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SCHED_SETSCHEDULER(2)      Linux Programmer's Manual     SCHED_SETSCHEDULER(2)

       sched_setscheduler, sched_getscheduler - set and get scheduling policy/parameters

       #include <sched.h>

       int sched_setscheduler(pid_t pid, int policy,
                              const struct sched_param *param);

       int sched_getscheduler(pid_t pid);

       struct sched_param {
           int sched_priority;

       sched_setscheduler()  sets both the scheduling policy and the associated parameters for the process whose ID is
       specified in pid.  If pid equals zero, the scheduling policy and parameters of the calling process will be set.
       The interpretation of the argument param depends on the selected policy.  Currently, Linux supports the follow-
       ing "normal" (i.e., non-real-time) scheduling policies:

       SCHED_OTHER   the standard round-robin time-sharing policy;

       SCHED_BATCH   for "batch" style execution of processes; and

       SCHED_IDLE    for running very low priority background jobs.

       The following "real-time" policies are also supported, for special time-critical applications that need precise
       control over the way in which runnable processes are selected for execution:

       SCHED_FIFO    a first-in, first-out policy; and

       SCHED_RR      a round-robin policy.

       The semantics of each of these policies are detailed below.

       sched_getscheduler()  queries the scheduling policy currently applied to the process identified by pid.  If pid
       equals zero, the policy of the calling process will be retrieved.

   Scheduling Policies
       The scheduler is the kernel component that decides which runnable process will be executed  by  the  CPU  next.
       Each  process  has  an associated scheduling policy and a static scheduling priority, sched_priority; these are
       the settings that are modified by sched_setscheduler().  The scheduler makes it decisions based on knowledge of
       the scheduling policy and static priority of all processes on the system.

       For  processes  scheduled  under  one of the normal scheduling policies (SCHED_OTHER, SCHED_IDLE, SCHED_BATCH),
       sched_priority is not used in scheduling decisions (it must be specified as 0).

       Processes scheduled under one of the real-time policies (SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR) have a sched_priority  value  in
       the  range  1  (low) to 99 (high).  (As the numbers imply, real-time processes always have higher priority than
       normal processes.)  Note well: POSIX.1-2001 only requires an implementation to support a  minimum  32  distinct
       priority  levels  for  the  real-time  policies,  and some systems supply just this minimum.  Portable programs
       should use sched_get_priority_min(2) and sched_get_priority_max(2) to find the range  of  priorities  supported
       for a particular policy.

       Conceptually,  the scheduler maintains a list of runnable processes for each possible sched_priority value.  In
       order to determine which process runs next, the scheduler looks for the non-empty list with the highest  static
       priority and selects the process at the head of this list.

       A process's scheduling policy determines where it will be inserted into the list of processes with equal static
       priority and how it will move inside this list.

       All scheduling is preemptive: if a process with a higher static priority becomes ready to  run,  the  currently
       running  process will be preempted and returned to the wait list for its static priority level.  The scheduling
       policy only determines the ordering within the list of runnable processes with equal static priority.

   SCHED_FIFO: First In-First Out scheduling
       SCHED_FIFO can only be used with static priorities higher than 0, which means that when a SCHED_FIFO  processes
       becomes  runnable,  it  will  always  immediately  preempt  any  currently running SCHED_OTHER, SCHED_BATCH, or
       SCHED_IDLE process.  SCHED_FIFO is a simple scheduling algorithm without time slicing.  For processes scheduled
       under the SCHED_FIFO policy, the following rules apply:

       *  A  SCHED_FIFO process that has been preempted by another process of higher priority will stay at the head of
          the list for its priority and will resume execution as soon as all processes of higher priority are  blocked

       *  When a SCHED_FIFO process becomes runnable, it will be inserted at the end of the list for its priority.

       *  A call to sched_setscheduler() or sched_setparam(2) will put the SCHED_FIFO (or SCHED_RR) process identified
          by pid at the start of the list if it was runnable.  As a consequence, it may preempt the currently  running
          process  if  it has the same priority.  (POSIX.1-2001 specifies that the process should go to the end of the

       *  A process calling sched_yield(2) will be put at the end of the list.

       No other events will move a process scheduled under the SCHED_FIFO policy in the wait  list  of  runnable  pro-
       cesses with equal static priority.

       A  SCHED_FIFO  process  runs until either it is blocked by an I/O request, it is preempted by a higher priority
       process, or it calls sched_yield(2).

   SCHED_RR: Round Robin scheduling
       SCHED_RR is a simple enhancement of SCHED_FIFO.  Everything described above  for  SCHED_FIFO  also  applies  to
       SCHED_RR,  except  that  each process is only allowed to run for a maximum time quantum.  If a SCHED_RR process
       has been running for a time period equal to or longer than the time quantum, it will be put at the end  of  the
       list  for  its  priority.   A  SCHED_RR process that has been preempted by a higher priority process and subse-
       quently resumes execution as a running process will complete the unexpired portion  of  its  round  robin  time
       quantum.  The length of the time quantum can be retrieved using sched_rr_get_interval(2).

   SCHED_OTHER: Default Linux time-sharing scheduling
       SCHED_OTHER  can  only  be used at static priority 0.  SCHED_OTHER is the standard Linux time-sharing scheduler
       that is intended for all processes that do not require the special real-time mechanisms.  The process to run is
       chosen  from  the  static priority 0 list based on a dynamic priority that is determined only inside this list.
       The dynamic priority is based on the nice value (set by nice(2) or setpriority(2)) and increased for each  time
       quantum  the process is ready to run, but denied to run by the scheduler.  This ensures fair progress among all
       SCHED_OTHER processes.

   SCHED_BATCH: Scheduling batch processes
       (Since Linux 2.6.16.)  SCHED_BATCH can only  be  used  at  static  priority  0.   This  policy  is  similar  to
       SCHED_OTHER  in that it schedules the process according to its dynamic priority (based on the nice value).  The
       difference is that this policy will cause the scheduler to always assume that  the  process  is  CPU-intensive.
       Consequently,  the  scheduler  will  apply a small scheduling penalty with respect to wakeup behaviour, so that
       this process is mildly disfavored in scheduling decisions.

       This policy is useful for workloads that are non-interactive, but do not want to lower their  nice  value,  and
       for  workloads  that  want  a  deterministic  scheduling policy without interactivity causing extra preemptions
       (between the workload's tasks).

   SCHED_IDLE: Scheduling very low priority jobs
       (Since Linux 2.6.23.)  SCHED_IDLE can only be used at static priority 0; the process nice value has  no  influ-
       ence for this policy.

       This  policy  is intended for running jobs at extremely low priority (lower even than a +19 nice value with the
       SCHED_OTHER or SCHED_BATCH policies).

   Privileges and resource limits
       In Linux kernels before 2.6.12, only privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE) processes can set  a  non-zero  static  priority
       (i.e., set a real-time scheduling policy).  The only change that an unprivileged process can make is to set the
       SCHED_OTHER policy, and this can only be done if the effective user ID of the  caller  of  sched_setscheduler()
       matches  the  real or effective user ID of the target process (i.e., the process specified by pid) whose policy
       is being changed.

       Since Linux 2.6.12, the RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit defines a ceiling on an unprivileged process's static pri-
       ority  for  the SCHED_RR and SCHED_FIFO policies.  The rules for changing scheduling policy and priority are as

       * If an unprivileged process has a non-zero RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit, then it can change its scheduling  policy
         and  priority,  subject to the restriction that the priority cannot be set to a value higher than the maximum
         of its current priority and its RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit.

       * If the RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit is 0, then the only permitted changes are to lower the priority, or to switch
         to a non-real-time policy.

       * Subject to the same rules, another unprivileged process can also make these changes, as long as the effective
         user ID of the process making the change matches the real or effective user ID of the target process.

       * Special rules apply for the SCHED_IDLE: an unprivileged process operating under this policy cannot change its
         policy, regardless of the value of its RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit.

       Privileged  (CAP_SYS_NICE) processes ignore the RLIMIT_RTPRIO limit; as with older kernels, they can make arbi-
       trary changes to scheduling policy and priority.  See getrlimit(2) for further information on RLIMIT_RTPRIO.

   Response time
       A blocked high priority process waiting for the I/O has a certain response time before it is  scheduled  again.
       The device driver writer can greatly reduce this response time by using a "slow interrupt" interrupt handler.

       Child  processes  inherit  the  scheduling  policy  and parameters across a fork(2).  The scheduling policy and
       parameters are preserved across execve(2).

       Memory locking is usually needed for real-time processes to avoid paging delays; this can be done with mlock(2)
       or mlockall(2).

       Since a non-blocking infinite loop in a process scheduled under SCHED_FIFO or SCHED_RR will block all processes
       with lower priority forever, a software developer should always keep available on the console a shell scheduled
       under  a higher static priority than the tested application.  This will allow an emergency kill of tested real-
       time applications that do not block or terminate as expected.  See also the description  of  the  RLIMIT_RTTIME
       resource limit in getrlimit(2).

       POSIX  systems  on  which  sched_setscheduler()  and  sched_getscheduler()  are  available define _POSIX_PRIOR-
       ITY_SCHEDULING in <unistd.h>.

       On success, sched_setscheduler() returns zero.  On success, sched_getscheduler() returns  the  policy  for  the
       process (a non-negative integer).  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

       EINVAL The  scheduling  policy is not one of the recognized policies, or param does not make sense for the pol-

       EPERM  The calling process does not have appropriate privileges.

       ESRCH  The process whose ID is pid could not be found.

       POSIX.1-2001 (but see BUGS below).  The SCHED_BATCH and SCHED_IDLE policies are Linux-specific.

       POSIX.1 does not detail the permissions that an unprivileged process requires in order to call  sched_setsched-
       uler(),  and  details vary across systems.  For example, the Solaris 7 manual page says that the real or effec-
       tive user ID of the calling process must match the real user ID or the save set-user-ID of the target  process.

       Originally,  Standard  Linux was intended as a general-purpose operating system being able to handle background
       processes, interactive applications, and less demanding real-time applications (applications that need to  usu-
       ally  meet timing deadlines).  Although the Linux kernel 2.6 allowed for kernel preemption and the newly intro-
       duced O(1) scheduler ensures that the time needed to schedule is fixed and deterministic  irrespective  of  the
       number of active tasks, true real-time computing was not possible up to kernel version 2.6.17.

   Real-time features in the mainline Linux kernel
       From  kernel version 2.6.18 onwards, however, Linux is gradually becoming equipped with real-time capabilities,
       most of which are derived from the former realtime-preempt patches developed by Ingo Molnar,  Thomas  Gleixner,
       Steven  Rostedt,  and  others.  Until the patches have been completely merged into the mainline kernel (this is
       expected to be around kernel version 2.6.30), they must be installed to achieve the best real-time performance.
       These patches are named:


       and can be downloaded from

       Without the patches and prior to their full inclusion into the mainline kernel, the kernel configuration offers
       only the three preemption classes  CONFIG_PREEMPT_NONE,  CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY,  and  CONFIG_PREEMPT_DESKTOP
       which respectively provide no, some, and considerable reduction of the worst-case scheduling latency.

       With  the  patches applied or after their full inclusion into the mainline kernel, the additional configuration
       item CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT becomes available.  If this is selected, Linux is transformed into a  regular  real-time
       operating system.  The FIFO and RR scheduling policies that can be selected using sched_setscheduler() are then
       used to run a process with true real-time priority and a minimum worst-case scheduling latency.

       POSIX says that  on  success,  sched_setscheduler()  should  return  the  previous  scheduling  policy.   Linux
       sched_setscheduler() does not conform to this requirement, since it always returns 0 on success.

       getpriority(2),   mlock(2),   mlockall(2),   munlock(2),   munlockall(2),  nice(2),  sched_get_priority_max(2),
       sched_get_priority_min(2), sched_getaffinity(2), sched_getparam(2),  sched_rr_get_interval(2),  sched_setaffin-
       ity(2), sched_setparam(2), sched_yield(2), setpriority(2), capabilities(7), cpuset(7)

       Programming  for  the  real  world  -  POSIX.4  by  Bill  O.  Gallmeister,  O'Reilly  &  Associates, Inc., ISBN

       The kernel source file Documentation/scheduler/sched-rt-group.txt (since kernel 2.6.25).

       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the project,  and  informa-
       tion about reporting bugs, can be found at

Linux                             2008-11-06             SCHED_SETSCHEDULER(2)