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ZSHMODULES(1)                                                    ZSHMODULES(1)

       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules

       Some  optional  parts of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of the shell.  Each of these modules may be
       linked in to the shell at build time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if the  installa-
       tion supports this feature.  The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed for the shell function based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard scientific functions for use in mathematical evaluations.

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution facility within the shell.

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration via styles.

       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.  The -h option causes all commands to operate
       on symbolic links instead of their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get the extended attribute attribute from the specified filename. If the optional argument parameter  is
              given, the attribute is set on that parameter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set the extended attribute attribute on the specified filename to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified filename.

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List the extended attributes currently set on the specified filename. If the optional argument parameter
              is given, the list of attributes is set on that parameter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zgetattr and zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If the attribute or list of attributes grows  between  the
       allocation and the call to get them, they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This allows the call-
       ing function to check for this case and retry.

       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability sets.  If the operating  system  does
       not  support  this interface, the builtins defined by this module will do nothing.  The builtins in this module

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process capability sets to the specified capabilities, otherwise display the  shell's
              current capabilities.

       getcap filename ...
              This  is  a  built-in  implementation of the POSIX standard utility.  It displays the capability sets on
              each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.  It sets the capability  sets  on  each
              specified filename to the specified capabilities.

       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a  forked  instance of the current shell, attached to the specified tty.  In the new shell, the
              PID, PPID and TTY special parameters are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in the new shell, and
              to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if successful, and non-zero on error.

              The  target of clone should be an unused terminal, such as an unused virtual console or a virtual termi-
              nal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty; while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

              Some words of explanation are warranted about this long xterm  command  line:  when  doing  clone  on  a
              pseudo-terminal,  some other session ("session" meant as a unix session group, or SID) is already owning
              the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty.  That  means
              two things:

              the job control signals will go to the sh-started-by-xterm process
                    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with trap; otherwise
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not work.

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result in two processes reading simultaneously from the
              same terminal, with input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone is mostly useful as a shell built-in replacement for openvt.

       The zsh/compctl module makes available two builtin commands. compctl, is the old,  deprecated  way  to  control
       completions  for ZLE.  See zshcompctl(1).  The other builtin command, compcall can be used in user-defined com-
       pletion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands which can be used in  user-defined  completion
       widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The  zsh/complist  module  offers  three extensions to completion listings: the ability to highlight matches in
       such a list, the ability to scroll through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the zsh/complist module is loaded or linked
       into  the  shell,  completion  lists  will  be colored.  Note, however, that complist will not automatically be
       loaded if it is not linked in:  on systems with dynamic loading, 'zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The parameters ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS describe how matches are highlighted.  To  turn  on  highlighting  an
       empty  value  suffices, in which case all the default values given below will be used.  The format of the value
       of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of the ls command: a colon-separated list of  speci-
       fications  of  the form 'name=value'.  The name may be one of the following strings, most of which specify file
       types for which the value will be used.  The strings and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying something other than a matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for symbolic links.  If this has the special value target, symbolic links are dereferenced and the  tar-
              get file used to determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined for ln)

       mi none
              for a non-existent file (default is the value defined for fi); this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for  files  with  an  associated suffix alias; this is only tested after specific suffixes, as described

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the character indicating the file type  printed after filenames if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart from these strings, the name may also be an asterisk ('*') followed by any string. The  value  given  for
       such  a string will be used for all files whose name ends with the string.  The name may also be an equals sign
       ('=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option will be turned on for evaluation  of  the  pattern.   The
       value given for this pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display string are matched
       by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the leading equal sign take precedence over the  values  defined
       for file types, which in turn take precedence over the form with the leading asterisk (file extensions).

       The  leading-equals  form  also allows different parts of the displayed strings to be colored differently.  For
       this, the pattern has to use the '(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding  the  parts  of  the
       strings  that  are  to  be colored differently.  In this case the value may consist of more than one color code
       separated by equal signs.  The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit  code  is  specified
       and  the  following  codes will be used for the parts matched by the sub-patterns in parentheses.  For example,
       the specification '=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which are at least two characters long  and
       will use the code '3' for the first character, '7' for the last character and '0' for the rest.

       All  three forms of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.  If this is given, the value will be used
       only for matches in groups whose names are matched by the pattern  given  in  the  parentheses.   For  example,
       '(g*)m*=43'  highlights  all  matches  beginning with 'm' in groups whose names  begin with 'g' using the color
       code '43'.  In case of the 'lc', 'rc', and 'ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear in the parameter value until the  first
       one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the value for the file-type or the last matching speci-
       fication with a '*', the value of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then the value of  ec  if
       that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not defined.

       The  default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and can be used on vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.
       On monochrome terminals the default values will have no visible effect.  The colors function from the contribu-
       tion  can  be  used  to  get associative arrays containing the codes for ANSI terminals (see the section 'Other
       Functions' in zshcontrib(1)).  For example, after loading colors, one could use '$colors[red]' to get the  code
       for foreground color red and '$colors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the  completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters should not be set directly because the
       system controls them itself.  Instead, the list-colors style should be used (see the section 'Completion System
       Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter must be set.  Its value will be used as
       the prompt; if it is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may  contain  escapes  of  the
       form  '%x'.   It  supports the escapes '%B', '%b', '%S', '%s', '%U', '%u', '%F', '%f', '%K', '%k' and '%{...%}'
       used also in shell prompts as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a '%l' or '%L' is  replaced  by  the
       number  of  the  last  line  shown  and the total number of lines in the form 'number/total'; a '%m' or '%M' is
       replaced with the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and '%p' or '%P' is  replaced
       with  'Top',  'Bottom' or the position of the first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respec-
       tively.  In each of these cases the form with the uppercase letter will be replaced  with  a  string  of  fixed
       width, padded to the right with spaces, while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If  the  parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if the list should be shown.  Instead it
       immediately starts displaying the list, stopping after the first screenful, showing the prompt at  the  bottom,
       waiting  for a keypress after temporarily switching to the listscroll keymap.  Some of the zle functions have a
       special meaning while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes the key as usual.  Any key that is not  bound  in
       the listscroll keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is looked up in the keymap currently selected.

       As  for  the  ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not be set directly when using the shell
       function based completion system.  Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The zsh/complist module also offers an alternative style of selecting matches from a list, called  menu  selec-
       tion,  which  can  be  used if the shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion list
       (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can be invoked directly by the widget menu-select defined by this module.  This  is  a  standard
       ZLE widget that can be bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively,  the  parameter  MENUSELECT  can be set to an integer, which gives the minimum number of matches
       that must be present before menu selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires  that  menu
       completion  be  started,  either  directly  from  a  widget such as menu-complete, or due to one of the options
       MENU_COMPLETE or AUTO_MENU being set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection  will  always
       be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When  using  the  completion system based on shell functions, the MENUSELECT parameter should not be used (like
       the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters described above).  Instead, the menu style should be  used  with  the
       select=... keyword.

       After  menu selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there are more matches than fit on the screen,
       only the first screenful is shown.  The matches to insert into the command line can be selected from this list.
       In  the list one match is highlighted using the value for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The
       default value for this is '7' which forces the selected match to  be  highlighted  using  standout  mode  on  a
       vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as
       for the '%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If there are more matches than fit on the screen and the parameter MENUPROMPT is set, its value will  be  shown
       below  the  matches.   It supports the same escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the match or line
       shown will be that of the one where the mark is placed.  If its value is the empty  string,  a  default  prompt
       will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL  parameter can be used to specify how the list is scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is
       done line by line, if it is set to '0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of the screen.  If
       the  value is positive, it gives the number of lines to scroll and if it is negative, the list will be scrolled
       the number of lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT parameters, neither MENUPROMPT nor MENUSCROLL should  be  set
       directly  when  using the shell function based completion system.  Instead, the select-prompt and select-scroll
       styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in the list.   These  hidden  matches  are
       either  matches for which the completion function which added them explicitly requested that they not appear in
       the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command) or they are  matches  which  duplicate  a  string
       already  in the list (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that are not displayed).  In
       the list used for menu selection, however, even these matches are shown so that it is possible to select  them.
       To highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported
       for hidden matches of the first and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around using the zle movement functions.  When not all matches can
       be shown on the screen at the same time, the list will scroll up and down when crossing the top or bottom line.
       The following zle functions have special meaning during menu selection.  Note that the following always perform
       the  same task within the menu selection map and cannot be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can the set of
       functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept the current match and leave menu selection (but do not cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of the command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept the currently inserted match and continue selection allowing to select the next match  to  insert
              into the line

              accepts  the  current  match  and then tries completion with menu selection again;  in the case of files
              this allows one to select a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if there are  no
              matches,  a  message is shown and one can use undo to go back to completion on the previous level, every
              other key leaves menu selection (including the other zle functions which are  otherwise  special  during
              menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this  toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive mode the keys bound to self-insert and
              self-insert-unmeta insert into the command line as in normal  editing  mode  but  without  leaving  menu
              selection;  after  each character completion is tried again and the list changes to contain only the new
              matches; the completion widgets make the longest unambiguous string be inserted in the command line  and
              undo and backward-delete-char go back to the previous set of matches

              history-incremental-search-backward  this  starts  incremental  searches in the list of completions dis-
              played; in this mode, accept-line only leaves incremental search, going back to the normal  menu  selec-
              tion mode

       All  movement  functions  wrap around at the edges; any other zle function not listed leaves menu selection and
       executes that function.  It is possible to make widgets in the above list do the same by using the form of  the
       widget  with  a  '.' in front.  For example, the widget '.accept-line' has the effect of leaving menu selection
       and accepting the entire command line.

       During this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key that is not defined  in  this  keymap  or
       that  is bound to undefined-key is looked up in the keymap currently selected.  This is used to ensure that the
       most important keys used during selection (namely the cursor keys, return, and  TAB)  have  sensible  defaults.
       However,  keys in the menuselect keymap can be modified directly using the bindkey builtin command (see zshmod-
       ules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave  menu  selection  without  accepting  the  match  currently
       selected one could call

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.

       The  zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by some of the completion functions in the
       completion system based on shell functions (see zshcompsys(1) ).  Except for compquote these  builtin  commands
       are  very  specialised  and  thus not very interesting when writing your own completion functions.  In summary,
       these builtin commands are:

              This is used by the _arguments function to do the argument and command line parsing.  Like  compdescribe
              it  has  an option -i to do the parsing and initialize some internal state and various options to access
              the state information to decide what should be completed.

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for the matches and to get the  strings  to
              add  as matches with their options.  On the first call one of the options -i or -I should be supplied as
              the first argument.  In the first case, display strings without the descriptions will be  generated,  in
              the  second  case,  the string used to separate the matches from their descriptions must be given as the
              second argument and the descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All other arguments are like  the  defini-
              tion arguments to _describe itself.

              Once  compdescribe has been called with either the -i or the -I option, it can be repeatedly called with
              the -g option and the names of five arrays as its arguments.  This will step through the different  sets
              of  matches  and  store the options in the first array, the strings with descriptions in the second, the
              matches for these in the third, the strings without descriptions in the fourth, and the matches for them
              in  the  fifth array.  These are then directly given to compadd to register the matches with the comple-
              tion code.

              Used by the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive filename generation (globbing).  It  does
              three  things.   With  the  -p  and  -P  options it builds the glob patterns to use, including the paths
              already handled and trying to optimize the patterns with respect to the prefix and suffix from the  line
              and  the match specification currently used.  The -i option does the directory tests for the ignore-par-
              ents style and the -r option tests if a component for some of the matches are equal to the string on the
              line and removes all other matches if that is true.

              Used  by  the  _tags  function to implement the internals of the group-order style.  This only takes its
              arguments as names of completion groups and creates the  groups  for  it  (all  six  types:  sorted  and
              unsorted,  both  without removing duplicates, with removing all duplicates and with removing consecutive

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There may be reasons to write completion functions that have to add the matches using the -Q  option  to
              compadd  and  perform quoting themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character of the all_quotes
              key of the compstate special association and using the q flag for parameter expansions, one can use this
              builtin  command.   The  arguments  are  the names of scalar or array parameters and the values of these
              parameters are quoted as needed for the innermost quoting level.  If the -p option is given, quoting  is
              done  as  if there is some prefix before the values of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will
              not be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero otherwise.

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.

       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command and various parameters.

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate curses windows.  All uses of this command should be bracketed by 'zcurses init' to initialise
              use  of  curses,  and 'zcurses end' to end it; omitting 'zcurses end' can cause the terminal to be in an
              unwanted state.

              The subcommand addwin creates a window with nlines lines and ncols columns.  Its upper left corner  will
              be placed at row begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string and refers to the name
              of a window that is not currently assigned.  Note in particular the curses convention that vertical val-
              ues appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the new window is created as a subwindow of
              parentwin.  This differs from an ordinary new window in that the memory of the window contents is shared
              with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be deleted before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of
              subwindows are relative to the screen, not the parent, as with other windows.

              Use the subcommand delwin to delete a window created with addwin.  Note that  end  does  not  implicitly
              delete windows, and that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The  window  corresponding  to the full visible screen is called stdscr; it always exists after 'zcurses
              init' and cannot be delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window targetwin; this is necessary  to  make  any  pending  changes
              (such  as  characters you have prepared for output with char) visible on the screen.  refresh without an
              argument causes the screen to be cleared and redrawn.  If multiple windows  are  given,  the  screen  is
              updated once at the end.

              The  subcommand  touch marks the targetwins listed as changed.  This is necessary before refreshing win-
              dows if a window that was in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The subcommand move moves the cursor position in targetwin to new coordinates  new_y  and  new_x.   Note
              that  the  subcommand string (but not the subcommand char) advances the cursor position over the charac-
              ters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and no more than one) of three options  may
              be  specified.   With the option redraw, in addition the next refresh of targetwin will cause the screen
              to be cleared and repainted.  With the option eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of  the  current
              cursor  line.  With the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the end of the window, i.e everything to the
              right and below the cursor is cleared.

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with targetwin into the array  named  array.
              These are, in order:

              The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
                     of targetwin

              The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the

              The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and strings are achieved by char and string respectively.

              To  draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that the border is not subsequently handled
              specially:  in other words, the border is simply a set of characters output at the edge of  the  window.
              Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off the window, etc.

              The  subcommand attr will set targetwin's attributes or foreground/background color pair for any succes-
              sive character output.  Each attribute given on the line may be prepended by a + to set or a - to  unset
              that  attribute; + is assumed if absent.  The attributes supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse, stand-
              out, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as 'fg_col on bg_col') sets the foreground and background color
              for  character  output.   The  color  default  is  sometimes  available (in particular if the library is
              ncurses), specifying the foreground or background color with which the terminal started.  The color pair
              default/default is always available.

              bg  overrides  the  color and other attributes of all characters in the window.  Its usual use is to set
              the background initially, but it will overwrite the attributes of any characters at the time when it  is
              called.   In  addition to the arguments allowed with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to be
              shown in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of curses this cannot be a multibyte
              character  (use  of  ASCII characters only is recommended).  As the specified set of attributes override
              the existing background, turning attributes off in the arguments is not useful,  though  this  does  not
              cause an error.

              The  subcommand  scroll  can be used with on or off to enabled or disable scrolling of a window when the
              cursor would otherwise move below the window due to typing or output.  It can also be used with a  posi-
              tive  or negative integer to scroll the window up or down the given number of lines without changing the
              current cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite direction relative to the  win-
              dow).   In  the  second  case, if scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window to be

              The subcommand input reads a single character from the window without echoing it back.  If param is sup-
              plied the character is assigned to the parameter param, else it is assigned to the parameter REPLY.

              If both param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in 'keypad' mode.  In this mode special keys such
              as function keys and arrow keys return the name of the key in the parameter kparam.  The key  names  are
              the macros defined in the curses.h or ncurses.h with the prefix 'KEY_' removed; see also the description
              of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys cause a value to be set in param as before.   On  a
              successful  return only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty string; the other is set to an empty

              If mparam is also supplied, input attempts to handle mouse input.   This  is  only  available  with  the
              ncurses  library; mouse handling can be detected by checking for the exit status of 'zcurses mouse' with
              no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked (or double- or triple-clicked, or pressed or released with a
              configurable  delay  from being clicked) then kparam is set to the string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an
              array consisting of the following elements:
              -      An identifier to discriminate different input devices; this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to the full screen, as three  elements  in
                     that  order  (i.e.  the y coordinate is, unusually, after the x coordinate).  The z coordinate is
                     only available for a few unusual input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there will be just one.  An event consists of
                     PRESSED,  RELEASED,  CLICKED,  DOUBLE_CLICKED or TRIPLE_CLICKED followed immediately (in the same
                     element) by the number of the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not all mouse events may be passed through to the terminal window; most terminal emulators  handle  some
              mouse  events  themselves.   Note that the ncurses manual implies that using input both with and without
              mouse handling may cause the mouse cursor to appear and disappear.

              The subcommand mouse can be used to configure the use of the mouse.  There is no window argument;  mouse
              options  are  global.  'zcurses mouse' with no arguments returns status 0 if mouse handling is possible,
              else status 1.  Otherwise, the possible arguments (which may be combined on the same command  line)  are
              as  follows.   delay  num  sets the maximum delay in milliseconds between press and release events to be
              considered as a click; the value 0 disables click resolution, and the default is one sixth of a  second.
              motion  proceeded  by  an  optional  '+' (the default) or - turns on or off reporting of mouse motion in
              addition to clicks, presses and releases, which are always reported.  However, it  appears  reports  for
              mouse motion are not currently implemented.

              The  subcommand  timeout  specifies  a  timeout  value for input from targetwin.  If intval is negative,
              'zcurses input' waits indefinitely for a character to be typed; this is the default.  If intval is zero,
              'zcurses  input'  returns  immediately;  if there is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and
              status 1 is returned.  If intval is positive, 'zcurses input' waits intval milliseconds for input and if
              there is none at the end of that period returns status 1.

              The  subcommand  querychar  queries the character at the current cursor position.  The return values are
              stored in the array named param if supplied, else in the array reply.  The first value is the  character
              (which  may  be  a multibyte character if the system supports them); the second is the color pair in the
              usual fg_col/bg_col notation, or 0 if color is not supported.  Any  attributes  other  than  color  that
              apply to the character, as set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number of colors the terminal supports.  This value is initialised by the
              curses library and is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number of color pairs fg_col/bg_col that may be defined in 'zcurses attr'
              commands;  note  this  limit applies to all color pairs that have been used whether or not they are cur-
              rently active.  This value is initialised by the curses library and is not  available  until  the  first
              time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly array.  The attributes supported by zsh/curses; available as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by zsh/curses; available as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.  The values that may be returned in the second parameter supplied to 'zcurses input' in
              the order in which they are defined internally by curses.  Not all function keys are  listed,  only  F0;
              curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly  array.   The  current  list  of windows, i.e. all windows that have been created with 'zcurses
              addwin' and not removed with 'zcurses delwin'.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With the option -r (reverse), use the format format to parse the input string timestring and output  the
              number  of  seconds  since  the epoch at which the time occurred.  If no timezone is parsed, the current
              timezone is used; other parameters are set to zero if not present.  If timestring does not match  format
              the  command  returns status 1; it will additionally print an error message unless the option -q (quiet)
              is given.  If timestring matches format but not all characters in timestring were used,  the  conversion
              succeeds;  however,  a  warning is issued unless the option -q is given.  The matching is implemented by
              the system function strptime; see strptime(3).  This means that zsh format extensions are not available,
              however  for  reverse  lookup  they  are  not required.  If the function is not implemented, the command
              returns status 2 and (unless -q is given) prints a message.

              If -s scalar is given, assign the date string (or epoch time in  seconds  if  -r  is  given)  to  scalar
              instead of printing it.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available one parameter:

              An integer value representing the number of seconds since the epoch.

       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read  a  character  from  the keyboard, and delete from the cursor position up to and including the next
              (or, with repeat count n, the nth) instance of that character.  Negative repeat counts mean delete back-

              This  behaves  like  delete-to-char,  except  that  the  final occurrence of the character itself is not

       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a module.

       The zsh/files module makes available some common commands for file manipulation as builtins; these commands are
       probably  not  needed  for  many normal situations but can be useful in emergency recovery situations with con-
       strained resources.  The commands do not implement all features now required by relevant standards  committees.

       For all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and loaded automatically.  Using the features capa-
       bility of zmodload will let you load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent to chown with a user-spec argument of ':group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user; change group to user's primary group
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the ':' may instead be a '.'.  The rule is that if there is a ':' then  the  separator  is
              ':', otherwise if there is a '.' then the separator is '.', otherwise there is no separator.

              Each  of  user  and  group may be either a username (or group name, as appropriate) or a decimal user ID
              (group ID).  Interpretation as a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric  username  (or  group

              If the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to set the ownership of the link instead of
              its target.

              The -R option causes chown to recursively descend into directories, changing the ownership of all  files
              in the directory after changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The  -s  option  is  a zsh extension to chown functionality.  It enables paranoid behaviour, intended to
              avoid security problems involving a chown being  tricked  into  affecting  files  other  than  the  ones
              intended.    It   will   refuse   to  follow  symbolic  links,  so  that  (for  example)  ''chown  luser
              /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't accidentally chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a  link  to  /etc.   It
              will  also  check  where  it is after leaving directories, so that a recursive chown of a deep directory
              tree can't end up recursively chowning /usr as a result of directories being moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form, the specified destination is created, as
              a  link  to  the  specified  filename.   In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in turn, and
              linked to a pathname in the specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              Normally, ln will not attempt to create hard links to directories.  This check can be  overridden  using
              the  -d  option.   Typically only the super-user can actually succeed in creating hard links to directo-
              ries.  This does not apply to symbolic links in any case.

              By default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i option causes the  user  to  be  queried
              about  replacing  existing  files.   The -f option causes existing files to be silently deleted, without
              querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The -h and -n options are identical and both exist for compatibility; either one indicates that  if  the
              target  is a symlink then it should not be dereferenced.  Typically this is used in combination with -sf
              so that if an existing link points to a directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If this
              option  is  used  with multiple filenames and the target is a symbolic link pointing to a directory then
              the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p option, non-existing parent directories are first  created  if  neces-
              sary,  and  there  will  be  no complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be used to
              specify (in octal) a set of file permissions for the created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by
              the current umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves  files.   In the first form, the specified filename is moved to the specified destination.  In the
              second form, each of the filenames is taken in turn, and moved to a pathname in the specified  directory
              that has the same last pathname component.

              By  default,  the  user  will  be  queried  before replacing any file that the user cannot write to, but
              writable files will be silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to be  queried  about  replacing
              any  existing  files.  The -f option causes any existing files to be silently deleted, without querying.
              -f takes precedence.

              Note that this mv will not move files across devices.  Historical versions of mv, when  actual  renaming
              is impossible, fall back on copying and removing files; if this behaviour is desired, use cp and rm man-
              ually.  This may change in a future version.

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally, rm will not remove directories (except with the -r option).  The -d option causes  rm  to  try
              removing  directories  with  unlink (see unlink(2)), the same method used for files.  Typically only the
              super-user can actually succeed in unlinking directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By default, the user will be queried before removing any  file  that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but
              writable files will be silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to be queried about removing any
              files.  The -f option causes files to be silently deleted, without querying, and  suppresses  all  error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -r  option  causes  rm to recursively descend into directories, deleting all files in the directory
              before removing the directory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The -s option is a zsh extension to rm functionality.  It enables paranoid behaviour, intended to  avoid
              common  security  problems involving a root-run rm being tricked into removing files other than the ones
              intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so that (for example) ''rm  /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't
              accidentally  remove  /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link to /etc.  It will also check where it
              is after leaving directories, so that a recursive removal of a deep directory tree can't end  up  recur-
              sively removing /usr as a result of directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls  the  system  call  of the same name (see sync(2)), which flushes dirty buffers to disk.  It might
              return before the I/O has actually been completed.

       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter of the same name.

              This associative array takes as keys the names of files; the resulting value is the content of the file.
              The  value  is  treated  identically  to  any other text coming from a parameter.  The value may also be
              assigned to, in which case the file in question is written (whether or not it originally existed); or an
              element  may  be  unset,  which  will delete the file in question.  For example, 'vared mapfile[myfile]'
              works as expected, editing the file 'myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of files in the current directory, and the
              values  are  empty  (to  save a huge overhead in memory).  Thus ${(k)mapfile} has the same affect as the
              glob operator *(D), since files beginning with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken  with  expres-
              sions  such as rm ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the current directory without the usual
              'rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case,  files  referenced  may  not  be  written  or

              A  file  may conveniently be read into an array as one line per element with the form 'array=("${(f)map-
              file[filename]}")'.  The double quotes are necessary to prevent empty lines from being removed.

       Although reading and writing of the file in question is efficiently handled, zsh's internal  memory  management
       may  be  arbitrarily  baroque;  however,  mapfile is usually very much more efficient than anything involving a
       loop.  Note in particular that the whole contents of the file will always  reside  physically  in  memory  when
       accessed  (possibly  multiple  times,  due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In particular, this
       means handling of sufficiently long files (greater than the machine's swap space, or  than  the  range  of  the
       pointer type) will be incorrect.

       No  errors are printed or flagged for non-existent, unreadable, or unwritable files, as the parameter mechanism
       is too low in the shell execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It is unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet allow the user to specify the name of the
       shell parameter to be given the special behaviour.

       The zsh/mathfunc module provides standard mathematical functions for use when evaluating mathematical formulae.
       The syntax agrees with normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most functions take floating point arguments and return a floating point value.  However, any necessary conver-
       sions  from  or  to  integer  type will be performed automatically by the shell.  Apart from atan with a second
       argument and the abs, int and float functions, all functions behave as noted in the manual page for the  corre-
       sponding  C  function,  except that any arguments out of range for the function in question will be detected by
       the shell and an error reported.

       The following functions take a single floating point argument: acos, acosh, asin,  asinh,  atan,  atanh,  cbrt,
       ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp, expm1, fabs, floor, gamma, j0, j1, lgamma, log, log10, log1p, logb, sin, sinh,
       sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function can optionally take a second argument, in  which  case  it  behaves
       like  the C function atan2.  The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument, but returns an integer.

       The function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which is the C variable of the same  name,  as
       described  in  gamma(3).   Note  that  it is therefore only useful immediately after a call to gamma or lgamma.
       Note also that 'signgam(RPAR' and 'signgam' are distinct expressions.

       The following functions take two floating point arguments: copysign, fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point second argument: jn, yn.

       The following take a floating point first argument and an integer second argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it returns the absolute value  of  either  a
       floating point number or an integer.  The functions float and int convert their arguments into a floating point
       or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation as the '**' operator and is not  provided

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical library has the function erand48(3).  It returns
       a pseudo-random floating point number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed is initialised by three calls to  the  rand(3)  function
       --- this produces the same random numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If  the  argument is present, it gives the name of a scalar parameter where the current random number seed will
       be stored.  On the first call, the value must contain at least twelve hexadecimal digits (the remainder of  the
       string  is  ignored),  or the seed will be initialised in the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no argu-
       ment.  Subsequent calls to rand48(param) will then maintain the seed in the parameter  param  as  a  string  of
       twelve  hexadecimal  digits,  with no base signifier.  The random number sequences for different parameters are
       completely independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48 with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming $seed does not exist, it will be initialised by the first call.  In the second call, the default  seed
       is  initialised;  note,  however,  that  because of the properties of rand() there is a correlation between the
       seeds used for the two initialisations, so for more secure uses, you should generate  your  own  12-byte  seed.
       The  third call returns to the same sequence of random numbers used in the first call, unaffected by the inter-
       vening rand48().

       The zsh/newuser module is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS option is set, and the  PRIVILEGED  option
       is  not  set (all three are true by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global zshenv
       file (typically /etc/zshenv), if any, have been executed.  If the  module  is  not  available  it  is  silently
       ignored  by  the  shell;  the  module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if it is not

       On loading, the module tests if any of the start-up files .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc or .zlogin  exist  in  the
       directory given by the environment variable ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if that is not set.  The test
       is not performed and the module halts processing if the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had  been  invoked
       as some other shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the file newuser first in a sitewide direc-
       tory, usually the parent directory of the site-functions directory,  and  if  that  is  not  found  the  module
       searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent of the functions directory containing version-spe-
       cific functions.  (These directories can be configured when zsh is built using the  --enable-site-scriptdir=dir
       and  --enable-scriptdir=dir  flags  to  configure,  respectively;  the  defaults  are prefix/share/zsh and pre-
       fix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as a start-up file.  The file  is  expected
       to contain code to install start-up files for the user, however any valid shell code will be executed.

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note  that  it  is  possible  to  achieve  exactly  the same effect as the zsh/newuser module by adding code to
       /etc/zshenv.  The module exists simply to allow the shell to make arrangements for new users without  the  need
       for intervention by package maintainers and system administrators.

       The  script  supplied  with  the  module  invokes  the shell function zsh-newuser-install.  This may be invoked
       directly by the user even if the zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that  if  the  module  is  not
       installed the function will not be installed either.  The function is documented in the section User Configura-
       tion Functions in zshcontrib(1).

       The zsh/parameter module gives access to some of the internal hash tables used by the shell  by  defining  some
       special parameters.

              The  keys  for  this  associative array are the names of the options that can be set and unset using the
              setopt and unsetopt builtins. The value of each key is either the string on if the option  is  currently
              set, or the string off if the option is unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting the option, respectively. Unsetting a key in this array is like setting it to the value off.

              This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are the names of external commands, the val-
              ues  are  the pathnames of the files that would be executed when the command would be invoked. Setting a
              key in this array defines a new entry in this table in the same way as with the hash builtin.  Unsetting
              a key as in 'unset "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given key from the command hash table.

              This associative array maps names of enabled functions to their definitions. Setting a key in it is like
              defining a function with the name given by the key and the body given by  the  value.  Unsetting  a  key
              removes the definition for the function named by the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This  associative array gives information about the builtin commands currently enabled. The keys are the
              names of the builtin commands and the values are either 'undefined' for builtin commands that will auto-
              matically  be loaded from a module if invoked or 'defined' for builtin commands that are already loaded.

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The keys in this associative array are the names of the parameters currently  defined.  The  values  are
              strings  describing the type of the parameter, in the same format used by the t parameter flag, see zsh-
              expn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The keys are the names  of  the  modules  loaded,
              registered to be autoloaded, or aliased. The value says which state the named module is in and is one of
              the strings 'loaded', 'autoloaded', or 'alias:name', where name is the name the module is aliased to.

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note that the output  of  the  dirs  builtin
              command includes one more directory, the current working directory.

              This associative array maps history event numbers to the full history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the directories from which the job was started (which may not
              be the current directory of the job).

              The keys of the associative arrays are usually valid job numbers, and these are the values output  with,
              for  example,  ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job references may be used when looking up a value; for exam-
              ple, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers to the current job.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the command lines that were used  to  start  the

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

              This  associative array gives information about the states of the jobs currently known. The keys are the
              job numbers and the values are strings of the form 'job-state:mark:pid=state...'.  The  job-state  gives
              the  state  the whole job is currently in, one of 'running', 'suspended', or 'done'. The mark is '+' for
              the current job, '-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This is followed by one  'pid=state'  for
              every  process in the job. The pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes the state of
              that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

              This associative array maps the names of named directories to the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their home directories.

              This array contains the absolute line numbers and corresponding file names for the point where the  cur-
              rent  function,  sourced  file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was called.  The array is of the
              same length as funcsourcetrace and functrace, but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and file
              are  the  point  of call, not the point of definition, and differs from functrace in that all values are
              absolute line numbers in files, rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This array contains the file names and line numbers of the points where the  functions,  sourced  files,
              and (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval commands currently being executed were defined.  The line number is the
              line where the 'function name' or 'name ()' started.  In the case of an autoloaded  function   the  line
              number  is  reported  as zero.  The format of each element is filename:lineno.  For functions autoloaded
              from a file in native zsh format, where only the body of the function occurs in the file, or  for  files
              that  have  been  executed  by the source or '.' builtins, the trace information is shown as filename:0,
              since the entire file is the definition.

              Most users will be interested in the information in the funcfiletrace array instead.

              This array contains the names of the functions, sourced files, and (if EVAL_LINENO  is  set)  eval  com-
              mands. currently being executed. The first element is the name of the function using the parameter.

              This  array  contains the names and line numbers of the callers corresponding to the functions currently
              being executed.  The format of each element is name:lineno.  Callers are also shown for  sourced  files;
              the caller is the point where the source or '.' command was executed.

       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option  -a  will  force  the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will compile a case-insensitive pattern.
              Option -m will compile a multi-line pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines  within  the  pattern.
              Option  -x  will  compile an extended pattern, wherein whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s
              makes the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that indicate newline.

              Studies the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster matching.

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches the previously-compiled PCRE.

              Upon successful match, if the expression captures substrings within parentheses, pcre_match will set the
              array  $match  to  those  substrings, unless the -a option is given, in which case it will set the array
              arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will be set to the entire matched portion of the string, unless  the
              -v option is given, in which case the variable var will be set.  No variables are altered if there is no
              successful match.  A -n option starts searching for a match from the byte offset position in string.  If
              the  -b  option  is  given, the variable ZPCRE_OP will be set to an offset pair string, representing the
              byte offset positions of the entire matched portion within the string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP  set  to
              "32  45"  indicates that the matched portion began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte offset 44.  Here,
              byte offset position 45 is the position directly after the matched portion.  Keep in mind that the  byte
              position  isn't necessarily the same as the character position when UTF-8 characters are involved.  Con-
              sequently, the byte offset positions are only to be relied on in the context of using  them  for  subse-
              quent searches on string, using an offset position as an argument to the -n option.  This is mostly used
              to implement the "find all non-overlapping matches" functionality.

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text variable contains only "d's".

       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX extended regular expression.  On successful match, matched  portion  of
              the string will normally be placed in the MATCH variable.  If there are any capturing parentheses within
              the regex, then the match array variable will contain those.  If the match is not successful,  then  the
              variables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If  the  option  REMATCH_PCRE  is  not  set, then the =~ operator will automatically load this module as
              needed and will invoke the -regex-match operator.

              If BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set instead of MATCH and match.

       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one parameter.

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The time may be specified in  either  abso-
              lute  or  relative  time, and either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a colon, or
              seconds alone.  An absolute number of seconds indicates the time since  the  epoch  (1970/01/01  00:00);
              this  is useful in combination with the features in the zsh/datetime module, see the zsh/datetime module
              entry in zshmodules(1).

              With no arguments, prints the list of scheduled commands.  If the scheduled command has the -o flag set,
              this is shown at the start of the command.

              With  the argument '-item', removes the given item from the list.  The numbering of the list is continu-
              ous and entries are in time order, so the numbering can change when entries are added or deleted.

              Commands are executed either immediately before a prompt, or while the shell's line  editor  is  waiting
              for  input.   In  the latter case it is useful to be able to produce output that does not interfere with
              the line being edited.  Providing the option -o causes the shell to clear the command  line  before  the
              event and redraw it afterwards.  This should be used with any scheduled event that produces visible out-
              put to the terminal; it is not needed, for example, with output that updates a terminal emulator's title

              A  readonly  array corresponding to the events scheduled by the sched builtin.  The indices of the array
              correspond to the numbers shown when sched is run with no arguments (provided that the KSH_ARRAYS option
              is  not set).  The value of the array consists of the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch (see the
              section 'The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities for using this number), followed by a  colon,  followed
              by  any  options (which may be empty but will be preceded by a '-' otherwise), followed by a colon, fol-
              lowed by the command to be executed.

              The sched builtin should be used for manipulating the events.  Note that this  will  have  an  immediate
              effect on the contents of the array, so that indices may become invalid.

       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing, file I/O, and job
              control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell parameter  REPLY  will  be  set  to  the  file
              descriptor associated with that connection.  Currently, only stream connections are supported.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket  -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set to the file
              descriptor associated with that listener.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket -a will accept an incoming connection to the socket associated with listenfd.  The shell parame-
              ter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is  specified, zsocket will return if no incoming connection is pending.  Otherwise it will wait
              for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two possible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ] [ +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The command acts as a front end to the stat system call (see stat(2)).  The  same  command  is  provided
              with  two  names;  as the name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended that only the
              zstat form of the command is used.  This can be arranged by loading the module with the  command  'zmod-
              load -F zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If  the  stat  call  fails,  the appropriate system error message printed and status 1 is returned.  The
              fields of struct stat give information about the files provided as arguments to the command.   In  addi-
              tion to those available from the stat call, an extra element 'link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file on this device ('inode' number).

              mode   The  mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access permissions.  With the -s option, this
                     will be returned as a string corresponding to the first column in the display of the ls  -l  com-

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the owner of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The group ID of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful for special devices.

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The  last access, modification and inode change times of the file, respectively, as the number of
                     seconds since midnight GMT on 1st January, 1970.  With  the  -s  option,  these  are  printed  as
                     strings  for  the  local time zone; the format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If the file is a link and the -L option is in effect, this contains the name of the  file  linked
                     to,  otherwise  it is empty.  Note that if this element is selected (''zstat +link'') then the -L
                     option is automatically used.

              A particular element may be selected by including its name preceded by a '+' in the  option  list;  only
              one  element  is allowed.  The element may be shortened to any unique set of leading characters.  Other-
              wise, all elements will be shown for all files.


              -A array
                     Instead of displaying the results on standard output, assign them to an array,  one  struct  stat
                     element  per  array element for each file in order.  In this case neither the name of the element
                     nor the name of the files appears in array unless the -t or -n options were given,  respectively.
                     If  -t  is given, the element name appears as a prefix to the appropriate array element; if -n is
                     given, the file name appears as a separate array element preceding all the others.  Other format-
                     ting options are respected.

              -H hash
                     Similar  to  -A,  but instead assign the values to hash.  The keys are the elements listed above.
                     If the -n option is provided then the name of the file is included in the hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use the file on file descriptor fd instead of named files; no list of file names  is  allowed  in
                     this case.

              -F fmt Supplies  a  strftime  (see  strftime(3)) string for the formatting of the time elements.  The -s
                     option is implied.

              -g     Show the time elements in the GMT time zone.  The -s option is implied.

              -l     List the names of the type elements (to standard output or an array as  appropriate)  and  return
                     immediately; options other than -A and arguments are ignored.

              -L     Perform  an  lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system call.  In this case, if the file is a
                     link, information about the link itself rather than the target file is returned.  This option  is
                     required to make the link element useful.  It's important to note that this is the exact opposite
                     from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these are only shown when output is to  standard  output
                     and there is more than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If  a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is more useful for human consumption than
                     the default of decimal.  A leading zero will be printed in this case.  Note that  this  does  not
                     affect  whether  a  raw  or  formatted  file  mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string  data  (the  -s  format);  the  string  data
                     appears in parentheses after the raw data.

              -s     Print mode, uid, gid and the three time elements as strings instead of numbers.  In each case the
                     format is like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always show the type names for the elements of struct stat.  Usually these are  only  shown  when
                     output is to standard output and no individual element has been selected.

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.

       The zsh/system module makes available various builtin commands and parameters.

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This  command  prints  out the error message associated with errno, a system error number, followed by a
              newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT, may be used.  The set of names  is  the
              same as the contents of the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed in front of the error message, with no intervening space.

              If  errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is assigned to the parameter names errvar
              and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0 indicates the message was successfully printed (although it may not  be  useful  if
              the  error number was out of the system's range), a return status of 1 indicates an error in the parame-
              ters, and a return status of 2 indicates the error name was not recognised (no message  is  printed  for

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform a single system read from file descriptor infd, or zero if that is not given.  The result of the
              read is stored in param or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number of  bytes  read
              is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is not given, however the command returns as
              soon as any number of bytes was successfully read.

              If timeout is given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which may be zero to poll the  file  descriptor.
              This is handled by the poll system call if available, otherwise the select system call if available.

              If outfd is given, an attempt is made to write all the bytes just read to the file descriptor outfd.  If
              this fails, because of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal  zsh  error  during  an
              interrupt,  the  bytes  read  but not written are stored in the parameter named by param if supplied (no
              default is used in this case), and the number of bytes read but not written is stored in  the  parameter
              named by countvar if that is supplied.  If it was successful, countvar contains the full number of bytes
              transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally so that shell interrupts are transparent
              to the caller.  Any other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At least one byte of data was successfully read and, if appropriate, written.

              1      There  was an error in the parameters to the command.  This is the only error for which a message
                     is printed to standard error.

              2      There was an error on the read, or on polling the input  file  descriptor  for  a  timeout.   The
                     parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              3      Data  were  successfully read, but there was an error writing them to outfd.  The parameter ERRNO
                     gives the error.

              4      The attempt to read timed out.  Note this does not set ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This usually indicates  end  of  file.   The
                     parameters are set according to the usual rules; no write to outfd is attempted.

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The data (a single string of bytes) are written to the file descriptor outfd, or 1 if that is not given,
              using the write system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first does not write all  the

              If  countvar is given, the number of byte written is stored in the parameter named by countvar; this may
              not be the full length of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally by retrying; otherwise an  error  causes
              the  command  to  return.   For  example, if the file descriptor is set to non-blocking output, an error
              EAGAIN (on some systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may result in the command returning early.

              The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the parameters to the command,  or  2  for  an
              error  on  the write; no error message is printed in the last case, but the parameter ERRNO will reflect
              the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand flock performs advisory file locking (via  the  fcntl(2)  system  call)
              over  the  entire contents of the given file.  This form of locking requires the processes accessing the
              file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between two instances of the shell itself.

              In the first form the named file, which must already exist, is locked by opening a  file  descriptor  to
              the  file  and  applying a lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell process that
              created the lock exits; it is therefore often convenient to create file locks  within  subshells,  since
              the  lock is automatically released when the subshell exits.  Status 0 is returned if the lock succeeds,
              else status 1.

              In the second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic expression fd_expr is closed, releasing a
              lock.   The  file  descriptor can be queried by using the '-f var' form during the lock; on a successful
              lock, the shell variable var is set to the file descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be  released
              if  the  file  descriptor  is closed by any other means, for example using 'exec {var}>&-'; however, the
              form described here performs a safety check that the file descriptor is in use for file locking.

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.  The  option  -t  timeout  specifies  a
              timeout  for the lock in seconds; currently this must be an integer.  The shell will attempt to lock the
              file once a second during this period.  If the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If the option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is preserved when the  shell  uses  exec  to
              start a new process; otherwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If  the  option -r is given, the lock is only for reading, otherwise it is for reading and writing.  The
              file descriptor is opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given subcommand  is  supported.   It  returns
              status  0  if  so,  else status 1.  It operates silently unless there was a syntax error (i.e. the wrong
              number of arguments), in which case status 255 is returned.  Status 1 can indicate one  of  two  things:
              subcommand  is known but not supported by the current operating system, or subcommand is not known (pos-
              sibly because this is an older version of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on the system.  These are typically macros defined in  C
              by  including the system header file errno.h.  The index of each name (assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is
              unset) corresponds to the error number.  Error numbers num before the last known  error  which  have  no
              name are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns the process ID of the current process, even in subshells.  Compare $$, which returns the process
              ID of the main shell process.

       ppid   Returns the process ID of the parent of the current process, even in subshells.   Compare  $PPID,  which
              returns the process ID of the parent of the main shell process.

       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing, file I/O, and job con-
              trol mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the contents of its session table.

              If it is run with only the option -L, it will output the contents of the session table in a format suit-
              able  for  automatic parsing.  The option is ignored if given with a command to open or close a session.
              The output consists of a set of lines, one per session, each containing the following elements separated
              by spaces:

              File descriptor
                     The  file  descriptor in use for the connection.  For normal inbound (I) and outbound (O) connec-
                     tions this may be read and written by the usual shell mechanisms.  However,  it  should  only  be
                     close with 'ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                      Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                      L      A connection opened for listening with 'ztcp -l'.

                      I      An inbound connection accepted with 'ztcp -a'.

                      O      An outbound connection created with 'ztcp host ...'.

              The local host
                     This is usually set to an all-zero IP address as the address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the connection is for listening.

              The remote host
                     This  is the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if available, else an IP address.  It is an
                     all-zero IP address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it will default to port 23.  The  connection
              will  be  added  to  the  session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor
              associated with that connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp -l will open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket will be added to the session table and the
              shell parameter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated with that listener.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp -a will accept an incoming connection to the port associated with listenfd.  The connection will be
              added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the file  descriptor  associated
              with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp -c will close the socket associated with fd.  The socket will be removed from  the  session  table.
              If fd is not specified, ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally,  sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot be closed this way.  In order to force
              such a socket closed, use -f.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here is how to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.  We need to pick an unassigned port;  here
       we use the randomly chosen 5123.

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second from last command blocks until there is an incoming connection.

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same machine):
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints 'This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output the termcap value corresponding to the capability cap, with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their values.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output the terminfo value corresponding to the capability cap, instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps terminfo capability names to their values.

       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The  zsh/zftp  module  is  a client for FTP (file transfer protocol).  It is implemented as a builtin to
              allow full use of shell command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.  Often,  users  will
              access  it  via shell functions providing a more powerful interface; a set is provided with the zsh dis-
              tribution and is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However, the zftp command is entirely usable  in  its  own

              All  commands  consist  of the command name zftp followed by the name of a subcommand.  These are listed
              below.  The return status of each subcommand is supposed to reflect the success or failure of the remote
              operation.   See  a  description of the variable ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from
              the server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which may be the name of a TCP/IP connected host or an IP number in  the
              standard  dot  notation.   If  the argument is in the form host:port, open a connection to TCP port port
              instead of the standard FTP port 21.  This may be the name of a  TCP  service  or  a  number:   see  the
              description of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If  IPv6  addresses in colon format are used, the host should be surrounded by quoted square brackets to
              distinguish it from the port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency this is allowed
              with all forms of host.

              Remaining  arguments are passed to the login subcommand.  Note that if no arguments beyond host are sup-
              plied, open will not automatically call login.  If no arguments at all are supplied, open will  use  the
              parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After  a  successful  open, the shell variables ZFTP_HOST, ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP and ZFTP_SYSTEM are avail-
              able; see 'Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login the user name with parameters password and account.  Any of the parameters  can  be  omitted,  and
              will  be read from standard input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a terminal, a
              prompt for each one will be printed on standard error and password will not be echoed.  If  any  of  the
              parameters are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After  a  successful  login, the shell variables ZFTP_USER, ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD are available; see
              'Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in, and the server will first be  reinitial-
              ized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store  the given parameters for a later open command with no arguments.  Only those given on the command
              line will be remembered.  If no arguments are given, the parameters currently set are printed,  although
              the  password  will  appear as a line of stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero

              Any of the parameters may be specified as a '?', which may need to be quoted to protect  it  from  shell
              expansion.   In  this  case, the appropriate parameter will be read from stdin as with the login subcom-
              mand, including special handling of password.  If the '?' is followed by a string, that is used  as  the
              prompt  for  reading the parameter instead of the default message (any necessary punctuation and whites-
              pace should be included at the end of the prompt).  The first letter of  the  parameter  (only)  may  be
              quoted with a '\'; hence an argument "\\$word" guarantees that the string from the shell parameter $word
              will be treated literally, whether or not it begins with a '?'.

              If instead a single '-' is given, the existing parameters, if any, are deleted.  In that  case,  calling
              open with no arguments will cause an error.

              The  list  of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module
              is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then prompt the user for  the  corresponding
              password with the given prompt.

       test   Test  the connection; if the server has reported that it has closed the connection (maybe due to a time-
              out), return status 2; if no connection was open anyway, return status 1; else  return  status  0.   The
              test subcommand is silent, apart from messages printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages
              if the connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this test.

              The test is only supported on systems with either the select(2) or poll(2) system calls;  otherwise  the
              message 'not supported on this system' is printed instead.

              The  test  subcommand  will automatically be called at the start of any other subcommand for the current
              session when a connection is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in the directory tree.  Note that cd  ..  will  also  work
              correctly on non-UNIX systems.

       dir [ args... ]
              Give  a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are passed directly to the server. The com-
              mand's behaviour is implementation dependent, but a UNIX server will typically interpret args  as  argu-
              ments  to  the ls command and with no arguments return the result of 'ls -l'. The directory is listed to
              standard output.

       ls [ args ]
              Give a (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args, produces a raw list of the files  in  the
              directory,  one  per  line.   Otherwise, up to vagaries of the server implementation, behaves similar to

       type [ type ]
              Change the type for the transfer to type, or print the current type if type is absent.  The allowed val-
              ues are 'A' (ASCII), 'I' (Image, i.e. binary), or 'B' (a synonym for 'I').

              The  FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds that the remote host is a UNIX machine
              with 8-bit byes, it will automatically switch to using binary for file transfers upon  open.   This  can
              subsequently be overridden.

              The  transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a data connection is established; this command
              involves no network overhead.

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set the mode type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is the default; block mode is not widely sup-

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print  the size and last modification time of the remote or local files.  If there is more than one item
              on the list, the name of the file is printed first.  The first number is the file size,  the  second  is
              the  last  modification  time  of the file in the format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS consisting of year, month, date,
              hour, minutes and seconds in GMT.  Note that this format, including the length, is guaranteed,  so  that
              time  strings can be directly compared via the [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if they are too long
              to be represented as integers.

              Not all servers support the commands for retrieving this information.  In that case, the remote  command
              will print nothing and return status 2, compared with status 1 for a file not found.

              The  local  command  (but not remote) may be used with no arguments, in which case the information comes
              from examining file descriptor zero.  This is the same file as seen by a put  command  with  no  further

       get file [...]
              Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and sending them to standard output.

       put file [...]
              For each file, read a file from standard input and send that to the remote host with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is appended to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions  of  get,  put  and append which will start the transfer at the given point in the remote file.
              This is useful for appending to an incomplete local file.  However, note that this ability is  not  uni-
              versally supported by servers (and is not quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send  a  host-specific  command  to  the  server.  You will probably only need this if instructed by the
              server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be familiar with the  FTP  command  set  as
              defined  in  RFC959 before doing this.  Useful commands may include STAT and HELP.  Note also the mecha-
              nism for returning messages as described for the variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below,  in  particular  that  all
              messages from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close  the  current  data  connection.   This unsets the shell parameters ZFTP_HOST, ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows multiple FTP sessions to be used at once.  The name of the session  is  an  arbitrary  string  of
              characters;  the default session is called 'default'.  If this command is called without an argument, it
              will list all the current sessions; with an argument, it will either  switch  to  the  existing  session
              called sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each  session  remembers  the  status of the connection, the set of connection-specific shell parameters
              (the same set as are unset when a connection closes, as given in the description of close), and any user
              parameters  specified with the params subcommand.  Changing to a previous session restores those values;
              changing to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had just been loaded.  The name of
              the current session is given by the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete  a  session;  if  a name is not given, the current session is deleted.  If the current session is
              deleted, the earliest existing session becomes the new current session, otherwise the current session is
              not  changed.   If  the session being deleted is the only one, a new session called 'default' is created
              and becomes the current session; note that this is a new session even if the session  being  deleted  is
              also  called  'default'.  It is recommended that sessions not be deleted while background commands which
              use zftp are still active.

       The following shell parameters are used by zftp.  Currently none of them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to complete before returning an error.  If
              this is not set when the module is loaded, it will be given the default value 60.  A value of zero turns
              off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs on the control connection it will be closed.  Use a larger  value  if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot notation.

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote server.  If the host was opened as an IP number, ZFTP_HOST
              contains that instead; this saves the overhead for a name lookup, as IP numbers are most  commonly  used
              when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.  The number of the remote TCP port to which the connection is open (even if the port was orig-
              inally specified as a named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In the unlikely event that your system does not have the appropriate conversion functions, this  appears
              in network byte order.  If your system is little-endian, the port then consists of two swapped bytes and
              the standard port will be reported as 5376.  In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open  will  also
              need to be in this format.

              Readonly.   The  system type string returned by the server in response to an FTP SYST request.  The most
              interesting case is a string beginning "UNIX Type: L8", which ensures maximum compatibility with a local
              UNIX host.

              Readonly.   The  type  to  be  used for data transfers , either 'A' or 'I'.   Use the type subcommand to
              change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.  The account name of the current user, if any.  Most servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.  The three digit code of the last FTP reply from the server as a string.  This  can  still  be
              read after the connection is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The last line of the last reply sent by the server.  This can still be read after the connec-
              tion is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The name of the current FTP session; see the description of the session subcommand.

              A string of preferences for altering aspects of zftp's behaviour.  Each preference is a  single  charac-
              ter.  The following are defined:

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data transfers.  This is slightly more effi-
                     cient than sendport mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the string,  zftp  will  use  sendport
                     mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:   initiate  transfers  by  the  FTP  PORT  command.  If this occurs before any P in the
                     string, passive mode will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:  use only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This prevents the  variables  ZFTP_SYSTEM  and
                     ZFTP_PWD  from  being  set,  and will mean all connections default to ASCII type.  It may prevent
                     ZFTP_SIZE from being set during a transfer if the server does not send it  anyway  (many  servers

              If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to a default of 'PS', i.e. use passive mode
              if available, otherwise fall back to sendport mode.

              A string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which  responses  from  the  server  should  be
              printed.   All  responses  go to standard error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear in the string, raw
              responses from the server with reply codes beginning with that digit will be printed to standard  error.
              The first digit of the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It  should  be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply 'Service not available', which forces termina-
              tion of a connection, is classified as 421, i.e. 'transient negative', an interesting interpretation  of
              the word 'transient'.

              The  code  0  is  special:   it  indicates that all but the last line of multiline replies read from the
              server will be printed to standard error in a processed format.  By convention, servers use this  mecha-
              nism  for  sending information for the user to read.  The appropriate reply code, if it matches the same
              response, takes priority.

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to the default value 450, i.e.,  messages
              destined for the user and all errors will be printed.  A null string is valid and specifies that no mes-
              sages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every  time  the  directory  changes  on  the  server,
              including when a user is logged in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD will be
              unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If this function is set by the user, it will be called during a get, put or append operation  each  time
              sufficient  data has been received from the host.  During a get, the data is sent to standard output, so
              it is vital that this function should write to standard error or directly to the terminal, not to  stan-
              dard output.

              When it is called with a transfer in progress, the following additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The  total  size  of the complete file being transferred: the same as the first value provided by
                     the remote and local subcommands for a particular file.  If the server cannot supply  this  value
                     for  a remote file being retrieved, it will not be set.  If input is from a pipe the value may be
                     incorrect and correspond simply to a full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a number between zero and  $ZFTP_SIZE,  if  that  is  set.
                     This number is always available.

              The function is initially called with ZFTP_TRANSFER set appropriately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After
              the transfer is finished, the function will be called one more time with ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or  PF,
              in case it wishes to tidy up.  It is otherwise never called twice with the same value of ZFTP_COUNT.

              Sometimes  the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to the user to decide whether the function
              should be defined and to use unfunction when necessary.

       A connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this occurs in a subshell and the file infor-
       mation  is  not  updated in the main shell.  In the case of type or mode changes or closing the connection in a
       subshell, the information is returned but variables are not updated until the next call to zftp.  Other  status
       changes in subshells will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting sessions while a zftp command is active in the background can have unexpected effects, even if it does
       not use the session being deleted.  This is because all shell subprocesses share information on  the  state  of
       all connections, and deleting a session changes the ordering of that information.

       On some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a fork(), so that operations in subshells,
       on the left hand side of a pipeline, or in the background are not possible, as they should be.  This is presum-
       ably a bug in the operating system.

       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).

       The  zsh/zleparameter  module defines two special parameters that can be used to access internal information of
       the Zsh Line Editor (see zshzle(1)).

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This associative array contains one entry per widget defined. The name of the widget is the key and  the
              value  gives  information  about  the  widget.  It is either the string 'builtin' for builtin widgets, a
              string of the form 'user:name' for user-defined widgets, where name is the name of  the  shell  function
              implementing  the  widget, or it is a string of the form 'completion:type:name', for completion widgets.
              In the last case type is the name of the builtin widgets the completion widget imitates in its  behavior
              and name is the name of the shell function implementing the completion widget.

       When  loaded,  the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The profiling results can be obtained with
       the zprof builtin command made available by this module.  There is no way to  turn  profiling  off  other  than
       unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without  the  -c  option, zprof lists profiling results to standard output.  The format is comparable to
              that of commands like gprof.

              At the top there is a summary listing all functions that were called at least  once.   This  summary  is
              sorted  in  decreasing  order  of the amount of time spent in each.  The lines contain the number of the
              function in order, which is used in other parts of the list in suffixes of the form  '[num]',  then  the
              number of calls made to the function.  The next three columns list the time in milliseconds spent in the
              function and its descendants, the average time in milliseconds spent in the function and its descendants
              per  call  and the percentage of time spent in all shell functions used in this function and its descen-
              dants.  The following three columns give the same information, but counting only the time spent  in  the
              function itself.  The final column shows the name of the function.

              After  the  summary,  detailed  information  about  every function that was invoked is listed, sorted in
              decreasing order of the amount of time spent in each  function  and  its  descendants.   Each  of  these
              entries  consists  of  descriptions  for  the functions that called the function described, the function
              itself, and the functions that were called from it.  The description for the  function  itself  has  the
              same  format  as in the summary (and shows the same information).  The other lines don't show the number
              of the function at the beginning and have their function named indented to make it easier to distinguish
              the line showing the function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The  information  shown  in  this case is almost the same as in the summary, but only refers to the call
              hierarchy being displayed.  For example, for a calling function the column  showing  the  total  running
              time  lists  the time spent in the described function and its descendants only for the times when it was
              called from that particular calling function.  Likewise, for a called function, this columns  lists  the
              total  time  spent in the called function and its descendants only for the times when it was called from
              the function described.

              Also in this case, the column showing the number of calls to a function also shows a slash and then  the
              total number of invocations made to the called function.

              As  long as the zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling will be done and multiple invocations of the zprof
              builtin command will show the times and numbers of calls since the  module  was  loaded.   With  the  -c
              option, the zprof builtin command will reset its internal counters and will not show the listing.

       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The  arguments  following  name  are concatenated with spaces between, then executed as a command, as if
              passed to the eval builtin.  The command runs under a newly assigned pseudo-terminal; this is useful for
              running commands non-interactively which expect an interactive environment.  The name is not part of the
              command, but is used to refer to this command in later calls to zpty.

              With the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that input characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal are made non-blocking.

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands previously started, by supplying a  list
              of  their  names.   If  no names are given, all commands are deleted.  Deleting a command causes the HUP
              signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The -w option can be used to send the to command name the given strings as input (separated by  spaces).
              If the -n option is not given, a newline is added at the end.

              If  no  strings  are provided, the standard input is copied to the pseudo-terminal; this may stop before
              copying the full input if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this input as if it  were  typed,  so  beware  when
              sending special tty driver characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The -r option can be used to read the output of the command name.  With only a name argument, the output
              read is copied to the standard output.  Unless the pseudo-terminal is  non-blocking,  copying  continues
              until  the command under the pseudo-terminal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as is immedi-
              ately available is copied.  The return status is zero if any output is copied.

              When also given a param argument, at most one line is read and stored  in  the  parameter  named  param.
              Less  than a full line may be read if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.  The return status is zero if
              at least one character is stored in param.

              If a pattern is given as well, output is read until the whole string read matches the pattern,  even  in
              the non-blocking case.  The return status is zero if the string read matches the pattern, or if the com-
              mand has exited but at least one character could still be read.  If the option -m is present, the return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing, a maximum of one megabyte of output can
              be consumed this way; if a full megabyte is read without matching the  pattern,  the  return  status  is

              In  all  cases,  the return status is non-zero if nothing could be read, and is 2 if this is because the
              command has finished.

              If the -r option is combined with the -t option, zpty tests whether output is available before trying to
              read.   If no output is available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When used with a pattern, the
              behaviour on a failed poll is similar to when the command has exited:  the return value is  zero  if  at
              least one character could still be read even if the pattern failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The  -t  option without the -r option can be used to test whether the command name is still running.  It
              returns a zero status if the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The last form, without any arguments, is used to list the commands currently defined.  If the -L  option
              is given, this is done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.

       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The  zselect builtin is a front-end to the 'select' system call, which blocks until a file descriptor is
              ready for reading or writing, or has an error condition, with an  optional  timeout.   If  this  is  not
              available on your system, the command prints an error message and returns status 2 (normal errors return
              status 1).  For more information, see your systems documentation for select(3).  Note there is  no  con-
              nection with the shell builtin of the same name.

              Arguments  and  options  may  be  intermingled in any order.  Non-option arguments are file descriptors,
              which must be decimal integers.  By default, file descriptors are to be tested for reading, i.e. zselect
              will  return  when data is available to be read from the file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read
              operation from the file descriptor will not block.  After a -r, -w and -e, the  given  file  descriptors
              are to be tested for reading, writing, or error conditions.  These options and an arbitrary list of file
              descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an 'error condition' is not well defined in the documentation for many  implementations
              of  the  select  system  call.  According to recent versions of the POSIX specification, it is really an
              exception condition, of which the only standard example is out-of-band data received on  a  socket.   So
              zsh users are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The  option '-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a second.  This may be zero, in which case
              the file descriptors will simply be polled and zselect will return immediately.  It is possible to  call
              zselect  with  no  file  descriptors  and  a non-zero timeout for use as a finer-grained replacement for
              'sleep'; note, however, the return status is always 1 for a timeout.

              The option '-a array' indicates that array should be set to indicate the file  descriptor(s)  which  are
              ready.   If the option is not given, the array reply will be used for this purpose.  The array will con-
              tain a string similar to the arguments for zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing '-r 0 -w 1' to show that both file descrip-
              tors are ready for the requested operations.

              The  option  '-A  assoc'  indicates  that the associative array assoc should be set to indicate the file
              descriptor(s( which are ready.  This option overrides the option -a, nor will reply  be  modified.   The
              keys  of assoc are the file descriptors, and the corresponding values are any of the characters 'rwe' to
              indicate the condition.

              The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready for reading.   If  the  operation  timed
              out,  or  a timeout of 0 was given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error, it returns
              status 1 and the array will not be set (nor modified in any way).  If there was an error in  the  select
              operation the appropriate error message is printed.

       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This  builtin  command is used to define and lookup styles.  Styles are pairs of names and values, where
              the values consist of any number of strings.  They are stored together with patterns and lookup is  done
              by  giving a string, called the 'context', which is compared to the patterns.  The definition stored for
              the first matching pattern will be returned.

              For ordering of comparisons, patterns are searched from most specific to least  specific,  and  patterns
              that are equally specific keep the order in which they were defined.  A pattern is considered to be more
              specific than another if it contains more components (substrings separated by colons) or if the patterns
              for  the components are more specific, where simple strings are considered to be more specific than pat-
              terns and complex patterns are considered to be more specific than the pattern '*'.

              The first form (without arguments) lists the definitions.  Styles are shown in alphabetic order and pat-
              terns are shown in the order zstyle will test them.

              If  the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of calls to zstyle.  The optional first argument
              is a pattern which will be matched against the string supplied as the pattern for the context; note that
              this means, for example, 'zstyle -L ":completion:*"' will match any supplied pattern beginning ':comple-
              tion:', not just ":completion:*":  use ":completion:\*" to match that.   The  optional  second  argument
              limits the output to a specific style (not a pattern).  -L is not compatible with any other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines  the  given  style  for  the  pattern with the strings as the value.  If the -e option is
                     given, the strings will be concatenated (separated by spaces) and the resulting  string  will  be
                     evaluated  (in  the  same way as it is done by the eval builtin command) when the style is looked
                     up.  In this case the parameter 'reply' must be assigned to set the strings  returned  after  the
                     evaluation.   Before  evaluating  the  value,  reply is unset, and if it is still unset after the
                     evaluation, the style is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete style definitions. Without arguments all definitions are deleted, with a pattern all defi-
                     nitions  for  that  pattern  are  deleted and if any styles are given, then only those styles are
                     deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name of an array in which  the  results  are
                     stored.  Without  any  further  arguments,  all patterns defined are returned. With a pattern the
                     styles defined for that pattern are returned and with both a  pattern  and  a  style,  the  value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The  parameter  name is set to the value of the style interpreted as a string.  If the value con-
                     tains several strings they are concatenated with spaces (or with the sep string if that is given)
                     between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The  value  is  stored  in  name as a boolean, i.e. as the string 'yes' if the value has only one
                     string and that string is equal to one of 'yes', 'true', 'on', or '1'. If the value is any  other
                     string or has more than one string, the parameter is set to 'no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The value is stored in name as an array. If name is declared as an associative array,  the first,
                     third, etc. strings are used as the keys and the other strings are used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test the value of a style, i.e. the -t option only returns  a  status  (sets  $?).   Without  any
                     strings  the return status is zero if the style is defined for at least one matching pattern, has
                     only one string in its value, and that is equal to one of 'true', 'yes',  'on'  or  '1'.  If  any
                     strings  are  given  the status is zero if and only if at least one of the strings is equal to at
                     least one of the strings in the value. If the style is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but it returns status zero (rather  than  2)
                     if the style is not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match  a  value.  Returns  status  zero if the pattern matches at least one of the strings in the

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This builtin provides two different forms of formatting. The first form is selected with the -f  option.
              In  this  case the format string will be modified by replacing sequences starting with a percent sign in
              it with strings from the specs.  Each spec should be of the form 'char:string' which  will  cause  every
              appearance  of  the  sequence '%char' in format to be replaced by the string.  The '%' sequence may also
              contain optional minimum and maximum field width specifications between the '%' and the  'char'  in  the
              form '%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is given first and if the maximum field width is used, it
              has to be preceded by a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width makes the result be padded with spaces to
              the  right  if  the  string is shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the left can be achieved by
              giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum field width is specified, the string will be  trun-
              cated  after that many characters.  After all '%' sequences for the given specs have been processed, the
              resulting string is stored in the parameter param.

              The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions in the form used by prompts.  The % is followed  by  a
              '('  and  then  an ordinary format specifier character as described above.  There may be a set of digits
              either before or after the '('; these specify a test number, which defaults to zero.   Negative  numbers
              are also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows the format specifier, which is followed by a
              piece of 'true' text, the delimiter character again, a piece of 'false' text, and a closing parenthesis.
              The  complete  expression  (without  the digits) thus looks like '%(X.text1.text2)', except that the '.'
              character is arbitrary.  The value given for the format specifier  in  the  char:string  expressions  is
              evaluated  as a mathematical expression, and compared with the test number.  If they are the same, text1
              is output, else text2 is output.  A parenthesis may be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or text2
              may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

              outputs  "The  answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the format specifier c is 3, agreeing with
              the digit argument to the ternary expression.

              The second form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning strings.  Here, the specs are of the form
              'left:right'  where  'left'  and 'right' are arbitrary strings.  These strings are modified by replacing
              the colons by the sep string and padding the left strings with spaces to  the  right  so  that  the  sep
              strings  in  the  result  (and  hence  the  right strings after them) are all aligned if the strings are
              printed below each other.  All strings without a colon are left unchanged and all strings with an  empty
              right  string have the trailing colon removed.  In both cases the lengths of the strings are not used to
              determine how the other strings are to be aligned.  The resulting strings are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This builtin simplifies the parsing of options in positional parameters, i.e. the set of arguments given
              by $*.  Each spec describes one option and must be of the form 'opt[=array]'.  If an option described by
              opt is found in the positional parameters it is copied into the array specified with the -a  option;  if
              the optional '=array' is given, it is instead copied into that array.

              Note  that  it  is  an  error to give any spec without an '=array' unless one of the -a or -A options is

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string that isn't  described  by  one  of  the
              specs.  Even with -E, parsing always stops at a positional parameter equal to '-' or '--'.

              The  opt  description  must  be  one  of the following.  Any of the special characters can appear in the
              option name provided it is preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The name is the name of the option without the leading '-'.  To specify a GNU-style long  option,
                     one of the usual two leading '-' must be included in name; for example, a '--file' option is rep-
                     resented by a name of '-file'.

                     If a '+' appears after name, the option is appended to array each time it is found in  the  posi-
                     tional parameters; without the '+' only the last occurrence of the option is preserved.

                     If  one  of these forms is used, the option takes no argument, so parsing stops if the next posi-
                     tional parameter does not also begin with '-' (unless the -E option is used).

              name:: If one or two colons are given, the option takes an argument; with one  colon,  the  argument  is
                     mandatory  and  with  two colons it is optional.  The argument is appended to the array after the
                     option itself.

                     An optional argument is put into the same array element as the option name (note that this  makes
                     empty  strings as arguments indistinguishable).  A mandatory argument is added as a separate ele-
                     ment unless the ':-' form is used, in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A '+' as described above may appear between the name and the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As described above, this names the default array in which to store the recognised options.

       -A assoc
              If this is given, the options and their values are also put into an associative array  with  the  option
              names as keys and the arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If  this  option  is  given, all options found are removed from the positional parameters of the calling
              shell or shell function, up to but not including any not described by the specs.   This  is  similar  to
              using the shift builtin.

       -K     With  this  option, the arrays specified with the -a and -A options and with the '=array' forms are kept
              unchanged when none of the specs for them is used.  This allows assignment of  default  values  to  them
              before calling zparseopts.

       -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop at the first string that isn't described by one of the specs.
              It can be used to test for or (if used together with -D) extract options and their  arguments,  ignoring
              all other options and arguments that may be in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from 'baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e., the option -b and its arguments are taken from the positional parameters and put into the array bar.

zsh 4.3.11                     December 20, 2010                 ZSHMODULES(1)