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XXD(1)                                                                  XXD(1)

       xxd - make a hexdump or do the reverse.

       xxd -h[elp]
       xxd [options] [infile [outfile]]
       xxd -r[evert] [options] [infile [outfile]]

       xxd  creates a hex dump of a given file or standard input.  It can also convert a hex dump back to its original
       binary form.  Like uuencode(1) and uudecode(1) it allows the transmission of binary data in a 'mail-safe' ASCII
       representation,  but  has  the  advantage  of decoding to standard output.  Moreover, it can be used to perform
       binary file patching.

       If no infile is given, standard input is read.  If infile is specified as a `-' character, then input is  taken
       from standard input.  If no outfile is given (or a `-' character is in its place), results are sent to standard

       Note that a "lazy" parser is used which does not check for more than the first option letter, unless the option
       is  followed by a parameter.  Spaces between a single option letter and its parameter are optional.  Parameters
       to options can be specified in decimal, hexadecimal or octal notation.  Thus -c8, -c 8, -c 010 and -cols 8  are
       all equivalent.

       -a | -autoskip
              toggle autoskip: A single '*' replaces nul-lines.  Default off.

       -b | -bits
              Switch  to  bits  (binary  digits) dump, rather than hexdump.  This option writes octets as eight digits
              "1"s and "0"s instead of a normal hexadecimal dump. Each line is preceded by a line number in  hexadeci-
              mal  and  followed  by  an ascii (or ebcdic) representation. The command line switches -r, -p, -i do not
              work with this mode.

       -c cols | -cols cols
              format <cols> octets per line. Default 16 (-i: 12, -ps: 30, -b: 6). Max 256.

       -E | -EBCDIC
              Change the character encoding in the righthand column from ASCII to EBCDIC.  This does  not  change  the
              hexadecimal representation. The option is meaningless in combinations with -r, -p or -i.

       -g bytes | -groupsize bytes
              separate  the  output  of every <bytes> bytes (two hex characters or eight bit-digits each) by a whites-
              pace.  Specify -g 0 to suppress grouping.  <Bytes> defaults to 2 in normal mode  and  1  in  bits  mode.
              Grouping does not apply to postscript or include style.

       -h | -help
              print a summary of available commands and exit.  No hex dumping is performed.

       -i | -include
              output  in  C  include  file style. A complete static array definition is written (named after the input
              file), unless xxd reads from stdin.

       -l len | -len len
              stop after writing <len> octets.

       -p | -ps | -postscript | -plain
              output in postscript continuous hexdump style. Also known as plain hexdump style.

       -r | -revert
              reverse operation: convert (or patch) hexdump into binary.  If not writing to stdout,  xxd  writes  into
              its output file without truncating it. Use the combination -r -p to read plain hexadecimal dumps without
              line number information and without a particular column layout. Additional  Whitespace  and  line-breaks
              are allowed anywhere.

       -seek offset
              When used after -r: revert with <offset> added to file positions found in hexdump.

       -s [+][-]seek
              start  at  <seek> bytes abs. (or rel.) infile offset.  + indicates that the seek is relative to the cur-
              rent stdin file position (meaningless when not reading from stdin).  - indicates that the seek should be
              that  many  characters  from  the end of the input (or if combined with +: before the current stdin file
              position).  Without -s option, xxd starts at the current file position.

       -u     use upper case hex letters. Default is lower case.

       -v | -version
              show version string.

       xxd -r has some builtin magic while evaluating line number information.  If the output file is  seekable,  then
       the linenumbers at the start of each hexdump line may be out of order, lines may be missing, or overlapping. In
       these cases xxd will lseek(2) to the next position. If the output file is not seekable, only gaps are  allowed,
       which will be filled by null-bytes.

       xxd -r never generates parse errors. Garbage is silently skipped.

       When  editing hexdumps, please note that xxd -r skips everything on the input line after reading enough columns
       of hexadecimal data (see option -c). This also means, that changes to the printable ascii (or  ebcdic)  columns
       are  always ignored. Reverting a plain (or postscript) style hexdump with xxd -r -p does not depend on the cor-
       rect number of columns. Here anything that looks like a pair of hex-digits is interpreted.

       Note the difference between
       % xxd -i file
       % xxd -i < file

       xxd -s +seek may be different from xxd -s seek, as lseek(2) is used to "rewind" input.  A '+' makes  a  differ-
       ence if the input source is stdin, and if stdin's file position is not at the start of the file by the time xxd
       is started and given its input.  The following examples may help to clarify (or further confuse!)...

       Rewind stdin before reading; needed because the 'cat' has already read to the end of stdin.
       % sh -c "cat > plain_copy; xxd -s 0 > hex_copy" < file

       Hexdump from file position 0x480 (=1024+128) onwards.  The '+' sign means "relative to the  current  position",
       thus the '128' adds to the 1k where dd left off.
       % sh -c "dd of=plain_snippet bs=1k count=1; xxd -s +128 > hex_snippet" < file

       Hexdump from file position 0x100 ( = 1024-768) on.
       % sh -c "dd of=plain_snippet bs=1k count=1; xxd -s +-768 > hex_snippet" < file

       However,  this  is  a  rare  situation  and the use of '+' is rarely needed.  The author prefers to monitor the
       effect of xxd with strace(1) or truss(1), whenever -s is used.

       Print everything but the first three lines (hex 0x30 bytes) of file.
       % xxd -s 0x30 file

       Print 3 lines (hex 0x30 bytes) from the end of file.
       % xxd -s -0x30 file

       Print 120 bytes as continuous hexdump with 20 octets per line.
       % xxd -l 120 -ps -c 20 xxd.1

       Hexdump the first 120 bytes of this man page with 12 octets per line.
       % xxd -l 120 -c 12 xxd.1
       0000000: 2e54 4820 5858 4420 3120 2241  .TH XXD 1 "A
       000000c: 7567 7573 7420 3139 3936 2220  ugust 1996"
       0000018: 224d 616e 7561 6c20 7061 6765  "Manual page
       0000024: 2066 6f72 2078 7864 220a 2e5c   for xxd"..\
       0000030: 220a 2e5c 2220 3231 7374 204d  "..\" 21st M
       000003c: 6179 2031 3939 360a 2e5c 2220  ay 1996..\"
       0000048: 4d61 6e20 7061 6765 2061 7574  Man page aut
       0000054: 686f 723a 0a2e 5c22 2020 2020  hor:..\"
       0000060: 546f 6e79 204e 7567 656e 7420  Tony Nugent
       000006c: 3c74 6f6e 7940 7363 746e 7567  <tony@sctnug

       Display just the date from the file xxd.1
       % xxd -s 0x36 -l 13 -c 13 xxd.1
       0000036: 3231 7374 204d 6179 2031 3939 36  21st May 1996

       Copy input_file to output_file and prepend 100 bytes of value 0x00.
       % xxd input_file | xxd -r -s 100 > output_file

       Patch the date in the file xxd.1
       % echo "0000037: 3574 68" | xxd -r - xxd.1
       % xxd -s 0x36 -l 13 -c 13 xxd.1
       0000036: 3235 7468 204d 6179 2031 3939 36  25th May 1996

       Create a 65537 byte file with all bytes 0x00, except for the last one which is 'A' (hex 0x41).
       % echo "010000: 41" | xxd -r > file

       Hexdump this file with autoskip.
       % xxd -a -c 12 file
       0000000: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  ............
       000fffc: 0000 0000 40                   ....A

       Create a 1 byte file containing a single 'A' character.  The number after '-r -s' adds to the linenumbers found
       in the file; in effect, the leading bytes are suppressed.
       % echo "010000: 41" | xxd -r -s -0x10000 > file

       Use xxd as a filter within an editor such as vim(1) to hexdump a region marked between 'a' and 'z'.

       Use xxd as a filter within an editor such as vim(1) to recover a binary hexdump marked between 'a' and 'z'.
       :'a,'z!xxd -r

       Use xxd as a filter within an editor such as vim(1) to recover one line of a hexdump.  Move the cursor over the
       line and type:
       !!xxd -r

       Read single characters from a serial line
       % xxd -c1 < /dev/term/b &
       % stty < /dev/term/b -echo -opost -isig -icanon min 1
       % echo -n foo > /dev/term/b

       The following error values are returned:

       0      no errors encountered.

       -1     operation not supported ( xxd -r -i still impossible).

       1      error while parsing options.

       2      problems with input file.

       3      problems with output file.

       4,5    desired seek position is unreachable.

       uuencode(1), uudecode(1), patch(1)

       The tools weirdness matches its creators brain.  Use entirely at your own risk. Copy files. Trace it. Become  a

       This manual page documents xxd version 1.7

       (c) 1990-1997 by Juergen Weigert

       Distribute freely and credit me,
       make money and share with me,
       lose money and don't ask me.

       Manual page started by Tony Nugent
       <> <>
       Small changes by Bram Moolenaar.  Edited by Juergen Weigert.

Manual page for xxd               August 1996                           XXD(1)