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ZSHCONTRIB(1)                                                    ZSHCONTRIB(1)

       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh

       The Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by the user community.  These are not inher-
       ently a part of the shell, and some may not be available in every zsh installation.  The  most  significant  of
       these are documented here.  For documentation on other contributed items such as shell functions, look for com-
       ments in the function source files.

   Accessing On-Line Help
       The key sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help widget (see zshzle(1)).   This  invokes
       the  run-help  command with the command word from the current input line as its argument.  By default, run-help
       is an alias for the man command, so this often fails when the command word is a shell builtin or a user-defined
       function.  By redefining the run-help alias, one can improve the on-line help provided by the shell.

       The  helpfiles  utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is a Perl program that can be used to
       process the zsh manual to produce a separate help file for each shell builtin and for many other shell features
       as  well.   The  autoloadable run-help function, found in Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and per-
       forms several other tests to produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       There may already be a directory of help files on your system; look in /usr/share/zsh  or  /usr/local/share/zsh
       and subdirectories below those, or ask your system administrator.

       To  create  your  own help files with helpfiles, choose or create a directory where the individual command help
       files will reside.  For example, you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If you unpacked the  zsh  distribution  in  your
       home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              cd ~/zsh_help
              man zshall | colcrt - | \
              perl ~/zsh-4.3.11/Util/helpfiles

       Next, to use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like the following to your .zshrc or equiv-
       alent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       The HELPDIR parameter tells run-help where to look for the help files.  If your system already has a help  file
       directory installed, set HELPDIR to the path of that directory instead.

       Note  that  in order for 'autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file must be in one of the directories named
       in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case if you have a  standard  zsh  installa-
       tion; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help to an appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If  you  frequently  edit  your zsh functions, or periodically update your zsh installation to track the latest
       developments, you may find that function digests compiled with the zcompile builtin are frequently out of  date
       with  respect  to  the  function source files.  This is not usually a problem, because zsh always looks for the
       newest file when loading a function, but it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.   Also,  if  a
       digest  file  is  explicitly  used  as an element of fpath, zsh won't check whether any of its source files has

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc, can be used to keep function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p args [ -- args ... ]
              This  tries  to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them if at least one of the original files
              is newer than the compiled file.  This works only if the names stored in the  compiled  files  are  full
              paths or are relative to the directory that contains the .zwc file.

              In  the  first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a directory containing *.zwc files that
              should be checked.  If no arguments are given, the directories and *.zwc files in fpath are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return status of zero (true) is set  if  there  are
              files  that need to be re-compiled and non-zero (false) otherwise.  The -q option quiets the chatty out-
              put that describes what zrecompile is doing.

              Without the -t option, the return status is zero if all files that needed re-compilation could  be  com-
              piled and non-zero if compilation for at least one of the files failed.

              If the -p option is given, the args are interpreted as one or more sets of arguments for zcompile, sepa-
              rated by '--'.  For example:

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist or if it is older than ~/.zshrc. The com-
              piled file will be marked for reading instead of mapping. The same is done for ~/.zcompdump and ~/.zcom-
              pdump.zwc,  but  this  compiled  file  is  marked  for  mapping.  The  last  line  re-creates  the  file
              ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the files matching the given pattern is newer than it.

              Without  the  -p option, zrecompile does not create function digests that do not already exist, nor does
              it add new functions to the digest.

       The following shell loop is an example of a method for creating function digests  for  all  functions  in  your
       fpath, assuming that you have write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The  -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh installation fpath; you may need to use
       different options for your personal function directories.

       Once the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to them, you can keep them up  to  date  by
       running zrecompile with no arguments.

   Keyboard Definition
       The  large number of possible combinations of keyboards, workstations, terminals, emulators, and window systems
       makes it impossible for zsh to have built-in key bindings for every situation.   The  zkbd  utility,  found  in
       Functions/Misc, can help you quickly create key bindings for your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-4.3.11/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When  you  run  zkbd,  it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if the default it offers is correct, just
       press return.  It then asks you to press a number of different keys to determine characteristics of  your  key-
       board  and  terminal;  zkbd warns you if it finds anything out of the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends
       neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an associative array named key, written to a  file
       in  the subdirectory .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR directory.  The name of the file is composed from
       the TERM, VENDOR and OSTYPE parameters, joined by hyphens.

       You may read this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with the 'source' or '.' commands, then  refer-
       ence the key parameter in bindkey commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note  that  in order for 'autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file must be in one of the directories named in your
       fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case if you have a standard zsh installation; if  it
       is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an appropriate directory.

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell, particularly if you are using a beta ver-
       sion of zsh or a development release.  Usually it is sufficient to send a description of the problem to one  of
       the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but sometimes one of the zsh developers will need to recreate your environ-
       ment in order to track the problem down.

       The script named reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is provided for this purpose.   (It
       is also possible to autoload reporter, but reporter is not installed in fpath by default.)  This script outputs
       a detailed dump of the shell state, in the form of another script that can be read with 'zsh  -f'  to  recreate
       that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the '.' command and redirect the output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-4.3.11/Util/reporter >

       You  should  check  the file for any sensitive information such as passwords and delete them by hand
       before sending the script to the developers.  Also, as the output can be voluminous, it's best to wait for  the
       developers to ask for this information before sending it.

       You  can  also  use  reporter  to dump only a subset of the shell state.  This is sometimes useful for creating
       startup files for the first time.  Most of the output from reporter is far more detailed than usually is neces-
       sary  for  a startup file, but the aliases, options, and zstyles states may be useful because they include only
       changes from the defaults.  The bindings state may be useful if you have  created  any  of  your  own  keymaps,
       because reporter arranges to dump the keymap creation commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual  with automated tools, if you create a startup file with reporter, you should edit the results to
       remove unnecessary commands.  Note that if you're using the new completion system,  you  should  not  dump  the
       functions state to your startup files with reporter; use the compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print  to  standard  output the indicated subset of the current shell state.  The state arguments may be
              one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output old-style compctl commands.  New completion is covered by functions and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export commands for any environment variables.
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With the exception of 'all', every state can be abbreviated by any prefix, even a single letter; thus a is  the
       same as aliases, z is the same as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [-dD] hook function
              Several  functions  are  special  to  the shell, as described in the section SPECIAL FUNCTIONS, see zsh-
              misc(1), in that they are automatic called at a specific point during  shell  execution.   Each  has  an
              associated  array  consisting  of names of functions to be called at the same point; these are so-called
              'hook functions'.  The shell function add-zsh-hook provides a simple way of adding or removing functions
              from the array.

              hook is one of chpwd, periodic, precmd or preexec, the special functions in question.

              functions  is  name  of  an  ordinary shell function.  If no options are given this will be added to the
              array of functions to be executed in the given context.

              If the option -d is given, the function is removed from the array of functions to be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern and any matching names of functions  are
              removed from the array of functions to be executed.

       The  function  cdr allows you to change the working directory to a previous working directory from a list main-
       tained automatically.  It is similar in concept to the directory stack controlled by the pushd, popd  and  dirs
       builtins,  but is more configurable, and as it stores all entries in files it is maintained across sessions and
       (by default) between terminal emulators in the current session.  (The pushd directory  stack  is  not  actually
       modified or used by cdr unless you configure it to do so as described in the configuration section below.)

       The  system  works by means of a hook function that is called every time the directory changes.  To install the
       system, autoload the required functions and use the add-zsh-hook function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which command you use, the directory to  which  you
       change will be remembered in most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The  argument to cdr is a number N corresponding to the Nth most recently changed-to directory.  1 is the imme-
       diately preceeding directory; the current directory is remembered but is not offered as  a  destination.   Note
       that  if  you have multiple windows open 1 may refer to a directory changed to in another window; you can avoid
       this by having per-terminal files for storing directory as described for the recent-dirs-file style below.

       If you set the recent-dirs-default style described below cdr will behave the same as cd if given a  non-numeric
       argument,  or  more  than  one argument.  The recent directory list is updated just the same however you change

       If the argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar to pushd's behaviour of swapping the two most recent
       directories on the stack.

       Completion for the argument to cdr is available if compinit has been run; menu selection is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to allow you to cycle through recent directories; the order is preserved, so  the  first  choice  is  the  most
       recent  directory  before  the  current  one.  The verbose style is also recommended to ensure the directory is
       shown; this style is on by default so no action is required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists the numbers and the corresponding directories in abbreviated form (i.e. with ~ substitution  reap-
              plied),  one  per line.  The directories here are not quoted (this would only be an issue if a directory
              name contained a newline).  This is used by the completion system.

       -r     sets the variable reply to the current set of directories.  Nothing is printed and the directory is  not

       -e     allows  you  to  edit  the  list of directories, one per line.  The list can be edited to any extent you
              like; no sanity checking is performed.  Completion is available.  No quoting is  necessary  (except  for
              newlines,  where  I  have in any case no sympathy); directories are in unabbreviated from and contain an
              absolute path, i.e. they start with /.  Usually the first entry should be left as the current directory.

       Configuration  is  by  means  of  the styles mechanism that should be familiar from completion; if not, see the
       description of the zstyle command in see zshmodules(1).  The context for setting styles should be ':chpwd:*' in
       case the meaning of the context is extended in future, for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets the value of the recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the style name is specific enough that a context
       of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used exclusively by the completion system and  so  has  the  usual
       completion system context (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is needed), though again '*' should be fine
       in practice.

              If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index, and either there is more than one  argu-
              ment or the argument is not an integer, then fall through to "cd".  This allows the lazy to use only one
              command for directory changing.  Completion recognises this, too; see recent-dirs-insert for how to con-
              trol completion when this option is in use.

              The  file  where the list of directories is saved.  The default is ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs,
              i.e. this is in your home directory unless you have set the variable ZDOTDIR to  point  somewhere  else.
              Directory  names  are  saved in $'...' quoted form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly to
              the shell as an argument.

              The value of this style may be an array.  In this case, the first file in the list will always  be  used
              for  saving  directories  while  any  other files are left untouched.  When reading the recent directory
              list, if there are fewer than the maximum number of entries in the first file,  the  contents  of  later
              files  in  the  array will be appended with duplicates removed from the list shown.  The contents of the
              two files are not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file are shown first.  The  special
              value  +  can appear in the list to indicate the default file should be read at that point.  This allows
              effects like the following:

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent directories are read from a file numbered according to the terminal.  If there  are  insufficient
              entries the list is supplemented from the default file.

              It is possible to use zstyle -e to make the directory configurable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In  this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or a directory under it, then use a special
              file for saving recent directories, else use the default.

              Used by completion.  If recent-dirs-default is true, then setting this to true causes the actual  direc-
              tory,  rather  than its index, to be inserted on the command line; this has the same effect as using the
              corresponding index, but makes the history clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this  setting,  if
              part  of an argument was already typed, normal directory completion rather than recent directory comple-
              tion is done; this is because recent directory completion is expected to  be  done  by  cycling  through
              entries menu fashion.

              If  the  value of the style is always, then only recent directories will be completed; in that case, use
              the cd command when you want to complete other directories.

              If the value is fallback, recent directories will be tried first, then normal  directory  completion  is
              performed if recent directory completion failed to find a match.

              Finally,  if  the value is both then both sets of completions are presented; the usual tag mechanism can
              be used to distinguish results, with recent directories tagged as recent-dirs.   Note  that  the  recent
              directories inserted are abbreviated with directory names where appropriate.

              The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If this is zero or negative there is no maximum.
              The default is 20.  Note this includes the current directory, which isn't offered, so the highest number
              of directories you will be offered is one less than the maximum.

              This  style is an array determining what directories should (or should not) be added to the recent list.
              Elements of the array can include:

              parent Prune parents (more accurately, ancestors) from the recent list.  If present,  changing  directly
                     down  by  any number of directories causes the current directory to be overwritten.  For example,
                     changing from ~pws to ~pws/some/other/dir causes ~pws not to be  left  on  the  recent  directory
                     stack.  This only applies to direct changes to descendant directories; earlier directories on the
                     list are not pruned.  For example, changing from ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir does not
                     cause ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives  a  zsh pattern for directories that should not be added to the recent list (if not already
                     there).   This  element  can  be  repeated  to  add  different  patterns.   For  example,   'pat-
                     tern:/tmp(|/*)'  stops  /tmp  or  its  descendants from being added.  The EXTENDED_GLOB option is
                     always turned on for these patterns.

              If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to change the directory, so the directory is  saved  on
              the  directory stack.  As the directory stack is completely separate from the list of files saved by the
              mechanism used in this file there is no obvious reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It is possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic directory name syntax that appeared in zsh ver-
       sion  4.3.7.  If you create and autoload a function zsh_directory_name containing the following code, ~[1] will
       refer to the most recent directory other than $PWD, and so on.  This also includes completion.

              if [[ $1 = n ]]; then
                if [[ $2 = <-> ]]; then
                  # Recent directory
                  typeset -ga reply
                  autoload -Uz cdr
                  cdr -r
                  if [[ -n ${reply[$2]} ]]; then
                    return 0
                    return 1
              elif [[ $1 = c ]]; then
                if [[ $PREFIX = <-> || -z $PREFIX ]]; then
                  typeset -a keys values
                  values=(${${(f)"$(cdr -l)"}/ ##/:})
                  _describe -t dir-index 'recent directory index' values keys -V unsorted -S']'
              return 1

   Details of directory handling
       This section is for the curious or confused; most users will not need to know this information.

       Recent directories are saved to a file immediately and hence are preserved across sessions.  Note currently  no
       file  locking is applied: the list is updated immediately on interactive commands and nowhere else (unlike his-
       tory), and it is assumed you are only going to change directory in one window at once.  This  is  not  safe  on
       shared  accounts,  but  in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is changing to a different
       set of directories behind your back.

       To make this a little safer, only directory changes instituted from the command line, either directly or  indi-
       rectly  through  shell  function  calls  (but not through subshells, evals, traps, completion functions and the
       like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd -q or pushd -q to avoid side  effects  if  the  change  to  the
       directory  is to be invisible at the command line.  See the contents of the function chpwd_recent_dirs for more

       In a lot of cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information from version control systems  (VCSs),  such
       as subversion, CVS or git, to be able to provide it to the user; possibly in the user's prompt. So that you can
       instantly tell which branch you are currently on, for example.

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which they are referred to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There  is  also  support for the patch management system quilt ( See
       Quilt Support below for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any $psvar entries to be left available.

       To get this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do the following (assuming, you loaded vcs_info
       properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously, the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to call vcs_info from your precmd function.
       Once that is done you need a single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in your prompt.

       To be able to use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}'  directly  in  your  prompt  like  this,  you  will  need  to  have  the
       PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You  may  not want all of these because there is no point in running the code to detect systems you do not use.
       So there is a way to disable some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If you rerun vcs_info_printsys after one of these commands, you will see the backends  listed  in  the  disable
       style  (or  backends not in the enable style - if you used that) marked as disabled by a hash sign.  That means
       the detection of these systems is skipped completely. No wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4, hg, hg-git, hg-hgsubversion, hg-hgsvn, darcs, bzr, cdv, mtn, svn,  cvs,
              svk,  tla  or  p4.  When  hooks  are  active the hooks name is added after a '+'. (See Hooks in vcs_info

              is a freely configurable string, assignable by the user as the  first  argument  to  vcs_info  (see  its
              description below).

              is  the  name  of a repository in which you want a style to match. So, if you want a setting specific to
              /usr/src/zsh, with that being a CVS checkout, you can set <repo-root-name> to zsh to make it so.

       There are three special values for <vcs-string>: The first is named -init-, that is in effect as long as  there
       was  no decision what VCS backend to use. The second is -preinit-; it is used before vcs_info is run, when ini-
       tializing the data exporting variables. The third special value is formats and is used by the  vcs_info_lastmsg
       for looking up its styles.

       The initial value of <repo-root-name> is -all- and it is replaced with the actual name, as soon as it is known.
       Only use this part of the context for defining the formats, actionformats or  branchformat  styles,  as  it  is
       guaranteed  that  <repo-root-name>  is  set  up  correctly  for  these only. For all other styles, just use '*'

       There are two pre-defined values for <user-context>:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all user-contexts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is most of the time).

              A list of formats, used if there is a special action going on in your current repository; like an inter-
              active rebase or a merge conflict.

              Some  backends  replace  %b in the formats and actionformats styles above, not only by a branch name but
              also by a revision number. This style lets you modify how that string should look.

              These "formats" are exported when we didn't detect a version control system for the  current  directory.
              This is useful if you want vcs_info to completely take over the generation of your prompt.  You would do
              something like PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg uses both a hash and a revision number to reference a specific changeset in a repository.  With  this
              style  you can format the revision string (see branchformat) to include either or both. It's only useful
              when get-revision is true.

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info will export.

       enable A list of backends you want to use. Checked in the -init- context. If this list contains an item  called
              NONE no backend is used at all and vcs_info will do nothing. If this list contains ALL vcs_info will use
              all known backends. Only with ALL in enable will the disable style have any effect.  ALL  and  NONE  are
              case insensitive.

              A  list  of  VCSs you don't want vcs_info to test for repositories (checked in the -init- context, too).
              Only used if enable contains ALL.

              A list of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If a pattern matches, vcs_info will be disabled.  This
              style is checked in the :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in which you do not want vcs_info to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "$HOME/.zsh(|/*)"

              If enabled, the quilt support code is active in 'addon' mode.  See Quilt Support for details.

              If enabled, 'standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS is active in a given directory. See Quilt
              Support for details.

              Overwrite the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable. See Quilt Support for details.

              When quilt itself is called in quilt support the value of this style is used as the command name.

              If enabled, this style causes the %c and %u format escapes to show when the working directory has uncom-
              mitted changes. The strings displayed by these escapes can be controlled via the stagedstr and unstaged-
              str styles. The only backends that currently support this option  are  git  and  hg  (hg  only  supports

              Note,  the  actions  taken  if  this style is enabled are potentially expensive (read: they may be slow,
              depending on how big the current repository is).  Therefore, it is disabled by default.

              This string will be used in the %c escape if there are staged changes in the repository.

              This string will be used in the %u escape if there are unstaged changes in the repository.

              This style causes vcs_info to use the supplied string as the command to use as the VCS's  binary.  Note,
              that setting this in ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If  the  value  of  this  style is empty (which is the default), the used binary name is the name of the
              backend in use (e.g. svn is used in an svn repository).

              The repo-root-name part in the context is always the default -all- when this style is looked up.

              For example, this style can be used to use binaries from non-default installation  directories.  Assume,
              git  is  installed in /usr/bin but your sysadmin installed a newer version in /usr/bin/local. Instead of
              changing the order of your $PATH parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This is used by the Perforce backend (p4) to decide if it should contact the Perforce server to find out
              if  a  directory is managed by Perforce.  This is the only reliable way of doing this, but runs the risk
              of a delay if the server name cannot be found.  If the server (more  specifically,  the  host:port  pair
              describing   the   server)   cannot   be   contacted,  its  name  is  put  into  the  associative  array
              vcs_info_p4_dead_servers and is not contacted again during the session until it is removed by hand.   If
              you do not set this style, the p4 backend is only usable if you have set the environment variable P4CON-
              FIG to a file name and have corresponding files in the root directories of each  Perforce  client.   See
              comments in the function VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for more detail.

              If there are two different ways of gathering information, you can select the simpler one by setting this
              style to true; the default is to use the not-that-simple code, which is potentially  a  lot  slower  but
              might be more accurate in all possible cases. This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case
              of hg it will invoke the external hexdump program to parse the binary dirstate cache file;  this  method
              will not return the local revision number.

              If  set  to  true,  vcs_info  goes the extra mile to figure out the revision of a repository's work tree
              (currently for the git and hg backends, where this kind of information is not always  vital).  For  git,
              the hash value of the currently checked out commit is available via the %i expansion. With hg, the local
              revision number and the corresponding global hash are available via %i.

       get-mq If set to true, the hg backend will look for a Mercurial Queue (mq) patch directory. Information will be
              available via the '%m' replacement.

              If  set  to true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current bookmarks. They will be available via
              the '%m' replacement.

              Determines if we assume that the assembled string  from  vcs_info  includes  prompt  escapes.  (Used  by

       debug  Enable  debugging  output  to  track  possible problems. Currently this style is only used by vcs_info's
              hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines hook-function names. See Hooks in vcs_info below for details.

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES

       In normal formats and actionformats the following replacements are done:

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action. Only makes sense in actionformats.
       %i     The current revision number or identifier. For hg the hgrevformat style may be  used  to  customize  the
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged changes in the repository.
       %u     The string from the unstagedstr style if there are unstaged changes in the repository.
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A subdirectory within a repository. If $PWD is /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty, %S is beer/tasty.
       %m     A "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend to decide what this replacement expands to.
              It is currently used by the hg and git backends to display patch  information  from  the  mq  and  stgit

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current 40-character changeset ID hash identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch.
       %u     The number of unapplied patches.
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For nvcsformats no replacements are performed at all, it
       is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which expands %b itself, use %%b.  That  will
       cause  the  vcs_info  expansion to replace %%b with %b, so that zsh's prompt expansion mechanism can handle it.
       Similarly, to hand down %b from branchformat, use %%%%b. Sorry for this inconvenience, but it cannot be  easily
       avoided. Luckily we do not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this only needs to be done for those.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt  is  not  a  version  control system, therefore this is not implemented as a backend. It can help keeping
       track of a series of patches. People use it to keep a set of changes they want to use on top of software  pack-
       ages  (which  is  tightly  integrated into the package build process - the Debian project does this for a large
       number of packages). Quilt can also help individual developers keep track of their own patches on top  of  real
       version control systems.

       The  vcs_info  integration  tries to support both ways of using quilt by having two slightly different modes of
       operation: 'addon' mode and 'standalone' mode).

       For 'addon' mode to become active vcs_info must have already detected a real version control system controlling
       the directory. If that is the case, a directory that holds quilt's patches needs to be found. That directory is
       configurable via the 'QUILT_PATCHES' environment variable. If that variable exists its value is used, otherwise
       the  value  'patches'  is  assumed.  The value from $QUILT_PATCHES can be overwritten using the 'quilt-patches'
       style. (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep the value of $QUILT_PATCHES correct all the time via the  post-quilt

       When  the  directory  in question is found, quilt is assumed to be active. To gather more information, vcs_info
       looks for a directory called '.pc'; Quilt uses that directory to track its current  state.  If  this  directory
       does  not  exist  we know that quilt has not done anything to the working directory (read: no patches have been
       applied yet).

       If patches are applied, vcs_info will try to find out which. If you want to know which patches of a series  are
       not yet applied, you need to activate the get-unapplied style in the appropriate context.

       vcs_info  allows  for  very detailed control over how the gathered information is presented (see the below sec-
       tions, Styles and Hooks in vcs_info), all of which are documented below. Note there are a number of other patch
       tracking  systems  that work on top of a certain version control system (like stgit for git, or mq for hg); the
       configuration for systems like that are generally configured the same way as the quilt support.

       If the quilt support is working in 'addon' mode, the produced string is available as a simple  format  replace-
       ment (%Q to be precise), which can be used in formats and actionformats; see below for details).

       If, on the other hand, the support code is working in 'standalone' mode, vcs_info will pretend as if quilt were
       an actual version control system. That means that the version control system identifier (which otherwise  would
       be  something  like  'svn'  or 'cvs') will be set to '-quilt-'. This has implications on the used style context
       where this identifier is the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper value for the "repository's"
       root  directory  and  the string containing the information about quilt's state will be available as the 'misc'
       replacement (and %Q for compatibility with 'addon' mode.

       What is left to discuss is how 'standalone' mode is detected. The detection itself is a series of searches  for
       directories.  You  can  have this detection enabled all the time in every directory that is not otherwise under
       version control. If you know there is only a limited set of trees where you would like vcs_info to try and look
       for  Quilt in 'standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call to vcs_info, there are a num-
       ber of ways to do that:

       Essentially, 'standalone' mode detection is controlled by a style called 'quilt-standalone'.  It  is  a  string
       style  and  its value can have different effects. The simplest values are: 'always' to run detection every time
       vcs_info is run, and 'never' to turn the detection off entirely.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted differently. If the value is the name  of
       a scalar variable the value of that variable is checked and that value is used in the same 'always'/'never' way
       as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an array, the elements of that array are  used  as  directory  names  under
       which you want the detection to be active.

       If  quilt-standalone  is  an  associative array, the keys are taken as directory names under which you want the
       detection to be active, but only if the corresponding value is the string 'true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is the name of a function, the function is called without
       arguments  and  the  return  value  decides  whether  detection should be active. A '0' return value is true; a
       non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note, if there is both a function and a variable by the name of quilt-standalone, the function will take prece-

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The  main  function,  that runs all backends and assembles all data into ${vcs_info_msg_*_}. This is the
              function you want to call from precmd if you want to include up-to-date information in your prompt  (see
              Variable description below). If an argument is given, that string will be used instead of default in the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Outputs the last ${vcs_info_msg_*_} value.  Takes into account the value of the use-prompt-escapes style
              in ':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'. It also only prints max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints  a list of all supported version control systems. Useful to find out possible contexts (and which
              of them are enabled) or values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With this function, you can add support  for
              new VCSs without restarting the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where N is an integer, e.g., vcs_info_msg_0_. These variables are the storage for the informational mes-
              sage the last vcs_info call has assembled. These are strongly connected to  the  formats,  actionformats
              and  nvcsformats  styles  described  above.  Those  styles are lists. The first member of that list gets
              expanded  into   ${vcs_info_msg_0_},   the   second   into   ${vcs_info_msg_1_}   and   the   Nth   into
              ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}.  These  parameters  are  exported into the environment. (See the max-exports style

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks are places in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code can  communicate  with  the  code  that
       called it and through that, change the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To register functions to a hook, you need to list them in the hooks style in the appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This  registers  functions to the hook 'foo' for all backends. In order to avoid namespace problems, all regis-
       tered function names are prepended by a '+vi-', so the actual functions called for the 'foo' hook are '+vi-bar'
       and '+vi-baz'.

       If  something  seems weird, you can enable the 'debug' boolean style in the proper context and the hook-calling
       code will print what it tried to execute and whether the function in question existed.

       When you register more than one function to a hook, all functions are executed  one  after  another  until  one
       function returns non-zero or until all functions have been called.

       You may pass data between functions via an associative array, user_data.  For example:

                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The  return  value that the hooks system will return to the caller. The default is an integer 'zero'. If
              and how a changed ret value changes the execution of the caller depends on the specific  hook.  See  the
              hook documentation below for details.

              An associated array which is used for bidirectional communication from the caller to hook functions. The
              used keys depend on the specific hook.

              The active context of the hook. Functions that wish to change this variable should make it  local  scope

       vcs    The  current  VCS after it was detected. The same values as in the enable/disable style are used. Avail-
              able in all hooks except start-up.

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this directory is determined. It  can  be  used  to
              deactivate  vcs_info  temporarily  if necessary. When ret is set to 1, vcs_info aborts and does nothing;
              when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything as if no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called in the Mercurial backend when a bookmark string is generated; the get-revision and  get-bookmarks
              styles must be true.

              This hook gets the names of the Mercurial bookmarks that vcs_info collected from 'hg'.

              When  setting  ret  to  non-zero,  the  string in ${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]} will be used in the %m
              escape in formats and actionformats and will be availabe in the global  backend_misc  array  as  ${back-

              Called  in  the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backends and in quilt support when the applied-string
              is generated; the use-quilt zstyle must be true for quilt (the mq  and  stgit  backends  are  active  by

              This  hook  gets the names of all applied patches which vcs_info collected so far in the opposite order,
              which means that the first argument is the top-most patch and so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[applied-string]} will be used in the %m escape in
              formats   and  actionformats;  it  will  be  available  in  the  global  backend_misc  array  as  $back-
              end_misc[patches]}; and it will be available as %p in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backend and in quilt support when the  unapplied-string
              is generated; the get-unapplied style must be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info collected so far in the opposite order,
              which mean that the first argument is the patch next-in-line to be applied and so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[unapplied-string]} will be available as %u in the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called in the hg backend when guards-string is generated; the get-mq style must be true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When  setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used in the %g escape in
              the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called after the quilt support is done. The following information is passed as arguments to the hook: 1.
              the  quilt-support  mode  ('addon' or 'standalone'); 2. the directory that contains the patch series; 3.
              the directory that holds quilt's status information (the '.pc' directory) or the string "-nopc-" if that
              directory wasn't found.

              The 'hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  before  'branchformat' is set. The only argument to the hook is the format that is configured at
              this point.

              The 'hook_com' keys considered are 'branch' and 'revision'.  They are set to the values figured  out  so
              far by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              If  ret  is  set to to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will be used unchanged as the
              '%b' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called before a 'hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the hook is the format that is configured  at
              this point.

              The 'hook_com' keys considered are 'hash' and 'localrev'.  They are set to the values figured out so far
              by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              If ret is set to to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[rev-replace]} will be used unchanged as the  '%i'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called each time before a 'vcs_info_msg_N_' message is set.  It takes two arguments; the first being the
              'N' in the message variable name, the second is the currently configured formats or actionformats.

              There are a number of 'hook_com' keys, that are used  here:  'action',  'branch',  'base',  'base-name',
              'subdir',  'staged',  'unstaged',  'revision', 'misc', 'vcs' and one 'miscN' entry for each backend-spe-
              cific data field (N starting at zero). They are set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any
              change will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each configured formats or actionformats), each of
              the 'hook_com' keys mentioned above (except for the miscN entries) has an '_orig' counterpart,  so  even
              if you changed a value to your liking you can still get the original value in the next run. Changing the
              '_orig' values is probably not a good idea.

              If ret is set to to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[message]} will be used unchanged as  the  message
              by vcs_info.

       If  all  of  this  sounds  rather  confusing,  take  a  look  at  the  Examples  section  below and also in the
       Misc/vcs_info-examples file in the Zsh source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All %x expansion in all sorts of formats ("formats", "actionformats", branchformat, you name it) are done using
       the  'zformat'  builtin  from the 'zsh/zutil' module. That means you can do everything with these %x items what
       zformat supports. In particular, if you want something that is really long to have a fixed width, like  a  hash
       in  a  mercurial branchformat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character hash to its 12 leading
       characters. The form is actually '%min.maxx'. More is possible.  See the section 'The zsh/zutil Module' in zsh-
       modules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If you do use use-simple, please report if it does 'the-right-thing[tm]'.

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If  you want colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if you want to use the string provided by
       vcs_info in prompts.

       Here is how to print the VCS information as a command (not in a prompt):
              alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This way, you can even define different formats for output via vcs_info_lastmsg in the  ':vcs_info:*:command:*'

       Now  as  promised,  some  code  that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace the string 'svn' by 'subversion' in
       vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a function when populating the message variables with the gathered  infor-
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing  happens.  Which  is  reasonable, since we didn't define the actual function yet. To see what the hooks
       subsystem is trying to do, enable the 'debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That should give you an idea what is  going  on.  Specifically,  the  function  that  we  are  looking  for  is
       '+vi-svn2subversion'.  Note,  the  '+vi-'  prefix. So, everything is in order, just as documented. When you are
       done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:

              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had registered our function in  a  less  generic
       context. If we do it only in the 'svn' backend's context, we don't need to test which the active backend is:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create a customised bookmark string for the hg

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the '+vi-hgbookmarks function:

              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  local s i
                  # The bookmarks returned by 'hg' are available in
                  # the functions positional parameters.
                  (( $# == 0 )) && return 0
                  for i in "$@"; do
                      if [[ $i == sh/* ]]; then
                          [[ -n $s ]] && s=$s,
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key, at which the 'gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks at is 'hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal, that we want to use the sting we
                  # just generated, set the special variable 'ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are available in  the  examples  file  located  at
       Misc/vcs_info-examples in the Zsh source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.

       You  should  make  sure  all  the functions from the Functions/Prompts directory of the source distribution are
       available; they all begin with the string 'prompt_' except for the special function'promptinit'.  You also need
       the 'colors' function from Functions/Misc.  All of these functions may already have been installed on your sys-
       tem; if not, you will need to find them and copy them.  The directory should appear as one of the  elements  of
       the  fpath array (this should already be the case if they were installed), and at least the function promptinit
       should be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize the use of the system you need to call
       the  promptinit  function.   The  following code in your .zshrc will arrange for this; assume the functions are
       stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use the prompt command to select your preferred theme.  This command may be added to your .zshrc following  the
       call to promptinit in order to start zsh with a theme already selected.

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set  or examine the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme argument, the theme with that name is set
              as the current theme.  The available themes are determined at run time; use the -l option to see a list.
              The special theme 'random' selects at random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In  some cases the theme may be modified by one or more arguments, which should be given after the theme
              name.  See the help for each theme for descriptions of these arguments.

              Options are:

              -c     Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if any.
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or all themes if no theme is given.
              -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the prompt function if no theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the prompt function to install that  theme.
              This  function  may define other functions as necessary to maintain the prompt, including functions used
              to preview the prompt or provide help for its use.  You should not normally call a theme's  setup  func-
              tion directly.

       These  functions  all  implement  user-defined  ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1)) which can be bound to keystrokes in
       interactive shells.  To use them, your .zshrc should contain lines of the form

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed by an appropriate bindkey command to associate the function with a key sequence.   Suggested  bindings
       are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If you are looking for functions to implement moving over and editing words in the manner of bash, where
              only alphanumeric characters are considered word characters, you can use the functions described in  the
              next section.  The following is sufficient:

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The  eight  '-match'  functions are drop-in replacements for the builtin widgets without the suffix.  By
              default they behave in a similar way.  However, by the use of styles and the function select-word-style,
              the way words are matched can be altered.

              The simplest way of configuring the functions is to use select-word-style, which can either be called as
              a normal function with the appropriate argument, or invoked as a user-defined widget  that  will  prompt
              for  the  first  character of the word style to be used.  The first time it is invoked, the eight -match
              functions will automatically replace the builtin versions, so they do not need to be loaded  explicitly.

              The word styles available are as follows.  Only the first character is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As  in  normal  shell operation:  word characters are alphanumeric characters plus any characters
                     present in the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words are complete shell command arguments, possibly including complete quoted  strings,  or  any
                     tokens special to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as 'normal'.

              All  but  'default'  can be input as an upper case character, which has the same effect but with subword
              matching turned on.  In this case, words with upper case characters are treated specially: each separate
              run  of upper case characters, or an upper case character followed by any number of other characters, is
              considered a word.  The style subword-range can supply an alternative character  range  to  the  default
              '[:upper:]'; the value of the style is treated as the contents of a '[...]' pattern (note that the outer
              brackets should not be supplied, only those surrounding named ranges).

              More control can be obtained using the zstyle command, as described in  zshmodules(1).   Each  style  is
              looked  up  in the context :zle:widget where widget is the name of the user-defined widget, not the name
              of the function implementing it, so in the case of the definitions  supplied  by  select-word-style  the
              appropriate  contexts  are  :zle:forward-word,  and so on.  The function select-word-style itself always
              defines styles for the context ':zle:*' which can be overridden by more specific  (longer)  patterns  as
              well as explicit contexts.

              The style word-style specifies the rules to use.  This may have the following values.

              normal Use  the standard shell rules, i.e. alphanumerics and $WORDCHARS, unless overridden by the styles
                     word-chars or word-class.

                     Similar to normal, but only the specified characters, and not also alphanumerics, are  considered
                     word characters.

                     The negation of specified.  The given characters are those which will not be considered part of a

              shell  Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for generating shell command arguments.  In addi-
                     tion, special tokens which are never command arguments such as '()' are also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The  first three of those rules usually use $WORDCHARS, but the value in the parameter can be overridden
              by the style word-chars, which works in exactly the same way as  $WORDCHARS.   In  addition,  the  style
              word-class  uses character class syntax to group characters and takes precedence over word-chars if both
              are set.  The word-class style does not include the surrounding brackets of  the  character  class;  for
              example,  '-:[:alnum:]'  is  a valid word-class to include all alphanumerics plus the characters '-' and
              ':'.  Be careful including ']', '^' and '-' as these are special inside character classes.

              word-style may also have '-subword' appended to its value to turn  on  subword  matching,  as  described

              The  style  skip-chars  is  mostly useful for transpose-words and similar functions.  If set, it gives a
              count of characters starting at the cursor position which will not be considered part of  the  word  and
              are treated as space, regardless of what they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has  been  set,  and transpose-words-match is called with the cursor on the X of fooXbar, where X can be
              any character, then the resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer grained control can be obtained by setting the style word-context to an array of pairs of entries.
              Each  pair  of  entries  consists of a pattern and a subcontext.  The shell argument the cursor is on is
              matched against each pattern in turn until one matches; if it does, the context is extended by  a  colon
              and  the  corresponding  subcontext.   Note that the test is made against the original word on the line,
              with no stripping of quotes.  Special handling is done between words: the current  context  is  examined
              and if it contains the string back, the word before the cursor is considered, else the word after cursor
              is considered. Some examples are given below.

              Here are some examples  of  use  of  the  styles,  actually  taken  from  the  simplified  interface  in

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets, i.e. only alphanumerics are word characters; equiv-
              alent to setting the parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given context.

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the  word  'kill'  in  the  name.   Neither  of  the  styles
              word-chars nor word-class is used in this case.

              Here are some examples of use of the word-context style to extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context "*/*" file "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This  provides two different ways of using transpose-words depending on whether the cursor is on whites-
              pace between words or on a filename, here any word containing a /.  On whitespace, complete arguments as
              defined  by  standard  shell rules will be transposed.  In a filename, only alphanumerics will be trans-
              posed.  Elsewhere, words will be transposed using the default style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The word matching and all the handling of zstyle  settings  is  actually  implemented  by  the  function
              match-words-by-style.  This can be used to create new user-defined widgets.  The calling function should
              set the local parameter curcontext to :zle:widget, create the local  parameter  matched_words  and  call
              match-words-by-style  with no arguments.  On return, matched_words will be set to an array with the ele-
              ments: (1) the start of the line (2) the word before the cursor (3) any non-word characters between that
              word  and the cursor (4) any non-word character at the cursor position plus any remaining non-word char-
              acters before the next word, including all characters specified by the skip-chars style, (5) the word at
              or  following  the cursor (6) any non-word characters following that word (7) the remainder of the line.
              Any of the elements may be an empty string; the calling function should test for this to decide  whether
              it can perform its function.

              It  is  possible  to  pass options with arguments to match-words-by-style to override the use of styles.
              The options are:
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be used to extract the command argument  around  the

              The  word-context style is implemented by the function match-word-context.  This should not usually need
              to be called directly.

              This is another function which works like the -match functions described immediately above,  i.e.  using
              styles to decide the word boundaries.  However, it is not a replacement for any existing function.

              The  basic behaviour is to delete the word around the cursor.  There is no numeric prefix handling; only
              the single word around the cursor is considered.  If the widget contains the string  kill,  the  removed
              text  will  be  placed  in  the  cutbuffer  for  future  yanking.   This  can  be  obtained  by defining
              kill-whole-word-match as follows:

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

              This widget works like a combination of insert-last-word and copy-prev-shell-word.  Repeated invocations
              of  the  widget  retrieve earlier words on the relevant history line.  With a numeric argument N, insert
              the Nth word from the history line; N may be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a previous history line, repeated invoca-
              tions will replace that word with earlier words from the same line.

              Otherwise,  the widget applies to words on the line currently being edited.  The widget style can be set
              to the name of another widget that should be called to retrieve words.  This widget must accept the same
              three arguments as insert-last-word.

              After  inserting  an  unambiguous string into the command line, the new function based completion system
              may know about multiple places in this string where characters are missing or differ from at  least  one
              of  the  possible  matches.   It  will then place the cursor on the position it considers to be the most
              interesting one, i.e. the one where one can disambiguate between as many matches  as  possible  with  as
              little typing as possible.

              This  widget  allows  the  cursor  to be easily moved to the other interesting spots.  It can be invoked
              repeatedly to cycle between all positions reported by the completion system.

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              This  function  implements  the   widgets   history-beginning-search-backward-end   and   history-begin-
              ning-search-forward-end.   These  commands  work  by first calling the corresponding builtin widget (see
              'History Control' in zshzle(1)) and then moving the cursor to the end of the line.  The original  cursor
              position  is  remembered  and restored before calling the builtin widget a second time, so that the same
              search is repeated to look farther through the history.

              Although you autoload only one function, the commands to use it are slightly different because it imple-
              ments two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This  function  implements yet another form of history searching.  The text before the cursor is used to
              select lines from the history, as for history-beginning-search-backward  except  that  all  matches  are
              shown in a numbered menu.  Typing the appropriate digits inserts the full history line.  Note that lead-
              ing zeroes must be typed (they are only shown when necessary for removing ambiguity).  The  entire  his-
              tory is searched; there is no distinction between forwards and backwards.

              With a prefix argument, the search is not anchored to the start of the line; the string typed by the use
              may appear anywhere in the line in the history.

              If the widget name contains '-end' the cursor is moved to the end of the line inserted.  If  the  widget
              name  contains  '-space'  any  space  in  the text typed is treated as a wildcard and can match anything
              (hence a leading space is equivalent to giving a prefix argument).  Both  forms  can  be  combined,  for

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The  function  history-pattern-search implements widgets which prompt for a pattern with which to search
              the history backwards or forwards.  The pattern is in the usual zsh format, however the first  character
              may  be  ^  to anchor the search to the start of the line, and the last character may be $ to anchor the
              search to the end of the line.  If the search was not anchored to the end of  the  line  the  cursor  is
              positioned just after the pattern found.

              The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those in the example immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These  widgets  are similar to the builtin functions up-line-or-search and down-line-or-search:  if in a
              multiline buffer they move up or down within the buffer, otherwise they search for a history line match-
              ing the start of the current line.  In this case, however, they search for a line which matches the cur-
              rent line up to the current cursor position, in  the  manner  of  history-beginning-search-backward  and
              -forward, rather than the first word on the line.

       incarg Typing the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on or to the left of an integer causes that
              integer to be incremented by one.  With a numeric prefix argument, the  number  is  incremented  by  the
              amount of the argument (decremented if the prefix argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may
              be set to change the default increment to something other than one.

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting this command, a list of completion choices
              can  be  shown  after  every  character  you type, which you can delete with ^H or DEL.  Pressing return
              accepts the completion so far and returns you to normal editing (that is, the command line is not  imme-
              diately  executed).   You  can  hit  TAB to do normal completion, ^G to abort back to the state when you
              started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear on the keyboard to be inserted into the
              command  line.   The  command  is  followed  by  two keys corresponding to ASCII characters (there is no
              prompt).  For accented characters, the two keys are a base character followed by a code for the  accent,
              while  for  other special characters the two characters together form a mnemonic for the character to be
              inserted.  The two-character  codes  are  a  subset  of  those  given  by  RFC  1345  (see  for  example

              The function may optionally be followed by up to two characters which replace one or both of the charac-
              ters read from the keyboard;  if  both  characters  are  supplied,  no  input  is  read.   For  example,
              insert-composed-char  a:  can  be used within a widget to insert an a with umlaut into the command line.
              This has the advantages over use of a literal character that it is more portable.

              For best results zsh should have been built with  support  for  multibyte  characters  (configured  with
              --enable-multibyte);  however,  the function works for the limited range of characters available in sin-
              gle-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The character is converted into the local representation and inserted into the command line at the  cur-
              sor  position.   (The  conversion is done within the shell, using whatever facilities the C library pro-
              vides.)  With a numeric argument, the character and its code are previewed in the status line

              The function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the character (together with a  newline)  to
              standard output.  Input is still read from keystrokes.

              See  insert-unicode-char  for an alternative way of inserting Unicode characters using their hexadecimal
              character number.

              The set of accented characters is reasonably complete up to Unicode character U+0180, the set of special
              characters  less  so.   However, it it is very sporadic from that point.  Adding new characters is easy,
              however; see the function define-composed-chars.  Please send any additions to

              The codes for the second character when used to accent the first are as follows.  Note  that  not  every
              character can take every accent.
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not assume that character is present on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot  above  the  base character, or in the case of i no dot, or in the case of L and l a centered
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline, however there are currently no underlined characters.
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.  (A little forward facing hook at the bottom right of the character.)
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek and Hebrew alphabets are available;  consult
              RFC  1345  for  the  appropriate  sequences.  In addition, a set of two letter codes not in RFC 1345 are
              available for the double-width characters corresponding to ASCII characters from !  to ~ (0x21 to  0x7e)
              by preceding the character with ^, for example ^A for a double-width A.

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters found in various variants of the Latin alphabet:
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References  to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a 9 rather than 6) rather than their gram-
                     matical use.  (For example, a "right" low double quote is used to open quotations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth note), semiquavers  (sixteenth  notes),
                     flag sign, natural sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, ')
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This  function  allows you type a file pattern, and see the results of the expansion at each step.  When
              you hit return, all expansions are inserted into the command line.

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
           [ -S statepm | -R statepm ] [ -n ] [ start end ])
              Narrow the editable portion of the buffer to the region between the cursor and the mark, which may be in
              either order.  The region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region may be used as a widget or called as a function from a user-defined widget; by default,
              the text outside the editable area remains visible.  A recursive-edit  is  performed  and  the  original
              widening  status  is  then restored.  Various options and arguments are available when it is called as a

              The options -p pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace the text before and after the display  for
              the duration of the function; either or both may be an empty string.

              If  the  option  -n  is also given, pretext or posttext will only be inserted if there is text before or
              after the region respectively which will be made invisible.

              Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead of the cursor and mark positions.

              The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to the other options while saving the  original  state
              in  the  parameter  with name statepm, while the option -R statepm is used to restore the state from the
              parameter; note in both cases the name of the parameter is required.  In the second case, other  options
              and  arguments  are  irrelevant.   When this method is used, no recursive-edit is performed; the calling
              widget should call this function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the command line or pass
              control  to the user via 'zle recursive-edit', then call this function with the option -R.  The argument
              statepm must be a suitable name for an ordinary parameter, except that  parameters  beginning  with  the
              prefix _ntr_ are reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically the parameter will be local to the
              calling function.

              narrow-to-region-invisible is a simple widget which calls narrow-to-region with arguments which  replace
              any text outside the region with '...'.

              The display is restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle command which would usually cause the line
              to be accepted or aborted.  Hence an additional such command is required to accept or abort the  current

              The return status of both widgets is zero if the line was accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              When  first executed, the user inputs a set of hexadecimal digits.  This is terminated with another call
              to insert-unicode-char.  The digits are then turned into the corresponding Unicode character.  For exam-
              ple, if the widget is bound to ^XU, the character sequence '^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L (Unicode U+004c).

              See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters using a two-character mnemonic.

              This set of functions implements predictive typing using history search.  After predict-on, typing char-
              acters causes the editor to look backward in the history for the first line beginning with what you have
              typed  so  far.   After  predict-off,  editing returns to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often
              don't even need to use predict-off, because if the line doesn't match something in the history, adding a
              key  performs standard completion, and then inserts itself if no completions were found.  However, edit-
              ing in the middle of a line is liable to confuse prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With the function based completion system (which is needed for this), you should be able to type TAB  at
              almost  any  point to advance the cursor to the next ''interesting'' character position (usually the end
              of the current word, but sometimes somewhere in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon  as  the
              entire  line is what you want, you can accept with return, without needing to move the cursor to the end

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional widget functions:

                     Replaces the backward-delete-char widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.
                     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert widget.  You do not need to  bind  this
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although  you  autoload  only  the  predict-on function, it is necessary to create a keybinding for pre-
              dict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This is most useful when called as a function from inside a widget, but will work correctly as a  widget
              in its own right.  It prompts for a value below the current command line; a value may be input using all
              of the standard zle operations (and not merely the restricted set available when executing, for example,
              execute-named-cmd).   The value is then returned to the calling function in the parameter $REPLY and the
              editing buffer restored to its previous state.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard  break  (typically
              ^G), the function returns status 1 and $REPLY is not set.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied to the function it is taken as a prompt, otherwise '? ' is used.  If two
              arguments are supplied, they are the prompt and the initial value of $LBUFFER, and if a  third  argument
              is  given it is the initial value of $RBUFFER.  This provides a default value and starting cursor place-
              ment.  Upon return the entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One option is available: '-k num' specifies that num characters are to be read instead of a whole  line.
              The line editor is not invoked recursively in this case, so depending on the terminal settings the input
              may not be visible, and only the input keys are placed in $REPLY, not  the  entire  buffer.   Note  that
              unlike the read builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The  name  is  a  slight misnomer, as in fact the shell's own minibuffer is not used.  Hence it is still
              possible to call executed-named-cmd and similar functions while reading a value.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The function replace-string implements three widgets.  If defined under the same name as  the  function,
              it  prompts  for  two  strings;  the  first (source) string will be replaced by the second everywhere it
              occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If the widget name contains the word 'pattern', for example by defining the  widget  using  the  command
              'zle  -N  replace-pattern  replace-string',  then the matching is performed using zsh patterns.  All zsh
              extended globbing patterns can be used in the source string; note that unlike  filename  generation  the
              pattern does not need to match an entire word, nor do glob qualifiers have any effect.  In addition, the
              replacement string can contain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a '&' in  the  replace-
              ment  string  will  be  replaced  with  the  matched  source string, and a backquoted digit '\N' will be
              replaced by the Nth parenthesised expression matched.  The form '\{N}' may be used to protect the  digit
              from following digits.

              If the widget instead contains the word 'regex' (or 'regexp'), then the matching is performed using reg-
              ular expressions, respecting the setting of the option RE_MATCH_PCRE (see the description of  the  func-
              tion regexp-replace below).  The special replacement facilities described above for pattern matching are

              By default the previous source or replacement string will not be offered  for  editing.   However,  this
              feature  can  be  activated  by setting the style edit-previous in the context :zle:widget (for example,
              :zle:replace-string) to true.  In addition, a positive numeric argument forces the previous values to be
              offered, a negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The  function replace-string-again can be used to repeat the previous replacement; no prompting is done.
              As with replace-string, if the name of the widget contains the word 'pattern'  or  'regex',  pattern  or
              regular  expression  matching  is  performed, else a literal string replacement.  Note that the previous
              source and replacement text are the same whether pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and  invoking  replace-pattern with the source string 'f(?)n' and the replacement string 'c\1r' produces
              the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The range of the replacement string can be limited by using the narrow-to-region-invisible widget.   One
              limitation  of the current version is that undo will cycle through changes to the replacement and source
              strings before undoing the replacement itself.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With a numeric prefix, or when passed command line arguments in a call from another widget,  it  behaves
              like insert-last-word, except that words in comments are ignored when INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

              Otherwise,  the  rightmost  ''interesting''  word  from the previous command is found and inserted.  The
              default definition of ''interesting'' is that the word  contains  at  least  one  alphabetic  character,
              slash,  or backslash.  This definition may be overridden by use of the match style.  The context used to
              look up the style is the widget name, so usually the context is  :insert-last-word.   However,  you  can
              bind this function to different widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous style is set to a true value, the search continues
              upward through the history.  When auto-previous is unset or false (the  default),  the  widget  must  be
              invoked repeatedly in order to search earlier history lines.

              Only  useful  with  a  multi-line  editing buffer; the lines here are lines within the current on-screen
              buffer, not history lines.  The effect is similar to the function of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose the current line with the previous line and move the cursor to the start  of  the  next  line.
              Repeating  this  (which  can  be done by providing a positive numeric prefix argument) has the effect of
              moving the line above the cursor down by a number of lines.

              With a negative numeric prefix argument, requires two lines above  the  cursor.   These  two  lines  are
              transposed  and the cursor moved to the start of the previous line.  Using a numeric prefix less than -1
              has the effect of moving the line above the cursor up by minus that number of lines.

              This function is a drop-in replacement for the builtin widget which-command.  It has enhanced behaviour,
              in that it correctly detects whether or not the command word needs to be expanded as an alias; if so, it
              continues tracing the command word from the expanded alias until it reaches the  command  that  will  be

              The  style whence is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this may be set to an array to give the com-
              mand and options that will be used to investigate the command word found.  The default is whence -c.

   Utility Functions
       These functions are useful in constructing widgets.  They should be loaded  with  'autoload  -U  function'  and
       called as indicated from user-defined widgets.

              This function splits the line currently being edited into shell arguments and whitespace.  The result is
              stored in the array reply.  The array contains all the parts of the line in  order,  starting  with  any
              whitespace  before the first argument, and finishing with any whitespace after the last argument.  Hence
              (so long as the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is given by odd indices in the array and  argu-
              ments  by  even indices.  Note that no stripping of quotes is done; joining together all the elements of
              reply in order is guaranteed to produce the original line.

              The parameter REPLY is set to the index of the word in reply which contains the character after the cur-
              sor,  where  the  first  element has index 1.  The parameter REPLY2 is set to the index of the character
              under the cursor in that word, where the first character has index 1.

              Hence reply, REPLY and REPLY2 should all be made local to the enclosing function.

              See the function modify-current-argument, described below, for an example of how to call this  function.

       modify-current-argument expr-using-$ARG
              This function provides a simple method of allowing user-defined widgets to modify the command line argu-
              ment under the cursor (or immediately to the left of the cursor if the  cursor  is  between  arguments).
              The  argument  should  be  an expression which when evaluated operates on the shell parameter ARG, which
              will have been set to the command line argument under the cursor.  The  expression  should  be  suitably
              quoted to prevent it being evaluated too early.

              For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code converts the characters in the argument
              under the cursor into all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The following strips any quoting from the current word (whether backslashes or  one  of  the  styles  of
              quotes), and replaces it with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

       The behavior of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the use of the zstyle mechanism.  In particu-
       lar, widgets that interact with the completion system pass along their context to  any  completions  that  they

              This  style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget. Its value should be a pattern, and all keys
              matching this pattern will cause the widget to stop incremental completion without the  key  having  any
              further  effect.  Like  all  styles  used directly by incremental-complete-word, this style is looked up
              using the context ':incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set up their top-level context name  before
              calling  completion.  This allows one to define different sets of completer functions for normal comple-
              tion and for these widgets.  For example, to use completion, approximation  and  correction  for  normal
              completion,  completion and correction for incremental completion and only completion for prediction one
              could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in  prediction,  because  they  may  be  automatically
              invoked as you type.  The _list and _menu completers should never be used with prediction.  The _approx-
              imate, _correct, _expand, and _match completers may be used, but be aware that they may  change  charac-
              ters  anywhere in the word behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully that the result is what you

       cursor The insert-and-predict widget uses this style, in the context ':predict', to decide where to  place  the
              cursor after completion has been tried.  Values are:

                     The  cursor  is  left  where it was when completion finished, but only if it is after a character
                     equal to the one just inserted by the user.  If it is after another character, this value is  the
                     same as 'key'.

              key    The cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the character just inserted, where n is the number
                     of times that character appeared in the word before completion was attempted.  In short, this has
                     the effect of leaving the cursor after the character just typed even if the completion code found
                     out that no other characters need to be inserted at that position.

              Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor at the position  where  the  completion
              code left it.

       list   When  using  the  incremental-complete-word  widget,  this style says if the matches should be listed on
              every key press (if they fit on the screen).  Use the context prefix ':completion:incremental'.

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide if the completion should be shown even if  there
              is only one possible completion.  This is done if the value of this style is the string always.  In this
              case the context is ':predict' (not ':completion:predict').

       match  This style is used by smart-insert-last-word to provide a pattern (using full EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that
              matches  an  interesting word.  The context is the name of the widget to which smart-insert-last-word is
              bound (see above).  The default behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

              Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two characters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

              The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The incremental-complete-word widget shows the value of this style in the status line during incremental
              completion.   The  string value may contain any of the following substrings in the manner of the PS1 and
              other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced by the name of the completer function that generated the matches  (without  the  leading

              %l     When  the  list  style is set, replaced by '...' if the list of matches is too long to fit on the
                     screen and with an empty string otherwise.  If the list style is 'false'  or  not  set,  '%l'  is
                     always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced  by  '-no  match-', '-no prefix-', or an empty string if there is no completion matching
                     the word on the line, if the matches have no common prefix different from the word on  the  line,
                     or if there is such a common prefix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there is any, and if it is different from the
                     word on the line.

              Like 'break-keys', this uses the ':incremental' context.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its value is treated similarly to  the  one
              for  the  break-keys  style (and uses the same context: ':incremental').  However, in this case all keys
              matching the pattern given as its value will stop incremental completion and  will  then  execute  their
              usual function.

       toggle This  boolean  style is used by predict-on and its related widgets in the context ':predict'.  If set to
              one of the standard 'true' values, predictive typing is automatically toggled off in situations where it
              is  unlikely to be useful, such as when editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a
              line and then deleting a character.  The default is to leave prediction turned on until an explicit call
              to predict-off.

              This  boolean  style is used by predict-on and its related widgets in the context ':predict'.  If set to
              one of the standard 'true' values, these widgets display a message below the prompt when the  predictive
              state  is toggled.  This is most useful in combination with the toggle style.  The default does not dis-
              play these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions that use zle  to  call  other  widgets,
              this  style can sometimes be used to override the widget which is called.  The context for this style is
              the name of the calling widget (not the name of the calling function, because one function may be  bound
              to multiple widget names).

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check  the  documentation  for  the  calling widget or function to determine whether the widget style is

       Two functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception handling in a form that should be  familiar  from
       other languages.

       throw exception
              The  function throw throws the named exception.  The name is an arbitrary string and is only used by the
              throw and catch functions.  An exception is for the most part treated the same as a shell error, i.e. an
              unhandled  exception  will cause the shell to abort all processing in a function or script and to return
              to the top level in an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The function catch returns status zero if an exception was  thrown  and  the  pattern  exception-pattern
              matches  its  name.   Otherwise  it  returns  status  1.  exception-pattern is a standard shell pattern,
              respecting the current setting of the EXTENDED_GLOB option.  An alias catch is also defined  to  prevent
              the  argument  to  the function from matching filenames, so patterns may be used unquoted.  Note that as
              exceptions are not fundamentally different from other shell errors it is possible to catch shell  errors
              by  using  an empty string as the exception name.  The shell variable CAUGHT is set by catch to the name
              of the exception caught.  It is possible to rethrow an exception by calling  the  throw  function  again
              once an exception has been caught.

       The  functions  are  designed  to  be used together with the always construct described in zshmisc(1).  This is
       important as only this construct provides the required support for exceptions.  A typical example  is  as  fol-

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should be caught, the following idiom might be preferable.

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In  common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may be thrown by code deeply nested inside
       the 'try' block.  However, note that it must be thrown inside the current shell, not in a subshell forked for a
       pipeline, parenthesised current-shell construct, or some form of command or process substitution.

       The  system  internally  uses the shell variable EXCEPTION to record the name of the exception between throwing
       and catching.  One drawback of this scheme is that if the exception  is  not  handled  the  variable  EXCEPTION
       remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the name of an exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.
       Adding unset EXCEPTION at the start of the outermost layer of any code that uses exception handling will elimi-
       nate this problem.

       Three  functions  are available to provide handling of files recognised by extension, for example to dispatch a
       file when executed as a command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [-l] command arguments ...
              These two functions use the files ~/.mime.types and /etc/mime.types, which associate  types  and  exten-
              sions,  as well as ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which associate types and the programs that handle
              them.  These are provided on many systems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To enable the system, the function zsh-mime-setup should be autoloaded and run.  This allows files  with
              extensions  to be treated as executable; such files be completed by the function completion system.  The
              function zsh-mime-handler should not need to be called by the user.

              The system works by setting up suffix aliases with 'alias -s'.  Suffix aliases already installed by  the
              user will not be overwritten.

              For  suffixes defined in lower case, upper case variants will also automatically be handled (e.g. PDF is
              automatically handled if handling for the suffix pdf is defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated calls to zsh-mime-setup do not override the existing mapping between  suffixes  and  executable
              files unless the option -f is given.  Note, however, that this does not override existing suffix aliases
              assigned to handlers other than zsh-mime-handler.

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option -l lists the existing mappings without altering  them.   Suffixes
              to list (which may contain pattern characters that should be quoted from immediate interpretation on the
              command line) may be given as additional arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output to be shown during the setup  operation.

              The system respects the mailcap flags needsterminal and copiousoutput, see mailcap(4).

              The  functions  use the following styles, which are defined with the zstyle builtin command (see zshmod-
              ules(1)).  They should be defined before zsh-mime-setup is  run.   The  contexts  used  all  start  with
              :mime:, with additional components in some cases.  It is recommended that a trailing * (suitably quoted)
              be appended to style patterns in case the system is extended in future.  Some examples are given  below.
                     If  this  boolean style is true, the mailcap handler for the context in question is run using the
                     eval builtin instead of by starting a new sh process.  This is more efficient, but may  not  work
                     in the occasional cases where the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

                     This  style gives a list of patterns to be matched against files passed for execution with a han-
                     dler program.  If the file matches the pattern, the entire command line is executed in  its  cur-
                     rent  form,  with no handler.  This is useful for files which might have suffixes but nonetheless
                     be executable in their own right.  If the style is not set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used;  hence
                     executable files are executed directly and not passed to a handler, and the option AUTO_CD may be
                     used to change to directories that happen to have MIME suffixes.

                     Used if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same context.  Set to an array of directories
                     that  are used for searching for the file to be handled; the default is the command path given by
                     the special parameter path.  The shell option PATH_DIRS is respected; if that is set, the  appro-
                     priate path will be searched even if the name of the file to be handled as it appears on the com-
                     mand line contains a '/'.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for  the  style  han-

                     If  set, allows files whose names do not contain absolute paths to be searched for in the command
                     path or the path specified by the file-path style.  If the file is not found in the path,  it  is
                     looked  for  locally  (whether  or  not the current directory is in the path); if it is not found
                     locally, the handler will abort unless the handle-nonexistent style is set.  Files found  in  the
                     path are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as
                     described for the style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for the handler style, and the format is as
                     for the flags in mailcap.

                     By  default, arguments that don't correspond to files are not passed to the MIME handler in order
                     to prevent it from intercepting commands found in the path that happen to  have  suffixes.   This
                     style  may  be set to an array of extended glob patterns for arguments that will be passed to the
                     handler even if they don't exist.  If it is not explicitly set  it  defaults  to  [[:alpha:]]#:/*
                     which allows URLs to be passed to the MIME handler even though they don't exist in that format in
                     the file system.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

                     Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is given by the context as :mime:.suffix:,  and  the
                     format  of the handler is exactly that in mailcap.  Note in particular the '.' and trailing colon
                     to distinguish this use of the context.  This overrides any  handler  specified  by  the  mailcap
                     files.   If  the  handler  requires a terminal, the flags style should be set to include the word
                     needsterminal, or if the output is to be displayed through a pager (but not  if  the  handler  is
                     itself a pager), it should include copiousoutput.

                     A  list  of files in the format of ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap to be read during setup, replacing
                     the default list which consists of those two files.  The context is :mime:.  A + in the list will
                     be replaced by the default files.

                     This style is used to resolve multiple mailcap entries for the same MIME type.  It consists of an
                     array of the following elements, in descending order of priority; later entries will be  used  if
                     earlier  entries  are unable to resolve the entries being compared.  If none of the tests resolve
                     the entries, the first entry encountered is retained.

                      files  The order of files (entries in the mailcap style) read.   Earlier  files  are  preferred.
                             (Note this does not resolve entries in the same file.)

                             The  priority  flag  from the mailcap entry.  The priority is an integer from 0 to 9 with
                             the default value being 5.

                      flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is used to resolve entries.

                      place  Later entries are preferred; as the entries are strictly ordered, this test  always  suc-

                     Note  that  as this style is handled during initialisation, the context is always :mime:, with no
                     discrimination by suffix.

                     This style is used when the keyword flags is encountered in the list of tests  specified  by  the
                     mailcap-priorities  style.   It  should  be  set  to  a list of patterns, each of which is tested
                     against the flags specified in the mailcap entry (in other words, the sets of  assignments  found
                     with  some  entries  in  the  mailcap file).  Earlier patterns in the list are preferred to later
                     ones, and matched patterns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mime.types and  /etc/mime.types  to  be  read  during  setup,
                     replacing the default list which consists of those two files.  The context is :mime:.  A + in the
                     list will be replaced by the default files.

                     If this boolean style is set, the handler for the given context is always run in the  foreground,
                     even  if  the flags provided in the mailcap entry suggest it need not be (for example, it doesn't
                     require a terminal).

              pager  If set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle suffixes where the copiousoutput flag is
                     set.   The context is as for handler, i.e. :mime:.suffix: for handling a file with the given suf-


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When zsh-mime-setup is subsequently run, it will look for mailcap entries in the two files given.  Files
              of  suffix  .txt will be handled by running 'less file.txt'.  The flag needsterminal is set to show that
              this program must run attached to a terminal.

              As there are several steps to dispatching a command, the following should be checked  if  attempting  to
              execute a file by extension .ext does not have the expected effect.

              The  command 'alias -s ext' should show 'ps=zsh-mime-handler'.  If it shows something else, another suf-
              fix alias was already installed and was not overwritten.  If it shows nothing, no handler was installed:
              this  is  most  likely  because no handler was found in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext
              files.  In that case, appropriate handling should be added to ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If the extension is handled by zsh-mime-handler but the file is not opened correctly, either the handler
              defined  for  the  type  is  incorrect,  or  the  flags  associated with it are in appropriate.  Running
              zsh-mime-setup -l will show the handler and, if there are any, the  flags.   A  %s  in  the  handler  is
              replaced  by  the  file (suitably quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler program listed lists and
              can be run in the way shown.  Also check that the flags needsterminal or copiousoutput are  set  if  the
              handler  needs  to  be  run  under a terminal; the second flag is used if the output should be sent to a
              pager.  An example of a suitable mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running 'zsh-mime-handler -l command line' prints the command line that would be executed, simplified to
              remove the effect of any flags, and quoted so that the output can be run as a complete zsh command line.
              This is used by the completion system to decide how to complete after a file handled by  zsh-mime-setup.

              This  function is separate from the two MIME functions described above and can be assigned directly to a

                     autoload -U pick-web-browser
                     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

              It is provided as an intelligent front end to dispatch a web  browser.   It  may  be  run  as  either  a
              function or a shell script.  The status 255 is returned if no browser could be started.

              Various styles are available to customize the choice of browsers:

                     The value of the style is an array giving preferences in decreasing order for the type of browser
                     to use.  The values of elements may be

                             Use a GUI browser that is already running when an X Window  display  is  available.   The
                             browsers  listed in the x-browsers style are tried in order until one is found; if it is,
                             the file will be displayed in that browser, so the user may need to check whether it  has
                             appeared.  If no running browser is found, one is not started.  Browsers other than Fire-
                             fox, Opera and Konqueror are assumed to understand the Mozilla syntax for opening  a  URL

                      x      Start a new GUI browser when an X Window display is available.  Search for the availabil-
                             ity of one of the browsers listed in the x-browsers style and start the first one that is
                             found.  No check is made for an already running browser.

                      tty    Start  a  terminal-based  browser.   Search  for  the availability of one of the browsers
                             listed in the tty-browsers style and start the first one that is found.

                     If the style is not set the default running x tty is used.

                     An array in decreasing order of preference of browsers to use when running  under  the  X  Window
                     System.   The  array  consists  of  the  command name under which to start the browser.  They are
                     looked up in the context :mime: (which may be extended in future,  so  appending  '*'  is  recom-
                     mended).  For example,

                             zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                     specifies  that  pick-web-browser should first look for a running instance of Opera, Konqueror or
                     Firefox, in that order, and if it fails to find any should attempt to start Opera.   The  default
                     is firefox mozilla netscape opera konqueror.

                     An array similar to x-browsers, except that it gives browsers to use use when no X Window display
                     is available.  The default is elinks links lynx.

                     If it is set this style is used to pick the command used to open a page for a browser.  The  con-
                     text  is :mime:browser:new:$browser: to start a new browser or :mime:browser:running:$browser: to
                     open a URL in a browser already running on the current X display, where  $browser  is  the  value
                     matched  in  the  x-browsers  or tty-browsers style.  The escape sequence %b in the style's value
                     will be replaced by the browser, while %u will be replaced by the URL.  If the style is not  set,
                     the  default  for  all  new  instances  is equivalent to %b %u and the defaults for using running
                     browsers are equivalent to the values kfmclient openURL %u for Konqueror, firefox -new-tab %u for
                     Firefox, opera -newpage %u for Opera, and %b -remote "openUrl(%u)" for all others.

       zcalc [ expression ... ]
              A  reasonably  powerful calculator based on zsh's arithmetic evaluation facility.  The syntax is similar
              to that of formulae in most programming languages; see the section 'Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1)
              for  details.   The mathematical library zsh/mathfunc will be loaded if it is available; see the section
              'The zsh/mathfunc Module' in zshmodules(1).  The mathematical functions correspond  to  the  raw  system
              libraries, so trigonometric functions are evaluated using radians, and so on.

              Each  line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows a number, which corresponds to a posi-
              tional parameter where the result of that calculation is stored.  For example, the result of the  calcu-
              lation on the line preceded by '4> ' is available as $4.  The last value calculated is available as ans.
              Full command line editing, including the history of previous calculations, is available; the history  is
              saved in the file ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type ':q' on its own ('q' is allowed
              for historical compatibility).

              If arguments are given to zcalc on start up, they are used to prime the first few positional parameters.
              A visual indication of this is given when the calculator starts.

              The  constants  PI  (3.14159...) and E (2.71828...) are provided.  Parameter assignment is possible, but
              note that all parameters will be put into the global namespace.

              The output base can be initialised by passing the option '-#base', for example 'zcalc -#16' (the '#' may
              have to be quoted, depending on the globbing options set).

              The  prompt  is  configurable  via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT, which undergoes standard prompt expansion.
              The index of the current entry is stored locally in the first element of the array psvar, which  can  be
              referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as '%1v'.  The default prompt is '%1v> '.

              A  few special commands are available; these are introduced by a colon.  For backward compatibility, the
              colon may be omitted for certain commands.  Completion is available if compinit has been run.

              The output precision may be specified within zcalc by special commands familiar from many calculators.
              :norm  The default output format.  It corresponds to the printf %g specification.  Typically this  shows
                     six decimal digits.

              :sci digits
                     Scientific  notation,  corresponding  to  the printf %g output format with the precision given by
                     digits.  This produces either fixed point or exponential notation depending on the value  output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed  point  notation,  corresponding to the printf %f output format with the precision given by

              :eng digits
                     Exponential notation, corresponding to the printf %E output format with the  precision  given  by

              :raw   Raw  output:   this is the default form of the output from a math evaluation.  This may show more
                     precision than the number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute line... as a normal shell command line.  Note that it is executed in the context  of  the
                     function, i.e. with local variables.  Space is optional after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare  variables  local  to the function.  Note that certain variables are used by the function
                     for its own purposes.  Other variables may be used, too, but they will be taken from or put  into
                     the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define a mathematical function or (with no body) delete it.  The function is defined using zmath-
                     funcdef, see below.

                     Note that zcalc takes care of all quoting.  Hence for example:

                             function cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines a function to cube the sole argument.

                     This is not a special command, rather part of normal arithmetic syntax; however, when  this  form
                     appears  on  a line by itself the default output radix is set to base.  Use, for example, '[#16]'
                     to display hexadecimal output preceded by an indication of the base, or '[##16]' just to  display
                     the  raw  number  in  the  given  base.   Bases themselves are always specified in decimal. '[#]'
                     restores the normal output format.  Note that setting an output base  suppresses  floating  point
                     output; use '[#]' to return to normal operation.

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With  two  arguments,  define  a  mathematical  function named mathfunc which can be used in any form of
              arithmetic evaluation.  body is a mathematical expression to implement the  function.   It  may  contain
              references  to  position parameters $1, $2, ...  to refer to mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...
              to refer to optional parameters.  Note that the forms must be strictly adhered to for  the  function  to
              calculate  the  correct  number  of  arguments.   The  implementation  is held in a shell function named
              zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to refer to the  shell  function  directly.   Any
              existing function of the same name is silently replaced.

              With  one  argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc as well as the shell function implementa-

              With no arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a form suitable for  restoring  the  definition.   The
              functions have not necessarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.

       The  zsh/newuser module comes with a function to aid in configuring shell options for new users.  If the module
       is installed, this function can also be run by hand.  It is available even if the module's  default  behaviour,
       namely running the function for a new user logging in without startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The  function presents the user with various options for customizing their initialization scripts.  Cur-
              rently only ~/.zshrc is handled.  $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc is used instead if the parameter ZDOTDIR is set;  this
              provides a way for the user to configure a file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By  default  the  function exits immediately if it finds any of the files .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc, or
              .zlogin in the appropriate directory.  The option -f is required in order to force the function to  con-
              tinue.  Note this may happen even if .zshrc itself does not exist.

              As  currently  configured,  the  function  will  exit  immediately if the user has root privileges; this
              behaviour cannot be overridden.

              Once activated, the function's behaviour is supposed to be self-explanatory.  Menus are present allowing
              the user to alter the value of options and parameters.  Suggestions for improvements are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save the new file or not;  changes  are  not
              irreversible until this point.  However, the script is careful to restrict changes to the file only to a
              group marked by the lines '# Lines configured by zsh-newuser-install' and '# End of lines configured  by
              zsh-newuser-install'.   In  addition,  the old version of .zshrc is saved to a file with the suffix .zni

              If the function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to the user to ensure that the changes made will take
              effect.   For  example,  if control usually returns early from the existing .zshrc the lines will not be
              executed; or a later initialization file may override options or parameters, and so  on.   The  function
              itself does not attempt to detect any such conflicts.

       There  are  a  large number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc directory of the zsh distribution.  Most
       are very simple and do not require documentation here, but a few are worthy of special mention.

       colors This function initializes several associative arrays to map color names to (and from) the ANSI  standard
              eight-color  terminal  codes.  These are used by the prompt theme system (see above).  You seldom should
              need to run colors more than once.

              The eight base colors are: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, and white.  Each of these has
              codes  for  foreground  and  background.  In addition there are eight intensity attributes: bold, faint,
              standout, underline, blink, reverse,  and  conceal.   Finally,  there  are  six  codes  used  to  negate
              attributes:  none  (reset all attributes to the defaults), normal (neither bold nor faint), no-standout,
              no-underline, no-blink, and no-reverse.

              Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and intensities.

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and integer codes to the color names.  The  eight
                     base  names map to the foreground color codes, as do names prefixed with 'fg-', such as 'fg-red'.
                     Names prefixed with 'bg-', such as 'bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The reverse mapping
                     from code to color yields base name for foreground codes and the bg- form for backgrounds.

                     Although  it  is  a  misnomer  to  call  them  'colors', these arrays also map the other fourteen
                     attributes from names to codes and codes to names.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape  sequences  that  set  the  corresponding
                     foreground  text properties.  The fg sequences change the color without changing the eight inten-
                     sity attributes.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape  sequences  that  set  the  corresponding
                     background  properties.   The  bg sequences change the color without changing the eight intensity

              In addition, the scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color are set to the ANSI terminal escapes  that
              turn off all attributes and turn on bold intensity, respectively.

       fned name
              Same  as  zed  -f.  This function does not appear in the zsh distribution, but can be created by linking
              zed to the name fned in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings having the format of a zsh version  number;
              that  is, a string of numbers and text with segments separated by dots or dashes.  If the present string
              is not provided, $ZSH_VERSION is used.  Segments are paired left-to-right in the two strings with  lead-
              ing non-number parts ignored.  If one string has fewer segments than the other, the missing segments are
              considered zero.

              This is useful in startup files to set options and other state that are not available in all versions of

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This  wrapper  function  for  the nslookup command requires the zsh/zpty module (see zshmodules(1)).  It
              behaves exactly like the standard nslookup except that it provides  customizable  prompts  (including  a
              right-side  prompt) and completion of nslookup commands, host names, etc. (if you use the function-based
              completion system).  Completion styles may be set with the context prefix ':completion:nslookup'.

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use regular expressions to perform a global search and replace operation on a variable.  If  the  option
              RE_MATCH_PCRE  is  not  set,  POSIX  extended regular expressions are used, else Perl-compatible regular
              expressions (this requires the shell to be linked against the pcre library).

              var is the name of the variable containing the string to be matched.   The  variable  will  be  modified
              directly  by  the function.  The variables MATCH, MBEGIN, MEND, match, mbegin, mend should be avoided as
              these are used by the regular expression code.

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace is the replacement text.  This can contain parameter, command and arithmetic  expressions  which
              will be replaced:  in particular, a reference to $MATCH will be replaced by the text matched by the pat-

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else 1.

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE widget, in place of the default alias.   See
              'Accessing On-Line Help' above for setup instructions.

              In the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file system path, it is first reduced to its rightmost com-
              ponent (the file name).

              Help is first sought by looking for a file named cmd in the directory named by  the  HELPDIR  parameter.
              If  no  file is found, an assistant function, alias, or command named run-help-cmd is sought.  If found,
              the assistant is executed with the rest of the current command line (everything after the  command  name
              cmd) as its arguments.  When neither file nor assistant is found, the external command 'man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several of these assistants are provided in the Functions/Misc directory.  These must be autoloaded,  or
              placed as executable scripts in your search path, in order to be found and used by run-help.

                     Assistant functions for the git, svk, and svn commands.

       tetris Zsh  was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs, because it lacked a Tetris game.  This function
              was written to refute this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To start a game, execute the widget by typing the keys.  Whatever command line you were  editing  disap-
              pears  temporarily, and your keymap is also temporarily replaced by the Tetris control keys.  The previ-
              ous editor state is restored when you quit the game (by pressing 'q') or when you lose.

              If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the tetris widget will  continue  where  you
              left off.  If you lost, it will start a new game.

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This  function works like GNU xargs, except that instead of reading lines of arguments from the standard
              input, it takes them from the command line.  This is useful because zsh, especially with recursive  glob
              operators,  often  can construct a command line for a shell function that is longer than can be accepted
              by an external command.

              The option list represents options of the zargs command itself, which are the same as  those  of  xargs.
              The input list is the collection of strings (often file names) that become the arguments of the command,
              analogous to the standard input of xargs.  Finally, the arg list consists of  those  arguments  (usually
              options)  that are passed to the command each time it runs.  The arg list precedes the elements from the
              input list in each run.  If no command is provided, then no arg list may be provided, and in that  event
              the default command is 'print' with arguments '-r --'.

              For example, to get a long ls listing of all plain files in the current directory or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -l

              Note that '--' is used both to mark the end of the option list and to mark the end of the input list, so
              it  must  appear  twice whenever the input list may be empty.  If there is guaranteed to be at least one
              input and the first input does not begin with a '-', then the first '--' may be omitted.

              In the event that the string '--' is or may be an input, the  -e  option  may  be  used  to  change  the
              end-of-inputs  marker.   Note  that this does not change the end-of-options marker.  For example, to use
              '..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -l

              This is a good choice in that example because no plain file can be named '..', but the  best  end-marker
              depends on the circumstances.

              For details of the other zargs options, see xargs(1) or run zargs with the --help option.

       zed [ -f ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only  one  name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given, the name is taken to be that of a func-
              tion; if the function is marked for autoloading, zed searches for it in the fpath and  loads  it.   Note
              that  functions  edited  this  way  are  installed  into  the current shell, but not written back to the
              autoload file.

              Without -f, name is the path name of the file to edit, which need not exist; it is created on write,  if

              While  editing,  the function sets the main keymap to zed and the vi command keymap to zed-vicmd.  These
              will be copied from the existing main and vicmd keymaps if they do not exist the first time zed is  run.
              They can be used to provide special key bindings used only in zed.

              If  it  creates  the  keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert a line break and '^X^W' to accept the
              edit in the zed keymap, and binds 'ZZ' to accept the edit in the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The bindings alone can be installed by running 'zed -b'.  This is suitable for putting  into  a  startup
              file.  Note that, if rerun, this will overwrite the existing zed and zed-vicmd keymaps.

              Completion is available, and styles may be set with the context prefix ':completion:zed'.

              A  zle  widget  zed-set-file-name  is  available.  This can be called by name from within zed using '\ex
              zed-set-file-name' (note, however, that because of zed's rebindings you will have to type ^j at the  end
              instead  of  the  return  key), or can be bound to a key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after
              'zed -b' has been run.  When the widget is called, it prompts for a new name for the file being  edited.
              When  zed  exits the file will be written under that name and the original file will be left alone.  The
              widget has no effect with 'zed -f'.

              While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap zed-normal-keymap, which is linked from the main
              keymap in effect at the time zed initialised its bindings.  (This is to make the return key operate nor-
              mally.)  The result is that if the main keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This is not a
              concern for most users.

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not appear in the zsh distribution, but can
              be created by linking zmv to the names zcp and zln in some directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See 'Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -p program ] [ -o optstring ] srcpat dest
              Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern srcpat to corresponding files having names of the form
              given  by dest, where srcpat contains parentheses surrounding patterns which will be replaced in turn by
              $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames 'foo.lis' to 'foo.txt', 'my.old.stuff.lis' to 'my.old.stuff.txt', and so on.

              The pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any file whose name is not  changed  by  the
              substitution  is  simply  ignored.  Any error (a substitution resulted in an empty string, two substitu-
              tions gave the same result, the destination was an existing regular file and -f was  not  given)  causes
              the entire function to abort without doing anything.


              -f     Force overwriting of destination files.  Not currently passed down to the mv/cp/ln command due to
                     vagaries of implementations (but you can use -o-f to do that).
              -i     Interactive: show each line to be executed and ask the user whether to execute it.   'Y'  or  'y'
                     will execute it, anything else will skip it.  Note that you just need to type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now assumed by default, so this has no effect.
              -Q     Force  bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless you are actually using glob qualifiers
                     in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick out wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above, and implicitly  add  parentheses  for
                     referring to them.
              -W     Just  like  -w, with the addition of turning wildcards in the replacement pattern into sequential
                     ${1} .. ${N} references.
              -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name of the function.
              -p program
                     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does, it should at least understand  the  form
                     'program -- oldname newname' where oldname and newname are filenames generated by zmv.
              -o optstring
                     The  optstring is split into words and passed down verbatim to the cp, ln or mv command called to
                     perform the work.  It should probably begin with a '-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in the name, replace  every  space  by  an
              underscore and display the commands executed.

              For more complete examples and other implementation details, see the zmv source file, usually located in
              one of the directories named in your fpath, or in Functions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distribution.

              See 'Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This makes defining styles a bit simpler by using a single '+' as a special token  that  allows  you  to
              append a context name to the previously used context name.  Like this:

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                           + ':baz'     style2 value2 \
                           + ':frob'    style3 value3

              This defines 'style1' with 'value1' for the context :foo:bar as usual, but it also defines 'style2' with
              'value2' for the context :foo:bar:baz and 'style3' with 'value3' for :foo:bar:frob.  Any subcontext  may
              be the empty string to re-use the first context unchanged.

              The zed function sets this style in context ':completion:zed:*' to turn off completion when TAB is typed
              at the beginning of a line.  You may override this by setting your own value for this context and style.

       pager  The  nslookup  function  looks up this style in the context ':nslookup' to determine the program used to
              display output that does not fit on a single screen.

              The nslookup function looks up this style  in  the  context  ':nslookup'  to  set  the  prompt  and  the
              right-side  prompt, respectively.  The usual expansions for the PS1 and RPS1 parameters may be used (see
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

zsh 4.3.11                     December 20, 2010                 ZSHCONTRIB(1)