Man Pages

strings(1p) - phpMan strings(1p) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


STRINGS(1P)                POSIX Programmer's Manual               STRINGS(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       strings - find printable strings in files

SYNOPSIS
       strings [-a][-t format][-n number][file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The strings utility shall look for printable strings in regular files and shall write those strings to standard
       output. A printable string is any sequence of four (by default) or more printable characters  terminated  by  a
       <newline> or NUL character. Additional implementation-defined strings may be written; see localedef.

OPTIONS
       The strings utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility
       Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -a     Scan files in their entirety. If -a is not specified, it is implementation-defined what portion of  each
              file is scanned for strings.

       -n  number
              Specify  the minimum string length, where the number argument is a positive decimal integer. The default
              shall be 4.

       -t  format
              Write each string preceded by its byte offset from the start of the file. The format shall be  dependent
              on the single character used as the format option-argument:

       d
              The offset shall be written in decimal.

       o
              The offset shall be written in octal.

       x
              The offset shall be written in hexadecimal.



OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A  pathname  of a regular file to be used as input. If no file operand is specified, the strings utility
              shall read from the standard input.


STDIN
       See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       The input files named by the utility arguments or the standard input shall be regular files of any format.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of strings:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or  null.  (See  the  Base
              Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  8.2,  Internationalization  Variables  for  the
              precedence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine  the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for exam-
              ple, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments  and  input  files)  and  to  identify
              printable strings.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine  the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages writ-
              ten to standard error.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       Strings found shall be written to the standard output, one per line.

       When the -t option is not specified, the format of the output shall be:


              "%s", <string>

       With the -t o option, the format of the output shall be:


              "%o %s", <byte offset>, <string>

       With the -t x option, the format of the output shall be:


              "%x %s", <byte offset>, <string>

       With the -t d option, the format of the output shall be:


              "%d %s", <byte offset>, <string>

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       By default the data area (as opposed to the text, "bss", or header  areas)  of  a  binary  executable  file  is
       scanned.  Implementations document which areas are scanned.

       Some  historical  implementations  do not require NUL or <newline> terminators for strings to permit those lan-
       guages that do not use NUL as a string terminator to have their strings written.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       Apart from rationalizing the option syntax and slight difficulties with object  and  executable  binary  files,
       strings is specified to match historical practice closely. The -a and -n options were introduced to replace the
       non-conforming - and - number options.

       The -o option historically means different things on different implementations. Some use it to mean " offset in
       decimal",  while  others  use  it  as  " offset in octal". Instead of trying to decide which way would be least
       objectionable, the -t option was added. It was originally named -O to mean "offset", but was changed to  -t  to
       be consistent with od.

       The  ISO C  standard  function  isprint()  is  restricted  to  a  domain  of  unsigned  char.  This  volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 requires implementations to write strings as defined by the current locale.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       localedef, nm

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifica-
       tions Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and  The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee  document.  The  original  Standard  can  be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                          STRINGS(1P)