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ZSHBUILTINS(1)                                                  ZSHBUILTINS(1)



NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       - simple command
              See the section 'Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

              If  file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of $path to
              find the directory containing file.  Files in the current directory are  not  read  unless  '.'  appears
              somewhere  in  $path.  If a file named 'file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form
              (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional parameters are
              restored  when  the file is done executing.  If file was not found the return status is 127; if file was
              found but contained a syntax error the return status is 126; else the return status is the  exit  status
              of the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does  nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which may have effects on
              shell parameters.  A zero exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value.  A trailing  space  in  value
              causes  the  next  word  to  be checked for alias expansion.  If the -g flag is present, define a global
              alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if the command word on a command line is in the  form
              'text.name',  where  text  is  any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text 'value text.name'.  Note
              that name is treated as a literal string, not a pattern.  A trailing space in value is  not  special  in
              this case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will  cause  the  command '*.ps' to be expanded to 'gv *.ps'.  As alias expansion is carried out earlier
              than globbing, the '*.ps' will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a different name space  from
              other  aliases  (so in the above example it is still possible to create an alias for the command ps) and
              the two sets are never listed together.

              For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With no arguments,  print  all  currently
              defined  aliases other than suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns
              (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases match-
              ing  these  patterns  are  printed.  When printing aliases and one of the -g, -r or -s flags is present,
              restrict the printing to global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias is  one  which
              is  neither  a  global  nor a suffix alias.   Using '+' instead of '-', or ending the option list with a
              single '+', prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a  startup  script.
              The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias has been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems, see the section ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXktz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

              The  flag -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name.  It causes the
              calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed, with the current
              array of positional parameters as arguments.  This replaces the previous definition of the function.  If
              no function definition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and  marked  for
              autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts  to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it.  The exit
              status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a definition for it  was  found.
              This  does not replace any existing definition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the function was already defined or when no definition was found.   In  the  latter  case  the  function
              remains undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style autoloading is enabled, the function created
              will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself appended  to  it,  thus  giving
              normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

              With  the  -w  flag,  the  names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin, and all
              functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded in native or ksh  emulation,  as  if  the  option
              KSH_AUTOLOAD  were unset or were set, respectively.  The flags override the setting of the option at the
              time the function is loaded.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section 'Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.  If n is specified, then break n levels
              instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section 'The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change  the  current directory.  In the first form, change the current directory to arg, or to the value
              of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is '-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on whether the current directory '.' occurs in
              the  list  of  directories  contained  in  the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does not, first attempt to
              change to the directory arg under the current directory, and if that fails but cdpath is  set  and  con-
              tains at least one element attempt to change to the directory arg under each component of cdpath in turn
              until successful.  If '.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order  so  that  '.'  is
              only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD is set, as described in the documentation
              for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg  exists  whose  value
              begins  with  a  slash,  treat  its value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter is added to the
              named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of  the  current  direc-
              tory, and tries to change to this new directory.

              The  third  form  of  cd  extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that directory.  An
              argument of the form '+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list  shown  by  the
              dirs  command,  starting  with  zero.   An  argument  of  the  form  '-n' counts from the right.  If the
              PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of '+' and '-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is  specified,  the  hook  function  chpwd  and  the  functions  in  the  array
              chpwd_functions  are not called.  This is useful for calls to cd that do not change the environment seen
              by an interactive user.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given pathname contains
              symlinks.   If  the  -P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links are resolved to
              their true values.  If the -L option is given symbolic links are retained  in  the  directory  (and  not
              resolved) regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section 'The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The simple command argument is taken as an external command instead of a function or builtin and is exe-
              cuted. If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but certain  special  proper-
              ties  of them are suppressed. The -p flag causes a default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section 'Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section 'The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section 'The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section 'The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.  If n is specified,
              break out of n-1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack.  Directories are added to this stack with
              the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands.  If arguments are specified, load them onto
              the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~ expressions.

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.


       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Temporarily  disable  the  named hash table elements.  The default is to disable builtin commands.  This
              allows you to use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.   The  -a  option  causes
              disable  to  act  on  regular or global aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.   The  -r  options  causes  disable  to  act  on
              reserved  words.   Without  arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be  quoted  to  prevent
              them  from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table
              matching these patterns are disabled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status, and will not
              complain  if you try to exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.  If no job is specified,
              disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option is not set, a warning is printed contain-
              ing  information about how to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one of the latter two
              forms is used, the jobs will automatically be made running, independent of the setting of the  AUTO_CON-
              TINUE option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.  If the -n flag is not present,
              print a newline at the end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.  In the latter case,
              -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section 'The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section 'The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ -c arg ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With  single  argument  set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as possible.  csh will
              never be fully emulated.  If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used  as  a
              default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the
              emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section 'Compatibility' in zshmisc(1) .

              If the -R option is given, all options are reset to their default value corresponding to  the  specified
              emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment; otherwise, only those
              options likely to cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If the -L option  is
              given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate
              command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell  function,  if
              any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L and -c are mutually
              exclusive.

              If -c arg is given, evaluate arg while the requested emulation is temporarily in effect.  The  emulation
              and  all  options  will be restored to their original values before emulate returns.  The -R flag may be
              used.

              Use of -c enables 'sticky' emulation mode for functions defined within the  evaluated  expression:   the
              emulation  mode is associated thereafter with the function so that whenever the function is executed the
              emulation (respecting the -R flag, if present) and all options are set before entry to the function, and
              restored  after  exit.  If the function is called when the sticky emulation is already in effect, either
              within an 'emulate shell -c' expression or within another function with the same sticky emulation, entry
              and exit from the function do not cause options to be altered (except due to standard processing such as
              the LOCAL_OPTIONS option).

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh  emulation.   fno  is  then  executed,  causing
              options  associated with emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fni then calls fno; because fno is
              also marked for sticky sh emulation, no option changes take place on entry to or exit  from  it.   Hence
              the option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will be turned on within fni and remain on on return
              to fno.  On exit from fno, the emulation mode and all options will be restored to the state they were in
              before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The  documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended purpose of executing code designed for
              other shells in a suitable environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The sticky emulation environment provided by 'emulate shell -c' is identical to that provided  by
                     entry  to  a  function  marked  for sticky emulation as a consequence of being defined in such an
                     environment.  Hence, for example, the sticky  emulation  is  inherited  by  subfunctions  defined
                     within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No  change  of  options  takes  place  on entry to or exit from functions that are not marked for
                     sticky emulation, other than those that would normally take place, even if  those  functions  are
                     called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No  special  handling  is provided for functions marked for autoload nor for functions present in
                     wordcode created by the zcompile command.
              4.     The presence or absence of the -R flag to  emulate  corresponds  to  different  sticky  emulation
                     modes,  so  for  example  'emulate sh -c', 'emulate -R sh -c' and 'emulate csh -c' are treated as
                     three distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier  with  disable.   The  default  is  to
              enable  builtin  commands.   The  -a  option  causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.  The -s
              option causes enable to act on suffix aliases.  The -f option causes enable to act on  shell  functions.
              The -r option causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all enabled hash table elements
              from the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns
              are enabled.  Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s) in the current shell  pro-
              cess.   The  return  status  is  the same as if the commands had been executed directly by the shell; if
              there are no args or they contain no commands (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the return status
              is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] simple command
              Replace  the current shell with an external command rather than forking.  With -c clear the environment;
              with -l prepend - to the argv[0] string of the command executed (to simulate a  login  shell);  with  -a
              argv0 set the argv[0] string of the command executed.  See the section 'Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell with the exit status specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit status from the
              last command executed.  An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option
              is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The  specified  names  are  marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed com-
              mands.  Equivalent to typeset -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it  is  created  in
              the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select  a  range of commands from first to last from the history list.  The arguments first and last may
              be specified as a number or as a string.  A negative number is used as an offset to the current  history
              event  number.  A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitu-
              tions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output.  If the -m flag  is  also
              given  the  first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history events matching
              this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a  file  containing  these
              history  events.   If  ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if that is not set
              the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not set a builtin default, usually 'vi'  is  used.
              If ename is '-', no editor is invoked.  When editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If  first  is  not  specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to -16 if the -l flag is
              given.  If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to -1 if the -l flag is given.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n suppresses command numbers when  listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each command
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US 'MM/DD/YY hh:mm' format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European 'dd.mm.yyyy hh:mm' format
              -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 'yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format; fmt is formatted with the strftime function with
                     the zsh extensions described for the %D{string} prompt format in the section EXPANSION OF  PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES  in  zshmisc(1).  The resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 characters or
                     will not be printed.
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the options above.


              'fc -p' pushes the current history list onto a stack and switches to a new  history  list.   If  the  -a
              option is also specified, this history list will be automatically popped when the current function scope
              is exited, which is a much better solution than creating a trap function to call 'fc -P'  manually.   If
              no  arguments  are specified, the history list is left empty, $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVE-
              HIST are set to their default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE  is  set  to  that  filename,
              $HISTSIZE  &  $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the history file is read in (if it exists) to initialize
              the new list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are instead set  to  the  single
              specified  numeric  value.   Finally,  if  a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment values for the new history list  however
              you desire in order to manipulate the new history list.

              'fc  -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by 'fc -p'.  The current list is saved to its
              $HISTFILE before it is destroyed (assuming that  $HISTFILE  and  $SAVEHIST  are  set  appropriately,  of
              course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE, and $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when 'fc
              -p' was called.  Note that this restoration can conflict with making these variables  "local",  so  your
              best  bet  is  to  avoid  local declarations for these variables in functions that use 'fc -p'.  The one
              other guaranteed-safe combination is declaring these variables to be local at the top of  your  function
              and using the automatic option (-a) with 'fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is legal to manually pop a push
              marked for automatic popping if you need to do so before the function exits.

              'fc -R' reads the history from the given file, 'fc -W' writes the history out to the given file, and 'fc
              -A'  appends  the history out to the given file.  If no filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed.
              If the -I option is added to -R, only those events that are not already contained  within  the  internal
              history  list  are  added.   If the -I option is added to -A or -W, only those events that are new since
              last incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written.  In any case, the  created  file
              will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
              Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the -M option.  Use of the -M option may not be combined
              with any of the options handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical function recognised  in  all  forms  of
              arithmetical  expressions; see the section 'Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1).  By default mathfn may
              take any number of comma-separated arguments.  If min is given, it must have exactly min  args;  if  min
              and  max  are both given, it must have at least min and and at most max args.  max may be -1 to indicate
              that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a shell function of the same name; if shellfn is specified  it
              gives  the  name  of the corresponding shell function while mathfn remains the name used in arithmetical
              expressions.  The name of the function in $0 is mathfn (not shellfn as would usually be the case),  pro-
              vided  the option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters in the shell function corre-
              spond to the arguments of the mathematical function call.  The result of the last  arithmetical  expres-
              sion  evaluated  inside  the  shell  function (even if it is a form that normally only returns a status)
              gives the result of the mathematical function.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined functions in the same form as  a  definition.
              With  the  additional  option  -m and a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn matches one of the
              pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the additional option -m the arguments  are
              treated as patterns and all functions whose mathfn matches the pattern are removed.  Note that the shell
              function implementing the behaviour is not removed  (regardless  of  whether  its  name  coincides  with
              mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section 'The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read  the  top  value  from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name.  Equivalent to read
              -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use the  positional  parameters.   A  valid
              option argument begins with a '+' or a '-'.  An argument not beginning with a '+' or a '-', or the argu-
              ment '--', ends the options.  Note that a single '-' is not considered a valid  option  argument.   opt-
              string  contains  the  letters  that  getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by a ':', that option
              requires an argument.  The options can be separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places the  option  letter  it  finds  in  the  shell  parameter  name,
              prepended  with  a  '+' when arg begins with a '+'.  The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND.  The
              option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial
              value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG is not reset and retains
              its value from the most recent call to getopts.  If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly  unset,  it
              remains  unset,  and  the  index or option argument is not stored.  The option itself is still stored in
              name in this case.

              A leading ':' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in  OPTARG,  and  to
              set  name  to  '?'  for  an  unknown  option and to ':' when a required argument is missing.  Otherwise,
              getopts sets name to '?' and prints an error message when an option is  invalid.   The  exit  status  is
              nonzero when there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the named directory hash
              table.  Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the command hash  table)  or
              by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash table
              to work on is determined by the -d option; without the option the command hash table is used,  and  with
              the option the named directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It will be subsequently rebuilt in the nor-
              mal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash table to be fully  rebuilt  immediately.   For  the
              command  hash  table  this  hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory
              hash table this adds all users' home directories.  These two options cannot be used with any  arguments.

              The  -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted) and the elements of
              the hash table matching those patterns are printed.  This is the only way to display a limited selection
              of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding value, put 'name' in the selected hash table, associating it with the
              pathname 'value'.  In the command hash table, this means that whenever 'name' is used as a command argu-
              ment,  the shell will try to execute the file given by 'value'.  In the named directory hash table, this
              means that 'value' may be referred to as '~name'.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the  hash  table,  checking  what  the
              appropriate  value is in the normal manner for that hash table.  If an appropriate value can't be found,
              then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by  explicit  specification.   If
              has no effect if used with -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists  information  about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag lists process IDs,
              and the -p flag lists process groups.  If the -r flag is specified only running jobs will be listed  and
              if  the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory from which
              the job was started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment space with the given  string,  truncated  if
              necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This feature is typically used
              by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes.  Signals are given by  num-
              ber  or  by  names, with or without the 'SIG' prefix.  If the signal being sent is not 'KILL' or 'CONT',
              then the job will be sent a 'CONT' signal if it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a
              job  not  in  the  job  list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not specified the signal names are
              listed.  Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is  listed.   For  each
              sig  that  is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of a process which was terminated
              or stopped by a signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few signals.  Typical examples  are  SIGCHLD
              and  SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill -l will only
              list the preferred form, however kill -l alt will show if the alternative form corresponds to  a  signal
              number.   For  example,  under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output 29, hence kill -IO and kill
              -POLL have the same effect.

              Many systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a process group or zero to kill  the  current
              process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate  each  arg  as an arithmetic expression.  See the section 'Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1)
              for a description of arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if the value of the  last  expression
              is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given, the limit applies only the children of the
              shell.  If -s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current shell is set  to  the
              previously set resource limits of the children.

              If  limit  is  not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit to the
              specified value.  If the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If  no  resource  is
              given, print all limits.

              When  looping  over  multiple  resources,  the shell will abort immediately if it detects a badly formed
              argument.  However, if it fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue trying to set  the
              remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which  of these resource limits are available depends on the system.  resource can be abbreviated to any
              unambiguous prefix.  It can also be an integer,  which  corresponds  to  the  integer  defined  for  the
              resource by the operating system.

              If  argument  corresponds  to  a  number  which is out of the range of the resources configured into the
              shell, the shell will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.  As
              the  shell does not store such resources internally, an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the -s
              option is present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The limit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in  a  mode  emulating  another
              shell.  It can be made available with the command 'zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same  as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not permitted.  In this case the -x option does
              not force the use of -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section 'Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory.  With no  argument,
              the  current  top  entry  is removed.  An argument of the form '+n' identifies a stack entry by counting
              from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument  of  the  form  -n
              counts  from  the  right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of '+' and '-' in this context
              are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is  specified,  the  hook  function  chpwd  and  the  functions  in  the  array
              $chpwd_functions  are  not called, and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for calls
              to popd that do not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the '-f' option the arguments are printed as described by printf.  With no flags or with  the  flag
              '-',  the  arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the following differ-
              ences: the escape sequence '\M-x' metafies the character x (sets the highest  bit),  '\C-x'  produces  a
              control  character  ('\C-@'  and  '\C-?'  give the characters NUL and delete), and '\E' is a synonym for
              '\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence, '\' escapes the following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments  are  printed  with  the  row
                     incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments are printed with the row
                     incrementing first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes with ~ expressions, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it  from  the  argument  list
                     together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which  does not process escape sequences unless the -e flag is
                     given.  The -n flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and  -n  flags  are  recognized
                     after -R; all other arguments and options are printed.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

              If  any  of  '-m',  '-o' or '-O' are used in combination with '-f' and there are no arguments (after the
              removal process in the case of '-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print the arguments according to the format specification. Formatting rules are the same as used  in  C.
              The same escape sequences as for echo are recognised in the format. All C conversion specifications end-
              ing in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are handled. In addition to this, '%b' can be used instead of '%s' to cause
              escape  sequences  in the argument to be recognised and '%q' can be used to quote the argument in such a
              way that allows it to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers, if the corresponding
              argument starts with a quote character, the numeric value of the following character is used as the num-
              ber to print otherwise the argument is evaluated as an arithmetic expression. See  the  section  'Arith-
              metic  Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions. With '%n', the correspond-
              ing argument is taken as an identifier which is created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument in order but they can explicitly  spec-
              ify  the  nth argument is to be used by replacing '%' by '%n$' and '*' by '*n$'.  It is recommended that
              you do not mix references of this explicit style with the normal style and the handling  of  such  mixed
              styles may be subject to future change.

              If  arguments  remain unused after formatting, the format string is reused until all arguments have been
              consumed. With the print builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If more  arguments  are
              required by the format than have been specified, the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had been
              specified as the argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory stack.  In the first
              form,  change  the current directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second directory on
              the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries), or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set
              or  if  there  is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is interpreted as it would be by cd.  The
              meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list.  An argument of the form  '+n'
              identifies  a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with
              zero.  An argument of the form '-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the  mean-
              ings of '+' and '-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q  (quiet)  option  is  specified,  the  hook  function  chpwd  and the functions in the array
              $chpwd_functions are not called, and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for  calls
              to pushd that do not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

              If the option -q is not specified and the shell option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will
              be printed after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory.  If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or
              the  CHASE_LINKS  option is set and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not contain symbolic
              links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in  $IFS  as  separators,  except  as  noted
              below.   The  first field is assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name, etc., with
              leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and  reply
              for arrays.

              -r     Raw  mode:  a  '\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes in the
                     line don't quote the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.  Currently does not  work  with  the  -q
                     option.

              -q     Read  only  one  character from the terminal and set name to 'y' if this character was 'y' or 'Y'
                     and to 'n' otherwise.  With this flag set the return status is zero only if the character was 'y'
                     or  'Y'.   This  option  may  be used with a timeout; if the read times out, or encounters end of
                     file, status 2 is returned.  Input is read from the terminal unless one of -u or -p  is  present.
                     This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read  only  one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to the first name, without word splitting.
                     This flag is ignored when -q is present.  Input is read from the terminal unless one of -u or  -p
                     is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note  that despite the mnemonic 'key' this option does read full characters, which may consist of
                     multiple bytes if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name, without word  split-
                     ting.   Text is pushed onto the stack with 'print -z' or with push-line from the line editor (see
                     zshzle(1)).  This flag is ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the -e flag is used, no  input  is
                     assigned to the parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These  flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified with the
                     -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current command are read. If  the
                     -l  flag is given, the whole line is assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are present, -l is used
                     and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l,  the  index  of  the
                     character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number 1, not word 0, and
                     that when the cursor is at the end of the line, its character index is the  length  of  the  line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated by the first character of delim instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test  if  input  is available before attempting to read.  If num is present, it must begin with a
                     digit and will be evaluated to give a number of seconds, which may be a floating point number; in
                     this  case the read times out if input is not available within this time.  If num is not present,
                     it is taken to be zero, so that read returns immediately if no input is available.  If  no  input
                     is available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor buffer with -z, when called from within
                     completion with -c or -l, with -q which clears the input queue  before  reading,  or  within  zle
                     where other mechanisms should be used to test for input.

                     Note  that read does not attempt to alter the input processing mode.  The default mode is canoni-
                     cal input, in which an entire line is read at a time, so usually 'read -t' will not read anything
                     until  an  entire  line has been typed.  However, when reading from the terminal with -k input is
                     processed one key at a time; in this case, only availability of the first character is tested, so
                     that  e.g. 'read -t -k 2' can still block on the second character.  Use two instances of 'read -t
                     -k' if this is not what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a '?', the remainder of this word is used as a prompt on  standard  error
              when the shell is interactive.

              The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c or -l is present and
              the command is not called from a compctl function, or as described for -q.  Otherwise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is undefined.  Presently -q cancels
              all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p and -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes  a shell function or '.' script to return to the invoking script with the return status specified
              by n.  If n is omitted, the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect is different for zero and  non-zero
              return  status.   With  zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the trap), the shell will
              return to whatever it was previously processing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted except that the return status of the trap is retained.  Note that the numeric value of the signal
              which caused the trap is passed as the first argument, so the statement 'return $((128+$1))' will return
              the same status as if the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section 'The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [ arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters, or declare and set an array.  If the
              -s option is given, it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before assigning them  to  the  posi-
              tional  parameters  (or  to  the array name if -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending order.
              For the meaning of the other flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags may be specified  by  name  using  the  -o
              option.  If no option name is supplied with -o, the current option states are printed:  see the descrip-
              tion of setopt below for more information on the format.  With +o they are printed in a form that can be
              used as input to the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args; if no name is specified,
              all arrays are printed together with their values.

              If +A is used and name is an array, the given arguments will replace the initial elements of that array;
              if no name is specified, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If
              it is not set, all arguments following name are treated as values for the  array,  regardless  of  their
              form.   If  the  option is set, normal option processing continues at that point; only regular arguments
              are treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to '-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the array to foo and turns  on  the  option
              '-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there are arguments beyond the options, the positional parameters are
              set.  If the option list (if any) is terminated by '--', and there are no further arguments,  the  posi-
              tional parameters will be unset.

              If  no  arguments  and no '--' are given, then the names and values of all parameters are printed on the
              standard output.  If the only argument is '+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, 'set -' is treated as 'set +xv' and 'set - args' as 'set +xv --  args'  when  in
              any other emulation mode than zsh's native mode.

              The  sched  builtin  is  not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode emulating another
              shell.  It can be made available with the command 'zmodload -F zsh/sched b:sched'.

       setcap See the section 'The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set are printed.  The form is chosen so
              as to minimize the differences from the default options for the current emulation (the default emulation
              being native zsh, shown as <Z> in zshoptions(1)).  Options that are on by default for the emulation  are
              shown  with  the prefix no only if they are off, while other options are shown without the prefix no and
              only if they are on.  In addition to options changed from the default state by  the  user,  any  options
              activated automatically by the shell (for example, SHIN_STDIN or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.
              The format is further modified by the  option  KSH_OPTION_PRINT,  however  the  rationale  for  choosing
              options with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to protect them from
              filename expansion), and all options with names matching these patterns are set.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ..., where n is  an  arithmetic  expression  that
              defaults to 1.  If any names are given then the arrays with these names are shifted instead of the posi-
              tional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as '.', except that the current directory is always searched and is always searched  first,  before
              directories in $path.

       stat   See the section 'The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend  the  execution  of  the  shell  (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f
              option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use conditional expressions instead (see  the
              section  'Conditional Expressions').  The main differences between the conditional expression syntax and
              the test and [ builtins are:  these commands are not handled syntactically,  so  for  example  an  empty
              variable  expansion  may  cause  an  argument to be omitted; syntax errors cause status 2 to be returned
              instead of a shell error; and arithmetic operators  expect  integer  arguments  rather  than  arithmetic
              expressions.

              The  command  attempts  to  implement POSIX and its extensions where these are specified.  Unfortunately
              there are intrinsic ambiguities in the syntax; in particular there is no distinction between test opera-
              tors  and strings that resemble them.  The standard attempts to resolve these for small numbers of argu-
              ments (up to four); for five or more arguments compatibility cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wher-
              ever possible to use the '[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg  is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation by the shell) to be
              read and executed when the shell receives any of the signals specified by one or more  sig  args.   Each
              sig  can be given as a number, or as the name of a signal either with or without the string SIG in front
              (e.g. 1, HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If arg is '-', then the specified signals are reset to their defaults, or, if no sig args  are  present,
              all traps are reset.

              If  arg  is an empty string, then the specified signals are ignored by the shell (and by the commands it
              invokes).

              If arg is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.  the first argument is a valid signal num-
              ber or name), the effect is the same as if arg had been specified as '-'.

              The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias
              for ZERR on systems that have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if the option DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set  (as
              it  is  by  default), else after each command.  Here, a 'command' is what is described as a 'sublist' in
              the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).   If  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is
              set  various  additional features are available.  First, it is possible to skip the next command by set-
              ting the option ERR_EXIT; see the description of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the  shell
              parameter  ZSH_DEBUG_CMD  is set to the string corresponding to the command to be executed following the
              trap.  Note that this string is reconstructed from the internal format and may not be formatted the same
              way as the original text.  The parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If  sig  is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of a function, then the command
              arg is executed after the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of  execution  is  the  exit
              status  of  the  shell  or  the return status of the function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap
              statement is not executed inside the body of a function, then the command arg is executed when the shell
              terminates; the trap runs before any zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR,  DEBUG,  and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.  ZERR and DEBUG traps are kept within
              subshells, while other traps are reset.

              Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly different from those defined as 'TRAPNAL () {
              ...  }',  as  the latter have their own function environment (line numbers, local variables, etc.) while
              the former use the environment of the command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed as described under kill above.  Defining a trap under  either  name
              causes  any  trap  under an alternative name to be removed.  However, it is recommended that for consis-
              tency users stick exclusively to one name or another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes made to the  tty
              settings  by  external  programs  will  be  honored  by the shell, except for changes in the size of the
              screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to their previous values as soon as each command  exits
              or  is  suspended.   Thus,  stty  and  similar  programs have no effect when the tty is frozen.  Without
              options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer to one.  When inside a function, a  new
              parameter  is  created for every name (even those that already exist), and is unset again when the func-
              tion completes.  See 'Local Parameters' in zshparam(1).  The same rules apply to special  shell  parame-
              ters, which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For  each  name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to value.  Note that arrays currently cannot
              be assigned in typeset expressions, only scalars and integers.  Unless the option  KSH_TYPESET  is  set,
              normal  expansion rules apply to assignment arguments, so value may be split into separate words; if the
              option is set, assignments which can be recognised when expansion is performed  are  treated  as  single
              words.   For  example  the  command  typeset  vbl=$(echo  one  two) is treated as having one argument if
              KSH_TYPESET is set, but otherwise is treated as having the two arguments vbl=one and two.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining name that refers to a  parameter  that
              is  set,  the  name  and  value  of  the parameter are printed in the form of an assignment.  Nothing is
              printed for newly-created parameters, or when any attribute flags listed below are given along with  the
              name.  Using '+' instead of minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.

              If  the  -p  option  is given, parameters and values are printed in the form of a typeset command and an
              assignment (which will be printed separately for arrays and associative  arrays),  regardless  of  other
              flags  and  options.  Note that the -h flag on parameters is respected; no value will be shown for these
              parameters.

              If the -T option is given, two or three arguments must be present (an exception is that  zero  arguments
              are  allowed  to  show the list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first two are the name of a
              scalar and an array parameter (in that order) that will be tied together in  the  manner  of  $PATH  and
              $path.   The optional third argument is a single-character separator which will be used to join the ele-
              ments of the array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as with $PATH.  Only the first  char-
              acter  of the separator is significant; any remaining characters are ignored.  Only the scalar parameter
              may be assigned an initial value.  Both the scalar and the array may otherwise be manipulated as normal.
              If  one  is  unset, the other will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the variables
              without unsetting them, or converting the type of one of them with another typeset command; +T does  not
              work,  assigning  an  array  to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar to array sets it to be a sin-
              gle-element array.  Note that both 'typeset -xT ...' and 'export -T ...' work, but only the scalar  will
              be  marked  for  export.   Setting  the  value using the scalar version causes a split on all separators
              (which cannot be quoted).

              The -g (global) flag is treated specially: it means that any resulting parameter will not be  restricted
              to local scope.  Note that this does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be global, as the flag
              will apply to any existing parameter (even if unset) from an enclosing function.   This  flag  does  not
              affect  the  parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when listing existing parameters, nor does
              the flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m (see below).

              If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this case  the  attribute
              flags  restrict  the  display to only those parameters that have the specified attributes, and using '+'
              rather than '-' to introduce the flag suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there  is  no
              parameter name.  Also, if the last option is the word '+', then names are printed but values are not.

              If  the  -m  flag  is  given the name arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted).  With no
              attribute flags, all parameters (or functions with the -f flag) with matching  names  are  printed  (the
              shell  option  TYPESET_SILENT  is  not  used  in this case).  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are
              given.  If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter is created for every matching  parame-
              ter  that  is  not  already  local.  Otherwise -m applies all other flags or assignments to the existing
              parameters.  Except when assignments are made with name=value, using +m forces the  matching  parameters
              to be printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present or the +m form was used, each parameter
              name printed is preceded by a list of the attributes of that parameter  (array,  association,  exported,
              integer,  readonly).  If +m is used with attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +, the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l, u) are  only  applied  to  the  expanded
              value at the point of a parameter expansion expression using '$'.  They are not applied when a parameter
              is retrieved internally by the shell for any purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer to associative array parameters; see 'Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If n is nonzero, it defines the width of  the
                     field.   If n is zero, the width is determined by the width of the value of the first assignment.
                     In the case of numeric parameters, the length of the complete value assigned to the parameter  is
                     used to determine the width, not the value that would be output.

                     The  width  is the count of characters, which may be multibyte characters if the MULTIBYTE option
                     is in effect.  Note that the screen width of the character is not taken into account; if this  is
                     required,  use  padding  with  parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described in 'Parameter
                     Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right with blanks or truncated  if  necessary
                     to fit the field.  Note truncation can lead to unexpected results with numeric parameters.  Lead-
                     ing zeros are removed if the -Z flag is also set.

              -R     Similar to -L, except that right justification is used; when the parameter is expanded, the field
                     is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.  May not be combined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For  arrays  (but  not for associative arrays), keep only the first occurrence of each duplicated
                     value.  This may also be set for colon-separated special parameters like PATH  or  FIGNORE,  etc.
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Specially  handled  if set along with the -L flag.  Otherwise, similar to -R, except that leading
                     zeros are used for padding instead of blanks  if  the  first  non-blank  character  is  a  digit.
                     Numeric  parameters  are specially handled: they are always eligible for padding with zeroes, and
                     the zeroes are inserted at an appropriate place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this way, but it may  not
                     be assigned to in the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal and associative arrays are
                     shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can be made,  and  the  only
                     other  valid  flags  are  -t, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on execution tracing for this
                     function.  The -u and -U flags cause the function to be marked for autoloading;  -U  also  causes
                     alias  expansion  to  be  suppressed  when  the  function is loaded.  The fpath parameter will be
                     searched to find the function definition when the function is first referenced; see  the  section
                     'Functions'.  The  -k  and  -z  flags  make  the  function be loaded using ksh-style or zsh-style
                     autoloading respectively. If neither is given, the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option  determines
                     how the function is loaded.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked '<S>' in the table in zshparam(1)), and
                     for local parameters with the same name as a special parameter, though harmless  for  others.   A
                     special  parameter  with this attribute will not retain its special effect when made local.  Thus
                     after 'typeset -h PATH', a function containing 'typeset  PATH'  will  create  an  ordinary  local
                     parameter  without the usual behaviour of PATH.  Alternatively, the local parameter may itself be
                     given this attribute; hence inside a function 'typeset -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parame-
                     ter  and  the  special PATH parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create a
                     local parameter using 'typeset +h special', where the local copy of special will retain its  spe-
                     cial  properties  regardless  of  having the -h attribute.  Global special parameters loaded from
                     shell modules (currently those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically given  the  -h
                     attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide  value:  specifies  that  typeset  will  not display the value of the parameter when listing
                     parameters; the display for such parameters is always as if the '+' flag had been given.  Use  of
                     the  parameter  is  in  other  respects normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified by name, or by pattern with the -m option.  This is on by default for the parameters in
                     the  zsh/parameter  and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however, that unlike the -h flag this is also
                     useful for non-special parameters.

              -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero it defines the output  arithmetic  base,
                     otherwise it is determined by the first assignment.  Bases from 2 to 36 inclusive are allowed.

              -E     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.  On output the variable will be
                     converted to scientific notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the number of  significant  figures
                     to display; the default is ten.

              -F     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.  On output the variable will be
                     converted to fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the number  of  digits  to
                     display after the decimal point; the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the result to lower case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The value is not converted
                     when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that if name is  a  special  parameter,  the  readonly
                     attribute can be turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This flag has a different
                     meaning when used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The value is not  converted
                     when assigned.  This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.

              -x     Mark  for  automatic  export to the environment of subsequently executed commands.  If the option
                     GLOBAL_EXPORT is set, this implies the option -g, unless +g is also explicitly  given;  in  other
                     words  the parameter is not made local to the enclosing function.  This is for compatibility with
                     previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.  The value of  limit
              can be a number in the unit specified below or one of the values 'unlimited', which removes the limit on
              the resource, or 'hard', which uses the current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard limits  instead  of  soft
              limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If  limit  is  omitted  the  current  value  of the specified resources are printed.  When more than one
              resource value is printed, the limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort immediately if  it  detects  a  badly  formed
              argument.   However, if it fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue trying to set the
              remaining limits.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     K-bytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -l     K-bytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -s     K-bytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     processes available to the user.
              -v     K-bytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems this refers to the limit called  'address
                     space'.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by integer in the form '-N resource', where resource corresponds to the
              integer defined for the resource by the operating system.  This may  be  used  to  set  the  limits  for
              resources  known  to  the shell which do not correspond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by
              number in the output of 'ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits compiled into the shell.  The shell will  try
              to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The  umask  is  set  to  mask.   mask  can be either an octal number or a symbolic value as described in
              chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is printed.  The  -S  option  causes  the  mask  to  be
              printed  as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed as an octal number.  Note that in the sym-
              bolic form the permissions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied) to the users spec-
              ified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.  The default is remove elements from the com-
              mand hash table.  The -a option causes unhash to remove regular or global aliases; note when removing  a
              global aliases that the argument must be quoted to prevent it from being expanded before being passed to
              the command.  The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.  The  -f  option  causes  unhash  to
              remove  shell  functions.   The -d options causes unhash to remove named directories.  If the -m flag is
              given the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all elements of the corresponding  hash
              table with matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The  resource  limit  for each resource is set to the hard limit.  If the -h flag is given and the shell
              has appropriate privileges, the hard resource limit for each resource is removed.  The resources of  the
              shell process are only changed if the -s flag is given.

              The  unlimit  command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode emulating another
              shell.  It can be made available with the command 'zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local even if unset; they  appear  unset  within
              scope, but the previous value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual  elements  of  associative  array  parameters may be unset by using subscript syntax on name,
              which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob) to protect the subscript from  file-
              name generation.

              If  the  -m  flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all parameters
              with matching names are unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative array elements,
              as the subscript will be treated as part of the pattern.

              The -v flag specifies that name refers to parameters. This is the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset  the  options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name are unset.  If no
              arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m flag  is  given
              the  arguments  are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as
              glob patterns), and all options with names matching these patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section 'Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then all currently active child processes
              are waited for.  Each job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job in the job table.
              The exit status from this command is that of the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print 'name: word' where word is one of alias, builtin, command, function, hashed,
                     reserved or none, according as name corresponds to an alias, a built-in command, an external com-
                     mand, a shell function, a command defined with the hash builtin,  a  reserved  word,  or  is  not
                     recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and -c.

              -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed, which would otherwise not happen unless
                     the -c flag were used.

              -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias, reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of name throughout the command path.   Normally  only  the  first
                     occurrence is printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted), and the information is displayed for each
                     command matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin command can be used to compile functions or scripts, storing the compiled form in  a  file,
              and to examine files containing the compiled form.  This allows faster autoloading of functions and exe-
              cution of scripts by avoiding parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only the file argument is
              given,  the  output  file  has the name 'file.zwc' and will be placed in the same directory as the file.
              The shell will load the compiled file  instead  of  the  normal  function  file  when  the  function  is
              autoloaded;  see  the  section 'Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a description of how autoloaded
              functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for 'zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled into the output file  given  as
              the first argument.  If file does not end in .zwc, this extension is automatically appended.  Files con-
              taining multiple compiled functions are called 'digest' files, and are intended to be used  as  elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The  second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all the named functions
              into file.  For -c, the names must be functions currently defined in the shell,  not  those  marked  for
              autoloading.  Undefined functions that are marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option,
              in which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the definition files  for  those  functions,  if
              found,  are  compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined functions and func-
              tions marked for autoloading may be given.  In either case, the functions in files written with  the  -c
              or -a option will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

              The  reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with different options is that some defini-
              tion files for autoloading define multiple functions, including the function with the same name  as  the
              file,  and,  at the end, call that function.  In such cases the output of 'zcompile -c' does not include
              the additional functions defined in the file, and any other initialization code in  the  file  is  lost.
              Using 'zcompile -a' captures all this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and all functions whose names
              match one of these patterns will be written. If no name is given, the definitions of all functions  cur-
              rently defined or marked as autoloaded will be written.

              The  third form, with the -t option, examines an existing compiled file.  Without further arguments, the
              names of the original files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output shows the version  of
              the  shell which compiled the file and how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by map-
              ping it into memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and the return status is set to zero if defini-
              tions  for  all  names  were found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition for at least one
              name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents are copied into the shell's memory, rather than mem-
                     ory-mapped (see -M).  This happens automatically on systems that do not support memory mapping.

                     When  compiling  scripts  instead  of  autoloadable  functions, it is often desirable to use this
                     option; otherwise the whole file, including the code to define functions which have already  been
                     defined, will remain mapped, consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The  compiled  file  is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is done in such a way that
                     multiple instances of the shell running on the same host will share this mapped file.  If neither
                     -R  nor  -M  is  given, the zcompile builtin decides what to do based on the size of the compiled
                     file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the compiled file contains functions which are to be  autoloaded.  If
                     -z is given, the function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is not set, even if it
                     is set at the time the compiled file is read, while if the -k is  given,  the  function  will  be
                     loaded  as  if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also take precedence over any -k or -z options
                     specified to the autoload builtin. If neither of these options is given,  the  function  will  be
                     loaded  as  determined by the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the compiled file is
                     read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as necessary between the listed names to specify  the
                     loading style of all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the compiled format, one for big-endian machines
                     and one for small-endian machines.  The upshot of this is that the compiled file is machine inde-
                     pendent and if it is read or mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
              See the section 'The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section 'The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section 'Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs  operations  relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of modules while the shell is running
              ('dynamical loading') is not available on all operating systems, or on all installations on a particular
              operating system, although the zmodload command itself is always available and can be used to manipulate
              modules built into versions of the shell executable without dynamical loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary modules are printed.  The  -L  option  causes
              this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In  the  simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in a file with a name
                     consisting of the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually '.so'  ('.sl'  on  HPUX).
                     If  the  module  to  be  loaded  is  already loaded the duplicate module is ignored.  If zmodload
                     detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid module name or circular dependency list, the current
                     code block is aborted.   Hence 'zmodload module 2>/dev/null' is sufficient to test whether a mod-
                     ule is available.  If it is available, the module is loaded if necessary,  while  if  it  is  not
                     available, non-zero status is silently returned.  The option -i is accepted for compatibility but
                     has no effect.

                     The named module is searched for in the same way a command  is,  using  $module_path  instead  of
                     $path.   However, the path search is performed even when the module name contains a '/', which it
                     usually does.  There is no way to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports features (see below), zmodload tries to enable all features when loading a
                     module.   If  the  module was successfully loaded but not all features could be enabled, zmodload
                     returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be given that was given  when  the  module
                     was  loaded,  but  it is not necessary for the module to exist in the file system.  The -i option
                     suppresses the error if the module is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The module will not be loaded if its  boot  func-
                     tion fails.  Similarly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup function runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
                     zmodload -F allows more selective control over the features provided by modules.  With no options
                     apart from -F, the module named module is loaded, if it was not already loaded, and the  list  of
                     features is set to the required state.  If no features are specified, the module is loaded, if it
                     was not already loaded, but the state of features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded  by
                     a  +  to  turn  the  feature  on,  or  - to turn it off; the + is assumed if neither character is
                     present.  Any feature not explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if  the  module  was
                     not  previously  loaded  this means any such features will remain disabled.  The return status is
                     zero if all features were set, 1 if the module failed to load, and 2 if some features  could  not
                     be set (for example, a parameter couldn't be added because there was a different parameter of the
                     same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The standard features are builtins, conditions, parameters and math functions;  these  are  indi-
                     cated  by  the prefix 'b:', 'c:' ('C:' for an infix condition), 'p:' and 'f:', respectively, fol-
                     lowed by the name that the corresponding feature would have in the shell.  For example,  'b:strf-
                     time' indicates a builtin named strftime and p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter named EPOCHSEC-
                     ONDS.  The module may provide other ('abstract') features of its own as indicated by its documen-
                     tation; these have no prefix.

                     With  -l  or  -L,  features provided by the module are listed.  With -l alone, a list of features
                     together with their states is shown, one feature per line.  With -L alone, a zmodload -F  command
                     that  would  cause enabled features of the module to be turned on is shown.  With -lL, a zmodload
                     -F command that would cause all the features to be set to their current state is shown.   If  one
                     of these combinations is given the option -P param then the parameter param is set to an array of
                     features, either features together with their state or (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a list of all enabled  features  for  all
                     modules  providing features is printed in the form of zmodload -F commands.  If -l is also given,
                     the state of both enabled and disabled features is output in that form.

                     A set of features may be provided together with -l or -L and a module name; in that case only the
                     state  of those features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded by + or - but the character
                     has no effect.  If no set of features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command first tests that the module is loaded; if it is not, status 1  is  returned.
                     If  the  module  is  loaded,  the list of features given as an argument is examined.  Any feature
                     given with no prefix is simply tested to see if the module provides it; any feature given with  a
                     prefix  +  or - is tested to see if is provided and in the given state.  If the tests on all fea-
                     tures in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else status 1.

                     With -m, each entry in the given list of features is taken as a pattern to be matched against the
                     list  of  features provided by the module.  An initial + or - must be given explicitly.  This may
                     not be combined with the -a option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a, the given list of features is marked for autoload from the specified module,  which  may
                     not yet be loaded.  An optional + may appear before the feature name.  If the feature is prefixed
                     with -, any existing autoload is removed.  The options -l and -L may be used to  list  autoloads.
                     Autoloading is specific to individual features; when the module is loaded only the requested fea-
                     ture is enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if the module is subsequently unloaded until an
                     explicit 'zmodload -Fa module -feature' is issued.  It is not an error to request an autoload for
                     a feature of a module that is already loaded.

                     When the module is loaded each autoload is checked against the features actually provided by  the
                     module;  if  the  feature  is not provided the autoload request is deleted.  A warning message is
                     output; if the module is being loaded to provide a different feature, and that autoload  is  suc-
                     cessful,  there  is  no  effect  on  the status of the current command.  If the module is already
                     loaded at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P options for listing and testing the existence
                     of  autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored if -L is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no
                     module name lists autoloads for all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described above can be autoloaded; other features require the
                     module to be loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The  -d  option  can be used to specify module dependencies.  The modules named in the second and
                     subsequent arguments will be loaded before the module named in the first argument.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With -d and no arguments,
                     all  module  dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a Makefile-like format.  The
                     -L option changes this format to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one argument is given, all  depen-
                     dencies for that module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The  -ab  option  defines  autoloaded  builtins.  It defines the specified builtins.  When any of
                     those builtins is called, the module specified in the first argument is loaded and all  its  fea-
                     tures  are  enabled  (for selective control of features use 'zmodload -F -a' as described above).
                     If only the name is given, one builtin is defined, with the same name as  the  module.   -i  sup-
                     presses  the error if the builtin is already defined or autoloaded, but not if another builtin of
                     the same name is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are listed, with the module name  (if  differ-
                     ent) shown in parentheses after the builtin name.  The -L option changes this format to a list of
                     zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the -u option, it removes builtins previously defined with -ab.  This
                     is  only  possible  if  the builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses the error if the builtin is
                     already removed (or never existed).

                     Autoload requests are retained if the module is subsequently unloaded until an explicit 'zmodload
                     -ub builtin' is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac  option is used to define autoloaded condition codes. The cond strings give the names of
                     the conditions defined by the module. The optional -I option is used to  define  infix  condition
                     names. Without this option prefix condition names are defined.

                     If  given  no  condition names, all defined names are listed (as a series of zmodload commands if
                     the -L option is given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c options, but makes zmodload  work  on  autoloaded  parameters
                     instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The  -f  option  is  like  the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on autoloaded math
                     functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if the -A option is also given,  module
                     aliases  corresponding  to  loaded modules are also shown.  If arguments are provided, nothing is
                     printed; the return status is set to zero if all strings given as arguments are names  of  loaded
                     modules and to one if at least on string is not the name of a loaded module.  This can be used to
                     test for the availability of things implemented by modules.  In this case, any aliases are  auto-
                     matically resolved and the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For  each argument, if both modalias and module are given, define modalias to be an alias for the
                     module module.  If the module modalias is ever subsequently requested, either via a call to zmod-
                     load  or implicitly, the shell will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not given, show
                     the definition of modalias.  If no arguments are given, list all defined  module  aliases.   When
                     listing, if the -L flag was also given, list the definition as a zmodload command to recreate the
                     alias.

                     The existence of aliases for modules is completely independent of whether the  name  resolved  is
                     actually  loaded  as a module: while the alias exists, loading and unloading the module under any
                     alias has exactly the same effect as using the resolved name, and does not affect the  connection
                     between the alias and the resolved name which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first resolved name is  itself  an  alias)  are
                     valid  so  long  as these are not circular.  As the aliases take the same format as module names,
                     they may include path separators:  in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the path
                     named  to  exist  as  the alias will be resolved first.  For example, 'any/old/alias' is always a
                     valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually added to the resolved module; these remain  if
                     the  alias  is  removed.   It is valid to create an alias whose name is one of the standard shell
                     modules and which resolves to a different module.  However, if a module has dependencies, it will
                     not  be  possible  to  use  the module name as an alias as the module will already be marked as a
                     loadable module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the  zmodload  command  anywhere  module  names  are
                     required.   However, aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with a bare 'zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias via zmodload -A,  delete
                     the  alias.  If any was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the shell and modules that  are
              loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make available the builtins and
              other things defined by modules (unless the module is autoloaded on these  definitions).  This  is  true
              even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section 'The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section 'The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section 'The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section 'The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section 'The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section 'The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section 'The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



zsh 4.3.11                     December 20, 2010                ZSHBUILTINS(1)