of quoted strings.  Currently it only affects the behaviour of null char-
              acters, i.e. character 0 in the portable character set corresponding to US ASCII.

              When  this  option is not set, null characters embedded within strings of the form $'...' are treated as
              ordinary characters. The entire string is maintained within the shell and output to files  where  neces-
              sary,  although owing to restrictions of the library interface the string is truncated at the null char-
              acter in file names, environment variables, or in arguments to external programs.

              When this option is set, the $'...' expression is truncated at the null character.  Note that  remaining
              parts of the same string beyond the termination of the quotes are not trunctated.

              For  example, the command line argument a$'b\0c'd is treated with the option off as the characters a, b,
              null, c, d, and with the option on as the characters a, b, d.

       POSIX_TRAPS <K> <S>
              When the is option is set, the usual zsh behaviour of executing traps for EXIT on exit from shell  func-
              tions  is  suppressed.   In that case, manipulating EXIT traps always alters the global trap for exiting
              the shell; the LOCAL_TRAPS option is ignored for the EXIT trap.

              Perform filename expansion (e.g., ~ expansion) before parameter expansion, command substitution,  arith-
              metic expansion and brace expansion.  If this option is unset, it is performed after brace expansion, so
              things like '~$USERNAME' and '~{pfalstad,rc}' will work.

       SH_NULLCMD <K> <S>
              Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections, use ':' instead (see the  sec-
              tion 'Redirection').

              If  this  option  is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are used with set and
              setopt) like ksh does.  This also affects the value of the - special parameter.

       SH_WORD_SPLIT (-y) <K> <S>
              Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions.   Note  that  this  option  has
              nothing to do with word splitting.  (See the section 'Parameter Expansion'.)

              While  waiting  for  a program to exit, handle signals and run traps immediately.  Otherwise the trap is
              run after a child process has exited.  Note this does not affect the point at which traps  are  run  for
              any case other than when the shell is waiting for a child process.

   Shell State
       INTERACTIVE (-i, ksh: -i)
              This is an interactive shell.  This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and
              commands are being read from standard input.  (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN.)  This heuristic may be
              overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line.  The value of this option can only
              be changed via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       LOGIN (-l, ksh: -l)
              This is a login shell.  If this option is not explicitly set, the shell is a login shell  if  the  first
              character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a '-'.

       PRIVILEGED (-p, ksh: -p)
              Turn  on  privileged  mode. This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective user (group) ID is
              not equal to the real user (group) ID.  Turning this option off causes the effective user and group  IDs
              to  be  set to the real user and group IDs. This option disables sourcing user startup files.  If zsh is
              invoked as 'sh' or 'ksh' with this option set,  /etc/suid_profile  is  sourced  (after  /etc/profile  on
              interactive  shells).  Sourcing  ~/.profile is disabled and the contents of the ENV variable is ignored.
              This option cannot be changed using the -m option of setopt and unsetopt, and changing it inside a func-
              tion always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.

       RESTRICTED (-r)
              Enables restricted mode.  This option cannot be changed using unsetopt, and setting it inside a function
              always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.  See the section 'Restricted  Shell'.

       SHIN_STDIN (-s, ksh: -s)
              Commands are being read from the standard input.  Commands are read from standard input if no command is
              specified with -c and no file of commands is specified.  If SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the  command
              line,  any  argument  that would otherwise have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a
              normal positional parameter.  Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command  line  does  not
              necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running - that is purely an indica-
              tor of whether on not commands are actually being read from standard input.  The value  of  this  option
              can  only  be  changed  via flags supplied at invocation of the shell.  It cannot be changed once zsh is

       SINGLE_COMMAND (-t, ksh: -t)
              If the shell is reading from standard input, it exits after a single command has  been  executed.   This
              also  makes  the  shell  non-interactive, unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set on the command
              line.  The value of this option can only be changed via flags supplied at invocation of the  shell.   It
              cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       BEEP (+B) <D>
              Beep on error in ZLE.

              Assume  that the terminal displays combining characters correctly.  Specifically, if a base alphanumeric
              character is followed by one or more zero-width punctuation characters, assume that the zero-width char-
              acters  will  be displayed as modifications to the base character within the same width.  Not all termi-
              nals handle this.  If this option is not set, zero-width characters are displayed separately  with  spe-
              cial mark-up.

              If  this  option  is  set, the pattern test [[:WORD:]] matches a zero-width punctuation character on the
              assumption that it will be used as part of a word in combination with a word character.   Otherwise  the
              base shell does not handle combining characters specially.

       EMACS  If ZLE is loaded, turning on this option has the equivalent effect of 'bindkey -e'.  In addition, the VI
              option is unset.  Turning it off has no effect.  The option setting is not  guaranteed  to  reflect  the
              current keymap.  This option is provided for compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

              Start up the line editor in overstrike mode.

       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (-M) <K>
              Use single-line command line editing instead of multi-line.

              Note  that  although  this  is on by default in ksh emulation it only provides superficial compatibility
              with the ksh line editor and reduces the effectiveness of the zsh line editor.  As it has no  effect  on
              shell syntax, many users may wish to disable this option when using ksh emulation interactively.

       VI     If  ZLE  is  loaded, turning on this option has the equivalent effect of 'bindkey -v'.  In addition, the
              EMACS option is unset.  Turning it off has no effect.  The option setting is not guaranteed  to  reflect
              the current keymap.  This option is provided for compatibility; bindkey is the recommended interface.

       ZLE (-Z)
              Use the zsh line editor.  Set by default in interactive shells connected to a terminal.

       Some options have alternative names.  These aliases are never used for output, but can be used just like normal
       option names when specifying options to the shell.

              NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility)

              GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility)

              HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility)

              APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility)

              BANG_HIST (bash compatibility)

       LOG    NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility)

              MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility)

              SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility)

              CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility)

              PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility)

       STDIN  SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility)

              HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)

   Default set
       -0     CORRECT
       -1     PRINT_EXIT_VALUE
       -2     NO_BAD_PATTERN
       -3     NO_NOMATCH
       -4     GLOB_DOTS
       -5     NOTIFY
       -6     BG_NICE
       -7     IGNORE_EOF
       -8     MARK_DIRS
       -9     AUTO_LIST
       -B     NO_BEEP
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -D     PUSHD_TO_HOME
       -E     PUSHD_SILENT
       -F     NO_GLOB
       -G     NULL_GLOB
       -H     RM_STAR_SILENT
       -I     IGNORE_BRACES
       -J     AUTO_CD
       -K     NO_BANG_HIST
       -M     SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
       -N     AUTO_PUSHD
       -O     CORRECT_ALL
       -P     RC_EXPAND_PARAM
       -Q     PATH_DIRS
       -R     LONG_LIST_JOBS
       -S     REC_EXACT
       -T     CDABLE_VARS
       -U     MAIL_WARNING
       -V     NO_PROMPT_CR
       -W     AUTO_RESUME
       -X     LIST_TYPES
       -Y     MENU_COMPLETE
       -Z     ZLE
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_RCS
       -g     HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
       -h     HIST_IGNORE_DUPS
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -w     CHASE_LINKS
       -x     XTRACE
       -y     SH_WORD_SPLIT

   sh/ksh emulation set
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -T     TRAPS_ASYNC
       -X     MARK_DIRS
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -b     NOTIFY
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_GLOB
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -x     XTRACE

   Also note
       -A     Used by set for setting arrays
       -b     Used on the command line to specify end of option processing
       -c     Used on the command line to specify a single command
       -m     Used by setopt for pattern-matching option setting
       -o     Used in all places to allow use of long option names
       -s     Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 4.3.11                     December 20, 2010                 ZSHOPTIONS(1)