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UNIX(7)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   UNIX(7)



NAME
       unix, AF_UNIX, AF_LOCAL - Sockets for local interprocess communication

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/socket.h>
       #include <sys/un.h>

       unix_socket = socket(AF_UNIX, type, 0);
       error = socketpair(AF_UNIX, type, 0, int *sv);

DESCRIPTION
       The AF_UNIX (also known as AF_LOCAL) socket family is used to communicate between processes on the same machine
       efficiently.  Traditionally, Unix sockets can be either unnamed, or bound to a file system pathname (marked  as
       being of type socket).  Linux also supports an abstract namespace which is independent of the file system.

       Valid  types are: SOCK_STREAM, for a stream-oriented socket and SOCK_DGRAM, for a datagram-oriented socket that
       preserves message boundaries (as on most Unix implementations, Unix domain datagram sockets are always reliable
       and  don't  reorder  datagrams);  and (since Linux 2.6.4) SOCK_SEQPACKET, for a connection-oriented socket that
       preserves message boundaries and delivers messages in the order that they were sent.

       Unix sockets support passing file descriptors or process credentials to other processes using ancillary data.

   Address Format
       A Unix domain socket address is represented in the following structure:

           #define UNIX_PATH_MAX    108

           struct sockaddr_un {
               sa_family_t sun_family;               /* AF_UNIX */
               char        sun_path[UNIX_PATH_MAX];  /* pathname */
           };

       sun_family always contains AF_UNIX.

       Three types of address are distinguished in this structure:

       *  pathname: a Unix domain socket can be bound to a null-terminated file system pathname using  bind(2).   When
          the  address  of  the  socket  is  returned  by getsockname(2), getpeername(2), and accept(2), its length is
          sizeof(sa_family_t) + strlen(sun_path) + 1, and sun_path contains the null-terminated pathname.

       *  unnamed: A stream socket that has not been bound to a pathname using bind(2) has no name.  Likewise, the two
          sockets created by socketpair(2) are unnamed.  When the address of an unnamed socket is returned by getsock-
          name(2), getpeername(2), and accept(2), its length  is  sizeof(sa_family_t),  and  sun_path  should  not  be
          inspected.

       *  abstract:  an  abstract  socket address is distinguished by the fact that sun_path[0] is a null byte ('\0').
          All of the remaining bytes in sun_path define the "name" of the socket.  (Null bytes in  the  name  have  no
          special significance.)  The name has no connection with file system pathnames.  The socket's address in this
          namespace is given by the rest of the bytes in sun_path.  When the address of an abstract socket is returned
          by  getsockname(2),  getpeername(2),  and  accept(2), its length is sizeof(struct sockaddr_un), and sun_path
          contains the abstract name.  The abstract socket namespace is a non-portable Linux extension.

   Socket Options
       For historical reasons these socket options are specified with a SOL_SOCKET type even though they  are  AF_UNIX
       specific.   They  can  be  set  with  setsockopt(2) and read with getsockopt(2) by specifying SOL_SOCKET as the
       socket family.

       SO_PASSCRED
              Enables the receiving of the credentials of the sending process ancillary message.  When this option  is
              set  and the socket is not yet connected a unique name in the abstract namespace will be generated auto-
              matically.  Expects an integer boolean flag.

   Sockets API
       The following paragraphs describe domain-specific details and unsupported features of the sockets API for  Unix
       domain sockets on Linux.

       Unix  domain  sockets  do  not  support  the transmission of out-of-band data (the MSG_OOB flag for send(2) and
       recv(2)).

       The send(2) MSG_MORE flag is not supported by Unix domain sockets.

       The use of MSG_TRUNC in the flags argument of recv(2) is not supported by Unix domain sockets.

       The SO_SNDBUF socket option does have an effect for Unix domain sockets, but the  SO_RCVBUF  option  does  not.
       For datagram sockets, the SO_SNDBUF value imposes an upper limit on the size of outgoing datagrams.  This limit
       is calculated as the doubled (see socket(7)) option value less 32 bytes used for overhead.

   Ancillary Messages
       Ancillary data is sent and received using sendmsg(2) and recvmsg(2).  For historical reasons the ancillary mes-
       sage  types  listed  below are specified with a SOL_SOCKET type even though they are AF_UNIX specific.  To send
       them set the cmsg_level field of the struct cmsghdr to SOL_SOCKET and the cmsg_type field  to  the  type.   For
       more information see cmsg(3).

       SCM_RIGHTS
              Send or receive a set of open file descriptors from another process.  The data portion contains an inte-
              ger array of the file descriptors.  The passed file descriptors behave as though they have been  created
              with dup(2).

       SCM_CREDENTIALS
              Send or receive Unix credentials.  This can be used for authentication.  The credentials are passed as a
              struct ucred ancillary message.  Thus structure is defined in <sys/socket.h> as follows:

                  struct ucred {
                      pid_t pid;    /* process ID of the sending process */
                      uid_t uid;    /* user ID of the sending process */
                      gid_t gid;    /* group ID of the sending process */
                  };

              Since glibc 2.8, the _GNU_SOURCE feature test macro must be defined in order to obtain the definition of
              this structure.

              The  credentials which the sender specifies are checked by the kernel.  A process with effective user ID
              0 is allowed to specify values that do not match its own.  The sender must specify its  own  process  ID
              (unless  it  has  the  capability  CAP_SYS_ADMIN),  its user ID, effective user ID, or saved set-user-ID
              (unless it has CAP_SETUID), and its group ID, effective group ID, or saved set-group-ID (unless  it  has
              CAP_SETGID).  To receive a struct ucred message the SO_PASSCRED option must be enabled on the socket.

ERRORS
       EADDRINUSE
              Selected local address is already taken or file system socket object already exists.

       ECONNREFUSED
              connect(2)  called  with  a  socket object that isn't listening.  This can happen when the remote socket
              does not exist or the filename is not a socket.

       ECONNRESET
              Remote socket was unexpectedly closed.

       EFAULT User memory address was not valid.

       EINVAL Invalid argument passed.  A common cause is the missing setting of AF_UNIX  in  the  sun_type  field  of
              passed addresses or the socket being in an invalid state for the applied operation.

       EISCONN
              connect(2)  called  on  an  already  connected  socket  or a target address was specified on a connected
              socket.

       ENOMEM Out of memory.

       ENOTCONN
              Socket operation needs a target address, but the socket is not connected.

       EOPNOTSUPP
              Stream operation called on non-stream oriented socket or tried to use the out-of-band data option.

       EPERM  The sender passed invalid credentials in the struct ucred.

       EPIPE  Remote socket was closed on a stream socket.  If enabled, a SIGPIPE  is  sent  as  well.   This  can  be
              avoided by passing the MSG_NOSIGNAL flag to sendmsg(2) or recvmsg(2).

       EPROTONOSUPPORT
              Passed protocol is not AF_UNIX.

       EPROTOTYPE
              Remote socket does not match the local socket type (SOCK_DGRAM vs.  SOCK_STREAM)

       ESOCKTNOSUPPORT
              Unknown socket type.

       Other  errors can be generated by the generic socket layer or by the file system while generating a file system
       socket object.  See the appropriate manual pages for more information.

VERSIONS
       SCM_CREDENTIALS and the abstract namespace were introduced with Linux 2.2 and should not be  used  in  portable
       programs.  (Some BSD-derived systems also support credential passing, but the implementation details differ.)

NOTES
       In  the  Linux implementation, sockets which are visible in the file system honor the permissions of the direc-
       tory they are in.  Their owner, group and their permissions can be changed.  Creation of a new socket will fail
       if  the  process does not have write and search (execute) permission on the directory the socket is created in.
       Connecting to the socket object requires read/write permission.  This behavior differs  from  many  BSD-derived
       systems which ignore permissions for Unix sockets.  Portable programs should not rely on this feature for secu-
       rity.

       Binding to a socket with a filename creates a socket in the file system that must be deleted by the caller when
       it  is  no  longer  needed  (using  unlink(2)).  The usual Unix close-behind semantics apply; the socket can be
       unlinked at any time and will be finally removed from the file system when the last reference to it is  closed.

       To  pass  file  descriptors or credentials over a SOCK_STREAM, you need to send or receive at least one byte of
       non-ancillary data in the same sendmsg(2) or recvmsg(2) call.

       Unix domain stream sockets do not support the notion of out-of-band data.

EXAMPLE
       See bind(2).

SEE ALSO
       recvmsg(2), sendmsg(2), socket(2), socketpair(2), cmsg(3), capabilities(7), credentials(7), socket(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the project,  and  informa-
       tion about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2008-12-01                           UNIX(7)