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ZIP(1L)                                                                ZIP(1L)

       zip - package and compress (archive) files

       zip [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...]  [-b path] [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zip-
       file [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long options and handle all options and argu-
       ments  more  consistently.   Some  old  command lines that depend on command line inconsistencies may no longer

       zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS, OS/2,  Windows  9x/NT/XP,  Minix,  Atari,
       Macintosh,  Amiga,  and  Acorn  RISC OS.  It is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and com-
       press(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A companion program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip archives.  The zip and unzip(1L) programs can  work  with  archives
       produced by PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with
       archives produced by zip (with some exceptions, notably streamed archives, but recent changes in the  zip  file
       standard may facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports
       the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB
       in some cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2 library is included when zip is compiled.
       Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use  PKUNZIP  2.04g  or
       unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.  zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions when files larger than 4 GB are added to
       an archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive still  needs  Zip64),  the
       size  of  the  archive  will  exceed  4 GB, or when the number of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K.
       Zip64 is also used for archives streamed from standard input as the size of such  archives  are  not  known  in
       advance,  but  the option -fz- can be used to force zip to create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64
       extensions are not needed).  You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to  extract
       files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In  addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryption, or split archives created with the
       pause option may not be compatible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the time of this  writ-
       ing does not support data descriptors (but recent changes in the PKWare published zip standard now include some
       support for the data descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports Mac OS X as part of the Unix  port
       and  most  Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally refer to MacOS versions older than OS X.
       Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS X port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip

       For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any parameters on the command line.

       The  program  is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution; for archiving files; and for saving disk
       space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories.

       The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive, along with information  about  the
       files  (name,  path,  date,  time  of  last  modification,  protection,  and  check  information to verify file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command.  Compression
       ratios  of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store
       files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is added, zip can also compress using bzip2 compression, but such
       entries  require  a  reasonably  modern  unzip  to decompress.  When bzip2 compression is selected, it replaces
       deflation as the default method.)  zip automatically chooses the better of the two (deflation or store  or,  if
       bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is  a  new  or existing zip archive and inpath is a directory or file path optionally including
       wildcards.  When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries  in  the
       zip  archive (matching the relative names as stored in the archive) or add entries for new names.  For example,
       if exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1  and
       foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace  foo/file1  in  and  add  foo/file3 to  After this, contains foo/file1,
       foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as -@ [Not on MacOS], zip takes the list of input files from  stan-
       dard input instead of from the command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in

       Under  Unix, this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find (1) command.  For example,
       to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name, in  which  case  it
       will write the zip file to standard output, allowing the output to be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write  the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the
       current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed, in which case  it  will  read  the
       file from standard input, allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would  compress  the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory. This gener-
       ally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option because zip can  take  advantage
       of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When  no  zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a filter, compressing standard input
       to standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is  provided  in  the  unzip
       package,  or  by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support this if zip used
       the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If Zip64 support for large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as  a  filter,  zip  creates  a  Zip64
       archive  that  requires  a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities in the
       zip file structure as defined in the current zip standard (PKWARE AppNote) where  the  decision  to  use  Zip64
       needs  to  be  made before data is written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is not known at
       that point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64,
       but  zip  will  exit  with an error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can read archives
       with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64 extensions if not needed when archive entries are copied  (see
       the -U (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should be before the redirection including -x.
       For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.  When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file with the new  contents,  and
       only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error.

       If  the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension, the extension .zip is added. If the name already
       contains an extension other than .zip, the existing extension  is  kept  unchanged.   However,  split  archives
       (archives split over multiple files) require the .zip extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.   When  zip  starts, it scans for files to process (if needed).  If this scan takes
       longer than about 5 seconds, zip will display a "Scanning files" message and  start  displaying  progress  dots
       every  2  seconds  or every so many entries processed, whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds
       between dots it could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean a slow  network  connection
       for  example.   (Actually the initial file scan is a two-step process where the directory scan is followed by a
       sort and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If updating an existing archive, a space also
       appears  between  the existing file scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning files dots are not controlled by
       the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off by the -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can  be
       used to scan for files and get the list of files scanned without actually processing them.

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.  See the -MM option below for more on how
       zip handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not readable.  If some files were skipped, a warn-
       ing is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.   zip  now  supports  two  distinct types of command modes, external and internal.  The external
       modes (add, update, and freshen) read files from the file system (as well as from an  existing  archive)  while
       the internal modes (delete and copy) operate exclusively on entries in an existing archive.

              Update  existing  entries  and  add  new  files.   If the archive does not exist create it.  This is the
              default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update existing entries if newer on the file system and add new files.  If the archive  does  not  exist
              issue warning then create a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update  existing  entries  of  an  archive  if  newer on the file system.  Does not add new files to the

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new archive.   This  new  mode  is  similar  to
              update  but command line patterns select entries in the existing archive rather than files from the file
              system and it uses the --out option to write the resulting archive to a new file rather than update  the
              existing archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The  new  File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is similar to update.  This mode syn-
       chronizes the archive with the files on the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file time or size of
       the  OS  file  is different, adding new files, and deleting entries from the archive where there is no matching
       file.  As this mode can delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup copy of the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section below for examples.

       Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create split archives.   A  split  archive  is  a  standard  zip
       archive  split over multiple files.  (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces, as the
       offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Concatenating the pieces together will invalidate
       these  offsets,  but unzip can usually deal with it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a spliced archive
       unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple removable media.  For a split archive with  20
       split  files  the  files  are  typically  named  (replace  ARCHIVE  with the name of your archive) ARCHIVE.z01,
       ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19,  Note that the last file is the .zip file.   In  contrast,  spanned
       archives  are the original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and using volume labels to store
       disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but not spanned archives, though a procedure exists  for  converting
       split  archives  of the right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also true, where each file of a spanned
       archive can be copied in order to files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given as a number followed optionally  by
       one  of  k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip between
       splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both  -s  and
       -sp below.

       Though  zip  does  not  update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file or --out) to allow
       split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the resulting archive to   If is split then defaults to the same split size.  Be aware that
       if and any split files that are created with it already exist, these are always  overwritten  as
       needed without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an archive using a specific character set, in prac-
       tice zips have stored paths in archives in whatever the local character set is.  This creates problems when  an
       archive  is created or updated on a system using one character set and then extracted on another system using a
       different character set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on platforms that support wide characters,
       zip now stores, in addition to the standard local path for backward compatibility, the UTF-8 translation of the
       path.  This provides a common universal character set for storing paths that allows these  paths  to  be  fully
       extracted on other systems that support Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On  Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but represented in the local character set, it's
       possible that some paths will be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip with Unicode support
       now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x systems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes don't accurately  show  all  characters
       due  to  how each operating system switches in character sets for display.  However, directory navigation tools
       should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line processing and support for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A short option that takes a value is last in an  argument  and
       anything  after it is taken as the value.  If the option can be negated and "-" immediately follows the option,
       the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as part of the same argument or  as  the  following  argument.   An
       optional = is also supported.  So





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all  work.   The  -x and -i options accept lists of values and use a slightly different format described below.
       See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include a trailing dash to  negate  the  option
       (if  the  option  supports  it),  and  can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding it with = (no
       spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.  See the option descriptions below  for
       which  support  long  options.  To avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with an embedded dash
       ("-") at the dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would consider a trailing dash, such as for  the  option
       --some-option  using  --some-  as  the  option,  as part of the name rather than a negating dash).  This may be
       changed to force the last dash in --some- to be negating in the future.

              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting executable archive is created by  prepend-
              ing  the  SFX stub to an existing archive. The -A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in
              the archive to take into account this "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case.  At present, only the Amiga  port  of  zip  is
       capable  of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other
       updates need to be made.

              [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if -T is used, which is  recommended),  clear  the  archive
              bits  of files processed.  WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they are cleared.  You may want to use the
              -sf show files option to store the list of files  processed  in  case  the  archive  operation  must  be
              repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to check out -DF as a possibly better
              way to do incremental backups.

              [WIN32]  Only include files that have the archive bit set.  Directories are not stored when -AS is used,
              though  by  default  the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as usual and can be used by
              most unzips to recreate directories.

              The archive bit is set by the operating system when a file is modified and, if used with  -AC,  -AS  can
              provide an incremental backup capability.  However, other applications can modify the archive bit and it
              may not be a reliable indicator of which files have changed since the last archive operation.   Alterna-
              tive  ways  to  create  incremental  backups are using -t to use file dates, though this won't catch old
              files copied to directories being archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.

              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copying over to the  current  direc-
              tory  when  done. This option is useful when updating an existing archive and the file system containing
              this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It  may
              also  be  useful  when  streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data descriptors.  Note that using
              this option may require zip take additional time to copy the archive file when done to  the  destination
              file system.

              Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding, updating) are done first, and the user is
              then prompted for a one-line comment for each file.  Enter the  comment  followed  by  return,  or  just
              return for no comment.

              [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-) downcases.

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will  remove  the  entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start with foo/harry/, and all of the files
              that end with .o (in any path).  Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes,
              so  that  zip can see the asterisks, enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of
              the contents of the current directory.  (The backslashes are not used on  MSDOS-based  platforms.)   Can
              also use quotes to escape the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not  escaping  the asterisks on a system where the shell expands wildcards could result in the asterisks
              being converted to a list of files in the current directory and that list used to  delete  entries  from
              the archive.

              Under  MSDOS,  -d  is  case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive.  This requires that file
              names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We  considered  making
              this  case insensitive on systems where paths were case insensitive, but it is possible the archive came
              from a system where case does matter and the archive could include both Bar and bar as separate files in
              the archive.)  But see the new option -ic to ignore case in the archive.

              Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display  dots  while each entry is zipped (except on ports that have their own progress indicator).  See
              -ds below for setting dot size.  The default is a dot every 10 MB  of  input  file  processed.   The  -v
              option also displays dots (previously at a much higher rate than this but now -v also defaults to 10 MB)
              and this rate is also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.  Good for exporting  files  to  foreign
              operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

              Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.  The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set  amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting
              this option implies -dd.  Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is a multiplier.  Currently
              m  can  be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100
              KB.  The default is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate is also controlled  by  this
              option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This  option  does  not control the dots from the "Scanning files" message as zip scans for input files.
              The dot size for that is fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is longer.

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read from, if  reading  an  existing  archive,  and
              being written to.

              Do  not  create entries in the zip archive for directories.  Directory entries are created by default so
              that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be  used  to
              change the default options. For example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The  variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a new option format detailed
              below, and can include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but the latter  previ-
              ously  could  not  be  set  as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable as the contents of ZIPOPT gets
              inserted near the beginning of the command line and the file list had to end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

              -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.

              Create an archive that contains all new and changed files since the original archive was  created.   For
              this  to  work,  the  input  file list and current directory must be the same as during the original zip

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just the files not in foofull and the  files
              where the size or file time of the files do not match those in foofull.

              Note  that  the  timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order
              for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive  was  created  could
              result in no times matching and all files being included.

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create a normal archive of the contents of the
              directory as a full backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.

              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to
              a  prompt  (this  will not be echoed; if standard error is not a tty, zip will exit with an error).  The
              password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors.

              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.

              Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more  recently  than
              the  version  already in the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add files that are
              not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command  was  run,  since
              paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note  that  the  timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order
              for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the  Unix-format
              file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity
              to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is ''MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time with automatic adjustment
              for ''summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The  format  is  TTThhDDD,  where TTT is the time zone such as MET, hh is the difference between GMT and
              local time such as -1 above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is  in  effect.   Leave
              off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.  For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing, but requires
              a reasonably intact central directory.  The input archive is scanned as usual, but zip will ignore  some
              problems.  The resulting archive should be valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

              When  doubled  as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip scans for special signatures
              to identify the limits between the archive members. The single -F is more reliable if the archive is not
              too much damaged, so try this option first.

              If  the  archive  is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you must use -FF.  This is a change from
              zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read a truncated archive.  The  -F  option  now  more  reliably
              fixes  archives  with minor damage and the -FF option is needed to fix archives where -F might have been
              sufficient before.

              Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in  ascii  mode  instead  of
              binary.  After  the  repair,  the -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. Such files
              cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the archive using the -d option of zip.

              Note that -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an embedded  zip  archive  that  was  stored
              (without compression) in the archive and, depending on the damage, it may find the entries in the embed-
              ded archive rather than the archive itself.  Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

              The format of the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix the damaged archive,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to the new archive  If this doesn't
              work,  as when the archive is truncated, or if some entries you know are in the archive are missed, then

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF option may create an  inconsis-
              tent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can then use the -F option to fix that archive.

              A split archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have the last split of the archive
              (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which  will  prompt  you
              for the splits you have.

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad checksum or are otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]   Normally  zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is
              not being fed.  This option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally when an archive  is  updated,
              new  files  are  added  and  changed  files are updated but files that no longer exist on the OS are not
              deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new mode that checks entries in the archive against the
              file  system.   If  the  file  time and file size of the entry matches that of the OS file, the entry is
              copied from the old archive instead of being read from the file system and compressed.  If the  OS  file
              has  changed,  the  entry is read and compressed as usual.  If the entry in the archive does not match a
              file on the OS, the entry is deleted.  Enabling this option should create archives that are the same  as
              new  archives, but since existing entries are copied instead of compressed, updating an existing archive
              with -FS can be much faster than creating a new  archive.   Also  consider  using  -u  for  updating  an

              For  this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same directory it was created in so the
              relative paths match.  If few files are being copied from the old archive, it may be faster to create  a
              new archive instead.

              Note  that  the  timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order
              for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive  was  created  could
              result in no times matching and recompression of all files.

              This  option  deletes files from the archive.  If you need to preserve the original archive, make a copy
              of the archive first or use the --out option to output the updated archive to a new file.   Even  though
              it  may  be  slower,  creating a new archive with a new archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between
              archive and OS paths, and is preferred.

              Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a new one. If this operation fails,  zip
              attempts  to  restore  the  archive  to  its original state. If the restoration fails, the archive might
              become corrupted. This option is ignored when there's no existing archive or when at least  one  archive
              member must be updated or deleted.

              Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments).

              Display extended help including more on command line format, pattern matching, and more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which will include only the files that end in .c in the current directory and its subdirectories.  (Note
              for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP  does  not  allow  recursion in directories other than the current one.)  The backslash avoids the
              shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by  zip  at  all  directory  levels.
              [This  is  for  Unix and other systems where \  escapes the next character.  For other systems where the
              shell does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include dir, a directory  directly  under  the
              current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to  match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without wildcard expansion in the shell such as
              MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of  the  command  line,  this  version  actually
              allows  -i  (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files terminates at the next argument starting with -,
              the end of the command line, or the list terminator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be
              given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for  example.  There must be a space between the option and the first file of a list.  For just one file
              you can use the single value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as additional examples.  The single value forms are not recommended because they can be  confusing  and,
              in  particular, the -ifile format can cause problems if the first letter of file combines with i to form
              a two-letter option starting with i.  Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -iATinclude.lst

              which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that  match  the  pat-
              terns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R for more on patterns.

              [Acorn  RISC  OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip will not consider Image files (eg. DOS
              partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files.

              For  example,  if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a
              directory (and its content) while using the 'I' option will result  in  a  zipfile  containing  a  Spark
              archive.  Obviously  this  second  case  will also be obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't

              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This option is only available on systems  where
              the  case  of files is ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is normally ignored
              when matching files on the file system but is not ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy),  and
              similar  modes  when matching against archive entries (currently -f ignores case on VMS) because archive
              entries can be from systems where case does matter and names that are the same except for case can exist
              in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching case insensitive.  This can result in multiple archive
              entries matching a command line pattern.

              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not store directory names. By  default,  zip
              will store the full path (relative to the current directory).

              [MacOS]  record  Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including volume will be stored. By default the
              relative path will be stored.

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store only the  MSDOS  attribute  (just  the
              user  write  attribute  from Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not); for
              compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

              Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. This option should  not  be
              used  on  binary  files.   This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under
              MSDOS. If the input files already contain CR LF, this option adds an extra CR. This is  to  ensure  that
              unzip  -a  on  Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file, to undo the effect of zip -l.  See
              -ll for how binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file at that location is overwritten, but the
              -la  option  will  result  in  an existing file being opened and the new log information appended to any
              existing information.  Only warnings and errors are written to the log unless the  -li  option  is  also
              given, then all information messages are also written to the log.

              Include  information  messages,  such  as  file  names being zipped, in the log.  The default is to only
              include the command line, any warnings and errors, and the final status.

              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not be  used  on  binary  files.
              This  option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If the file is con-
              verted and the file is later determined to be binary a warning is issued and the file is  probably  cor-
              rupted.   In  this  release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer read from a file, zip now issues a
              warning and skips line end conversion on the file.  This check seems to catch all binary  files  tested,
              but  the original check remains and if a converted file is later determined to be binary that warning is
              still issued.  A new algorithm is now being used for binary detection that should allow line end conver-
              sion of text files in UTF-8 and similar encodings.

              Display the zip license.

              Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually, this deletes the target directories/files after
              making the specified zip archive. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files, the directory
              is  also removed. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
              for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use  it  in  combination
              with -T to test the archive before removing all input files.

              All  input  patterns  must match at least one file and all input files found must be readable.  Normally
              when an input pattern does not match a file the "name not matched" warning is issued and when  an  input
              file  has  been  found but later is missing or not readable a missing or not readable warning is issued.
              In either case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or unreadable new  files  being  skipped
              and  files  already in the archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive is created, if any files were
              not readable zip returns the OPEN error code (18 on most systems) instead of the normal  success  return
              (0  on  most systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an input pattern is not matched (whenever the
              "name not matched" warning would be issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either  case  zip
              exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped so any missing or unreadable files will
              result in an error.  It is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit with  an  error
              if  any  input  pattern doesn't match at least one file and if any matched files are unreadable.  If you
              want to create the archive anyway and only need to know if files were skipped, don't use  -MM  and  just
              check the return code.  Also -lf could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do  not  attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.  Such files are simply stored (0% com-
              pression) in the output zip file, so that zip doesn't waste its time trying to compress them.  The  suf-
              fixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will  copy everything from foo into, but will store any files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif,
              or .snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compres-
              sion   methods).    By   default,   zip   does   not   compress   files  with  extensions  in  the  list
      Such files are stored directly in the  output  archive.   The  environment
              variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.

              On  Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). By default, zip does
              not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and PackDir  files).

              Do  not  perform  internal wildcard processing (shell processing of wildcards is still done by the shell
              unless the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of paths is being read and no wildcard substitution
              is desired.

              [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. They can be restored by using the -N
              option of unzip. If -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have

              Set  the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among
              the entries in the zip archive.  This can be used without any other operations, if desired.   For  exam-

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to the latest time of the entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process  the  archive  changes  as  usual,  but instead of updating the existing archive, output the new
              archive to output-file.  Useful for updating an archive without changing the existing  archive  and  the
              input archive must be a different file than the output archive.

              This  option  can be used to create updated split archives.  It can also be used with -U to copy entries
              from an existing archive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another use is converting zip files from one split size to another.  For instance, to convert an archive
              with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g --out

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy  mode  will convert stream entries (using data descriptors and which should be compatible with most
              unzips) to normal entries (which should be compatible with all unzips), except  if  standard  encryption
              was  used.   For  archives with encrypted entries, zipcloak will decrypt the entries and convert them to
              normal entries.

              Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored in the archive.  This is  the  default.
              The -j option junks the paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use  password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems
              provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user; even on stand-alone systems
              there  is  always  the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a
              command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever possible, use the non-echoing,  interactive
              prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use strong encryption such as Pretty
              Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and  comment  prompts.   (Useful,  for  example,  in  shell
              scripts and background tasks).

       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In  this  case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named, including
              files with names starting with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name  substitution
              mechanism.   If  you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdi-
              rectories, use the -i option to specify the pattern of files to be included.  You should not use -r with
              the  name ".*", since that matches ".."  which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not
              what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while recursing down directories in the file sys-
              tem,  any  -R,  -x,  and -i wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the directories are
              scanned.  To have wildcards apply to files in subdirectories when recursing on Unix and similar  systems
              where  the shell does wildcard substitution, either escape all wildcards or put all arguments with wild-
              cards in quotes.  This lets zip see the wildcards and match files in subdirectories  using  them  as  it

              Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a
              zip archive named  Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and a/b/.c.  More than one pattern
              can be listed as separate arguments.  Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns  are  relative  file  paths  as they appear in the archive, or will after zipping, and can have
              optional wildcards in them.  For example, given the current directory is foo and under it  are  directo-
              ries foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.

              [WIN32]   Before  zip 3.0, regular expression list matching was enabled by default on Windows platforms.
              Because of confusion resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in names, it is now  off  by  default
              for  Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split archive is an  archive  that  could  be
              split  over  many  files.   As  the archive is created, if the size of the archive reaches the specified
              split size, that split is closed and the next split opened.  In general all splits but the last will  be
              the  split  size and the last will be whatever is left.  If the entire archive is smaller than the split
              size a single-file archive is created.

              Split archives are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the output archive is  named  archive  and
              three  splits  are  required, the resulting archive will be in the three files archive.z01, archive.z02,
              and  Do not change the numbering of these files or the archive  will  not  be  readable  as
              these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

              Split  size  is  a number optionally followed by a multiplier.  Currently the number must be an integer.
              The multiplier can currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),  or  t  (terabytes).
              As  64k  is  the  minimum split size, numbers without multipliers default to megabytes.  For example, to
              create a split archive called foo with the contents of the bar directory with  splits  of  670  MB  that
              might be useful for burning on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently the old splits of a split archive are not excluded from a new archive, but they can be specif-
              ically excluded.  If possible, keep the input and output archives out of the path being zipped when cre-
              ating split archives.

              Using  -s  without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is being written, in this case the cur-
              rent directory.  This split mode updates the splits as the  archive  is  being  created,  requiring  all
              splits to remain writable, but creates split archives that are readable by any unzip that supports split
              archives.  See -sp below for enabling split pause mode which allows splits to  be  written  directly  to
              removable media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and provide details of how the splitting is being
              done.  The -sb option can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next split destination.

              Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option for how a split archive can  be  updated
              as  it  is  copied  to  a new archive.  A split archive can also be converted into a single-file archive
              using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for each split destination.

              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The new command  parser  permutes  the  argu-
              ments,  putting  all  options and any values associated with them before any non-option arguments.  This
              allows an option to appear anywhere in the command line as long as any values that go with the option go
              with  it.   This option displays the command line as zip sees it, including any arguments from the envi-
              ronment such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed, options later in the command line can override
              options earlier in the command line.

              Show the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if creating a new archive, this will
              list the files that would be added.  If the option is negated, -sf-, output only to an  open  log  file.
              Screen display is not recommended for large lists.

              Show  all  available  options supported by zip as compiled on the current system.  As this command reads
              the option table, it should include all options.  Each line includes the short option (if defined),  the
              long  option  (if  defined),  the  format  of  any value that goes with the option, if the option can be
              negated, and a small description.  The value format can be no value,  required  value,  optional  value,
              single character value, number value, or a list of values.  The output of this option is not intended to
              show how to use any option but only show what options are available.

              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.  This creates split archives as -s  does,  but
              stream  writing  is used so each split can be closed as soon as it is written and zip will pause between
              each split to allow changing split destination or media.

              Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it uses stream archive  format
              that  may  not  be  readable  by  some  unzips.  Before relying on splits created with -sp, test a split
              archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a standard archive see the --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if exists, otherwise show the standard version of  the

              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting is being done.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do  not  operate on files modified prior to the specified date, where mm is the month (00-12), dd is the
              day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is  also  accepted.
              For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will  add  all  the  files  in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December
              1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date, where mm is the month  (00-12),  dd  is
              the  day  of  the  month  (01-31),  and  yyyy  is the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also
              accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before 30 November 1995, to
              the zip archive

              Test  the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the old zip file is unchanged and (with the
              -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when the -T option is used.  On Unix, to  use
              a copy of unzip in the current directory instead of the standard system unzip, could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd,  {}  is  replaced  by  the  name of the temporary archive, otherwise the name of the archive is
              appended to the end of the command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

              Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified  more  recently  than
              the version already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update any files which have been modified since the
              zip archive was last created/modified (note that zip will  not  try  to  pack  into
              itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts like the -f (freshen) option.

              Copy  entries from one archive to another.  Requires the --out option to specify a different output file
              than the input archive.  Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is being used  with  --out,
              the  selected  entries are deleted from the archive and all other entries are copied to the new archive,
              while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.  Unlike -u update,  input  patterns  on
              the command line are matched against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For instance,

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies  entries  with  names ending in .c from inarchive to outarchive.  The wildcard must be escaped on
              some systems to prevent the shell from substituting names of files from the file system which  may  have
              no relevance to the entries in the archive.

              If no input files appear on the command line and --out is used, copy mode is assumed:

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This  is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting and decrypting entries is not yet sup-
              ported using copy mode.  Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0, in addition to the standard  file  path,
              now  includes  the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely 7-bit ASCII.  When an
              entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts back to the standard file path.  The problem  with  using
              the  standard  path  is this path is in the local character set of the zip that created the entry, which
              may contain characters that are not valid in the character set being used by the  unzip.   When  zip  is
              reading  an  archive, if an entry also has a Unicode path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to
              recreate the standard path using the current local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this path if there is  a  mismatch  between
              the  stored standard path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard path was updated).
              In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is assumed that the standard path is more current and  zip  uses
              that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters  that  are not valid in the current character set are escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x
              is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number is sufficient  to
              represent  the  Unicode  character  and the second if the character needs more than 16 bits to represent
              it's Unicode character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on systems  where  UTF-8  is  the  current
              character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces  zip to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that storing UTF-8 directly is the default on
              Unix systems that support it.  This option could be useful on Windows systems where the escaped path  is
              too large to be a valid path and the UTF-8 version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not back-
              ward compatible on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables the display of a progress indicator  dur-
              ing  compression (see -dd for more on dots) and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure

              However, when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic screen is printed instead.  This  should
              now  work  even  if  stdout is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information for sending
              with bug reports to Info-ZIP.  The version screen provides the help screen  header  with  program  name,
              version, and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites, and shows informa-
              tion about the target environment (compiler type and version,  OS  version,  compilation  date  and  the
              enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

              [VMS]  Save  VMS  file  attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)   When a -V archive is unpacked on a
              non-VMS system,  some file types (notably Stream_LF text files  and  pure binary files  like  fixed-512)
              should  be extracted intact.  Indexed files and file types with embedded record sizes (notably variable-
              length record types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks in a file,  including  any  data  beyond  EOF.
              Useful  for  moving  ill-formed files  among  VMS systems.   When a -VV archive is unpacked on a non-VMS
              system, almost all files will appear corrupt.

              [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name, including multiple versions of files.  Default
              is to use only the most recent version of a specified file.

              [VMS]  Append  the  version number of the files to the name, including multiple versions of files, using
              the .nnn format.  Default is to use only the most recent version of a specified file.

              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles paths as strings and given the paths



              an input pattern such as


              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.  Note that in the first case  a
              directory  boundary  (/) was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will be included in the
              match, making wildcards local to a specific directory level.  So, with -ws enabled, only the second path
              would be matched.

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will  include  the  contents of foo in while excluding all the files that end in .o.  The
              backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip  at  all
              directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -xATexclude.lst

              which  will include the contents of foo in while excluding all the files that match the patterns
              in the file exclude.lst.

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value is assumed (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2, uid/gid and file times  on  Unix).   The
              zip  format  uses  extra fields to include additional information for each entry.  Some extra fields are
              specific to particular systems while others are applicable to all  systems.   Normally  when  zip  reads
              entries  from  an  existing  archive,  it reads the extra fields it knows, strips the rest, and adds the
              extra fields applicable to that system.  With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes  the  Uni-
              code and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields cannot be disabled).

              Negating  this option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but also copies over any unrecognized
              extra fields.

              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in the zip archive, instead of compress-
              ing  and  storing  the  file  referred  to  by  the link.  This can avoid multiple copies of files being
              included in the archive as zip recurses the directory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment is ended by a  line  containing
              just a period, or an end of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The comment can be
              taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods supported by zip are store and  deflate.
              Compression method can be set to:

              store  -  Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries with no compression.  This
              is generally faster than compressing entries, but results in no space savings.   This  is  the  same  as
              using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate  - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines that storing is better than deflation,
              the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method also becomes available.  Only some mod-
              ern  unzips  currently  support the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will be using before
              relying on archives using this method (compression method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -0 indicates no compression  (store
              all  files),  -1 indicates the fastest compression speed (less compression) and -9 indicates the slowest
              compression speed (optimal compression, ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

              Though still being worked, the intention is this setting will control compression speed for all compres-
              sion methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

              [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one filename per line.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the drive holding the first file to be compressed.  If
              you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive, use the drive name as first file
              name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates  the  archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in
       it, in compressed form (the .zip suffix is added automatically, unless the archive name contains a dot already;
       this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because  of  the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files starting with "." are not included; to
       include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive, containing all the files and directories in the directory foo  that  is  contained
       within the current directory.

       You  may  want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo, without recording the directory name, foo.
       You can use the -j option to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the cor-
       responding  compressed zip archive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps using the -m option.  If
       foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two add to it.  At the completion of  each  zip  command,
       the last created archive is deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       Use  -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given as a number followed optionally by
       one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB each.  If foo  contained  5 GB  of
       contents  and  the contents were stored in the split archive without compression (to make this example simple),
       this would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02 at 2 GB, and at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read
       the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip  does  not  update  split  archives,  zip provides the new option -O (--output-file) to allow split
       archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the resulting archive to   If is split then defaults to the same split size.  Be aware that and any split files that are created with it are always overwritten without warning.   This  may
       be changed in the future.

       This section applies only to Unix.  Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.  However, the spe-
       cial wildcard characters * and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

       The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also called "globbing") on  com-
       mand arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character  in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of
              wildcard matching allows a user to specify a list of characters between square brackets and  if  any  of
              the characters match the expression matches.  For example:

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in .h or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

              Negation  is  also supported, where any character in that position not in the list matches.  Negation is
              supported by adding ! or ^ to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option to avoid the confusion that names with [
              or ] have caused.

       When  these  characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes), the shell will look
       for files relative to the current path that match the pattern, and replace the argument  with  a  list  of  the
       names that matched.

       The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or, in the case of
       the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of files to be  operated  on,  by  using  backslashes  or
       quotes  to  tell the shell not to do the name expansion.  In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of
       files to do, it first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then adds it to  the  list  of
       files  to  do.  If it does not find it, it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists),
       using the pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each match, it will add  that  name  to
       the list of files to be processed, unless this name matches one given with the -x option, or does not match any
       name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in ".o", no matter  what
       the  path  prefix  is.  Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire
       argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to make zip do the pattern  matching
       for  file  paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and
       anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.

       The following environment variables are read and used by zip as described.

              contains default options that will be used when running zip.  The contents of this environment  variable
              will get added to the command line just after the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC  OS]  contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the speci-
              fied extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following  val-
       ues, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a  generic  error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing may have completed successfully
                     anyway; some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-arounds.

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization.

              5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing probably failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to be processed (such as input files larger than 2 GB when  not  using  Zip64  or
                     trying  to  read  an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large to be split with zip-

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-looking things, so zip instead  maps  them
       into  VMS-style status codes.  In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2* Unix_status, and an
       appropriate Severity (as specified in ziperr.h).  More details are included in the VMS-specific  documentation.
       See [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP 1.10, if they contain  encrypted  members
       or  if  they  have  been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would
       create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but  cannot
       extract  it  anyway  (because  of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and use regular
       disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only stream-LF format zip files are  expected
       to  work with zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.  This version of zip handles some
       of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to transfer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set  file  type
       block"  on  VMS.   When  transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.  In both cases, type
       "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specifications that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign.   This  is  a
       bug  in  OS/2  itself:  the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don't find such names.  Other programs such as GNU tar are
       also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the  amount  returned  by
       the  16-bit  version  of  DosQueryPathInfo().  Otherwise  OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA sizes when
       DIRing a file.  However, the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,  it
       uses  extra  padding  bytes  and link pointers (it's a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for
       portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. Therefore the value reported by  zip  (which  uses  this  32-bit-mode
       size)  differs  from that reported by DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-
       compiled version running on OS/2 1.3, so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly, Onno van der Linden,  Kai  Uwe  Rommel,
       Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission  is  granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute this software so long as
       all of the original files are included, that it is not sold for profit,  and  that  this  copyright  notice  is


       Please  send bug reports and comments using the web page at:  For bug reports, please include
       the version of zip (see zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the  machine  and  operating
       system in use, and as much additional information as possible.

       Thanks  to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this project, and from which the shrink algo-
       rithm was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format,  compression  format,  and
       .ZIP  filename  extension, and for accepting minor changes to the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications
       on the deflate format; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compres-
       sion  algorithm;  to Keith Petersen, Rich Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and
       ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly, to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the  file
       infozip.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible.
       Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into  this  mess
       in  the  first  place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated by E. Gordon for
       zip 3.0.

Info-ZIP                      16 June 2008 (v3.0)                      ZIP(1L)