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SHAR(1)                                                                SHAR(1)



NAME
       shar - create shell archives

SYNOPSIS
       shar [ options ] file ...
       shar -S [ options ]

DESCRIPTION
       Shar  creates  "shell archives" (or shar files) which are in text format and can be mailed.  These files may be
       unpacked later by executing them with /bin/sh.  The resulting archive is sent to standard  out  unless  the  -o
       option is given.  A wide range of features provide extensive flexibility in manufacturing shars and in specify-
       ing shar "smartness".  Archives may be "vanilla" or comprehensive.

OPTIONS
       Options have a one letter version starting with - or a long version starting with --.  The exception is --help,
       --version,  --no-i18n  and  --print-text-domain-dir which does not have short versions.  Mandatory arguments to
       long options are mandatory for short options too.  Options can be given in any order.  Some options  depend  on
       each other:
            The -o option is required if the -l or -L option is used.
            The -n option is required if the -a option is used.
            See -V below.

   Giving feedback:
       --help Print a help summary on standard output, then immediately exits.

       --version
              Print the version number of the program on standard output, then immediately exits.

       -q --quiet --silent
              Do not output verbose messages locally when producing the archive.

   Selecting files:
       -p  --intermix-type
              Allow  positional  parameter  options.   The options -B, -T, -z and -Z may be embedded, and files to the
              right of the option will be processed in the specified mode.

       -S  --stdin-file-list
              Read list of files to be packed from the standard input rather than from the command line.   Input  must
              be in a form similar to that generated by the find command, one filename per line.  This switch is espe-
              cially useful when the command line will not hold the list of files to be packed.  For example:

              find . -type f -print | \
                sort | \
                shar -S -Z -L50 -o /somewhere/big

              If -p is specified on the command line, then the options -B, -T, -z and -Z may be included in the  stan-
              dard  input  (on  a  line separate from filenames).  The maximum number of lines of standard input, file
              names and options, may not exceed 1024.

   Splitting output:
       -o XXX  --output-prefix=XXX
              Save the archive to files XXX.01 thru XXX.nn instead of sending it to standard out.  Must be  used  when
              the -l or the -L switches are used.

       -l XX  --whole-size-limit=XX
              Limit the output file size to XXk bytes but don't split input files.

       -L XX  --split-size-limit=XX
              Limit  output  file size to XXk bytes and split files if necessary.  The archive parts created with this
              option must be unpacked in correct order.

   Controlling the shar headers:
       -n name  --archive-name=name
              Name of archive to be included in the header of the shar files.  See the -a switch.

       -s who@where  --submitter=who@where
              Override automatically determined submitter name.

       -a  --net-headers
              Allows automatic generation of headers:
                   Submitted-by: who@where
                   Archive-name: <name>/part##
              The <name> must be given with the -n switch.  If name includes a '/' "/part" isn't used.  Thus:
                 -n xyzzy                      produces:
                                               xyzzy/part01
                                               xyzzy/part02

                 -n xyzzy/patch                produces:
                                               xyzzy/patch01
                                               xyzzy/patch02

                 -n xyzzy/patch01.             produces:
                                               xyzzy/patch01.01
                                               xyzzy/patch01.02

              The who@where can be explicitly stated with the -s switch if the default isn't  appropriate.   Who@where
              is essentially built as 'whoami'@'uname'.

       -c  --cut-mark
              Start the shar with a cut line.  A line saying 'Cut here' is placed at the start of each output file.

       -t  --translate
              Translate  messages  in  the script.  If you have set the LANG environment variable, messages printed by
              shar will be in the specified language.  The produced script will still be emitted using messages in the
              lingua  franca of the computer world:  English.  This option will cause the script messages to appear in
              the languages specified by the LANG environment variable set when the script is produced.

   Selecting how files are stocked:
       -M  --mixed-uuencode
              Mixed mode.  Determine if the files are text or binary and archive correctly (default).  Files found  to
              be binary are uudecoded prior to packing (USE OF UUENCODE IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE NET).

       -T  --text-files
              Treat all files as text.

       -B  --uuencode
              Treat  all files as binary, use uuencode prior to packing.  This increases the size of the archive.  The
              recipient must have uudecode in order to unpack.  (USE OF UUENCODE IS NOT APPRECIATED  BY  MANY  ON  THE
              NET).

       -z  --gzip
              Gzip  and  uuencode  all  files prior to packing.  The recipient must have uudecode and gzip in order to
              unpack (USE OF UUENCODE AND GZIP IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE NET).

       -g LEVEL  --level-for-gzip=LEVEL
              When doing compression, use '-LEVEL' as a parameter to gzip.  Default is 9.  The -g option turns on  the
              -z option by default.

       -Z  --compress
              Compress  and  uuencode  all  files  prior to packing.  The recipient must have uudecode and compress in
              order to unpack (USE OF UUENCODE AND COMPRESS IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE NET).  Option -C is syn-
              onymous to -Z, but is being deprecated.

       -b BITS  --bits-per-code=BITS
              When  doing  compression, use '-bBITS' as a parameter to compress.  The -B option turns on the -Z option
              by default.  Default value is 12.

   Protecting against transmission errors:
       -w  --no-character-count
              Do NOT check each file with 'wc -c' after unpack.  The default is to check.

       -D  --no-md5-digest
              Do NOT use 'md5sum' digest to verify the unpacked files. The default is to check.

       -F  --force-prefix
              Forces the prefix character (normally 'X' unless the parameter to the -d option starts with 'X')  to  be
              prepended  to  every  line  even  if  not  required.   This option may slightly increase the size of the
              archive, especially if -B or -Z is used.

       -d XXX  --here-delimiter=XXX
              Use XXX to delimit the files in the shar instead of SHAR_EOF.  This is for those who want to personalize
              their shar files.

   Producing different kinds of shars:
       -V  --vanilla-operation
              Produce "vanilla" shars which rely only upon the existence of sed and echo in the unsharing environment.
              In addition, "if test" must also be supported unless the -x option is used.  The  -V  silently  disables
              options offensive to the "network cop" (or "brown shirt"), but does warn you if it is specified with -B,
              -z, -Z, -p or -M (any of which does or might require uudecode, gzip or compress in the  unsharing  envi-
              ronment).

       -P  --no-piping
              Use temporary files instead of pipes in the shar file.

       -x  --no-check-existing
              Overwrite existing files without checking.  If neither -x nor -X is specified, the unpack will check for
              and not overwrite existing files when unpacking the archive.  If -c is passed  as  a  parameter  to  the
              script when unpacking:

                 sh archive -c

              then existing files will be overwritten unconditionally.

       -X  --query-user
              When  unpacking,  interactively ask the user if files should be overwritten.  (DO NOT USE FOR SHARS SUB-
              MITTED TO THE NET).

       -m  --no-timestamp
              Avoid generating 'touch' commands to restore the file modification dates when unpacking files  from  the
              archive.

       -Q  --quiet-unshar
              Verbose OFF.  Disables the inclusion of comments to be output when the archive is unpacked.

       -f  --basename
              Restore  by  filename  only,  rather than path.  This option causes only file names to be used, which is
              useful when building a shar from several directories, or another directory.  Note that  if  a  directory
              name  is  passed to shar, the substructure of that directory will be restored whether -f is specified or
              not.

   Internationalization:
       --no-i18n
              Do not produce internationalized shell archives, use default english messages.  By  default,  shar  pro-
              duces  archives  that  will try to output messages in the unpackers preferred language (as determined by
              the LANG/LC_MESSAGES environmental variables) when they are  unpacked.   If  no  message  file  for  the
              unpackers language is found at unpack time, messages will be in english.

       --print-text-domain-dir
              Prints  the  directory  shar  looks  in to find messages files for different languages, then immediately
              exits.

EXAMPLES
       shar *.c > cprog.shar                # all C prog sources
       shar -Q *.[ch] > cprog.shar          # non-verbose, .c and .h files
       shar -B -l28 -oarc.sh *.arc          # all binary .arc files, into
                                            # files arc.sh.01 thru arc.sh.NN
       shar -f /lcl/src/u*.c > u.sh         # use only the filenames

WARNINGS
       No chmod or touch is ever generated for directories created when unpacking.  Thus, if a directory is  given  to
       shar,  the  protection  and  modification  dates of corresponding unpacked directory may not match those of the
       original.

       If a directory is passed to shar, it may be scanned more than once.   Therefore,  one  should  be  careful  not
       change the directory while shar is running.

       Be careful that the output file(s) are not included in the inputs or shar may loop until the disk fills up.  Be
       particularly careful when a directory is passed to shar that the output files are not in that directory  (or  a
       subdirectory of that directory).

       Use  of the -B, -z or -Z, and especially -M, may slow the archive process considerably, depending on the number
       of files.

       Use of -X produces shars which WILL cause problems with many unshar procedures.   Use  this  feature  only  for
       archives to be passed among agreeable parties.  Certainly, -X is NOT for shell archives which are to be submit-
       ted to Usenet.  Usage of -B, -z or -Z in net shars will cause you to be flamed off the earth.  Not using -m  or
       not using -F may also get you occasional complaints.

SEE ALSO
       unshar(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Error  messages  for  illegal  or  incompatible  options, for non-regular, missing or inaccessible files or for
       (unlikely) memory allocation failure.

AUTHORS
       The shar and unshar programs is the collective work of many authors.   Many  people  contributed  by  reporting
       problems,  suggesting  various improvements or submitting actual code.  A list of these people is in the THANKS
       file in the sharutils distribution.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-gnu-utilsATgnu.org>.  Please put sharutils or uuencode in the subject  line.   It  helps  to
       spot the message.



                                 July 1, 2005                          SHAR(1)