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SAR(1)                        Linux User's Manual                       SAR(1)



NAME
       sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.

SYNOPSIS
       sar  [ -A ] [ -b ] [ -B ] [ -C ] [ -d ] [ -h ] [ -i interval ] [ -m ] [ -p ] [ -q ] [ -r ] [ -R ] [ -S ] [ -t ]
       [ -u [ ALL ] ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -w ] [ -W ] [ -y ] [ -j { ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... }  ]  [  -n  {  keyword
       [,...]  | ALL } ] [ -I { int [,...] | SUM | ALL | XALL } ] [ -P { cpu [,...] | ALL } ] [ -o [ filename ] | -f [
       filename ] ] [ --legacy ] [ -s [ hh:mm:ss ] ] [ -e [ hh:mm:ss ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]

DESCRIPTION
       The sar command writes to standard output the contents of selected cumulative activity counters in the  operat-
       ing system. The accounting system, based on the values in the count and interval parameters, writes information
       the specified number of times spaced at the specified intervals in seconds.  If the interval parameter  is  set
       to  zero,  the  sar  command  displays the average statistics for the time since the system was started. If the
       interval parameter is specified without the count parameter, then reports are generated continuously.  The col-
       lected  data  can  also  be saved in the file specified by the -o filename flag, in addition to being displayed
       onto the screen. If filename  is  omitted,  sar  uses  the  standard  system  activity  daily  data  file,  the
       /var/log/sa/sadd  file,  where  the  dd parameter indicates the current day.  By default all the data available
       from the kernel are saved in the data file.

       The sar command extracts and writes to standard output records previously saved in a file.  This  file  can  be
       either the one specified by the -f flag or, by default, the standard system activity daily data file.

       Without  the  -P  flag, the sar command reports system-wide (global among all processors) statistics, which are
       calculated as averages for values expressed as percentages, and as sums otherwise. If the -P flag is given, the
       sar  command  reports  activity which relates to the specified processor or processors. If -P ALL is given, the
       sar command reports statistics for each individual processor and global statistics among all processors.

       You can select information about specific system activities using flags. Not specifying any flags selects  only
       CPU  activity.  Specifying the -A flag is equivalent to specifying -bBdqrRSvwWy -I SUM -I XALL -n ALL -u ALL -P
       ALL.

       The default version of the sar command (CPU utilization report) might be one of the first facilities  the  user
       runs  to begin system activity investigation, because it monitors major system resources. If CPU utilization is
       near 100 percent (user + nice + system), the workload sampled is CPU-bound.

       If multiple samples and multiple reports are desired, it is convenient to specify an output file  for  the  sar
       command.  Run the sar command as a background process. The syntax for this is:

       sar -o datafile interval count >/dev/null 2>&1 &

       All data is captured in binary form and saved to a file (datafile).  The data can then be selectively displayed
       with the sar command using the -f option. Set the interval and count parameters  to  select  count  records  at
       interval  second  intervals.  If  the  count  parameter  is  not set, all the records saved in the file will be
       selected.  Collection of data in this manner is useful to characterize system usage over a period of  time  and
       determine peak usage hours.

       Note:     The sar command only reports on local activities.


OPTIONS
       -A     This is equivalent to specifying -bBdqrRSuvwWy -I SUM -I XALL -n ALL -u ALL -P ALL.

       -b     Report I/O and transfer rate statistics.  The following values are displayed:

              tps
                     Total  number of transfers per second that were issued to physical devices.  A transfer is an I/O
                     request to a physical device. Multiple logical requests can be combined into a single I/O request
                     to the device.  A transfer is of indeterminate size.

              rtps
                     Total number of read requests per second issued to physical devices.

              wtps
                     Total number of write requests per second issued to physical devices.

              bread/s
                     Total  amount  of data read from the devices in blocks per second.  Blocks are equivalent to sec-
                     tors with 2.4 kernels and newer and therefore have a size of 512 bytes.  With  older  kernels,  a
                     block is of indeterminate size.

              bwrtn/s
                     Total amount of data written to devices in blocks per second.

       -B     Report  paging  statistics. Some of the metrics below are available only with post 2.5 kernels. The fol-
              lowing values are displayed:

              pgpgin/s
                     Total number of kilobytes the system paged in from disk  per  second.   Note:  With  old  kernels
                     (2.2.x) this value is a number of blocks per second (and not kilobytes).

              pgpgout/s
                     Total  number  of  kilobytes  the  system  paged  out to disk per second.  Note: With old kernels
                     (2.2.x) this value is a number of blocks per second (and not kilobytes).

              fault/s
                     Number of page faults (major + minor) made by the system per second.  This is not a count of page
                     faults that generate I/O, because some page faults can be resolved without I/O.

              majflt/s
                     Number of major faults the system has made per second, those which have required loading a memory
                     page from disk.

              pgfree/s
                     Number of pages placed on the free list by the system per second.

              pgscank/s
                     Number of pages scanned by the kswapd daemon per second.

              pgscand/s
                     Number of pages scanned directly per second.

              pgsteal/s
                     Number of pages the system has reclaimed from cache (pagecache and swapcache) per second to  sat-
                     isfy its memory demands.

              %vmeff
                     Calculated as pgsteal / pgscan, this is a metric of the efficiency of page reclaim. If it is near
                     100% then almost every page coming off the tail of the inactive list is being reaped. If it  gets
                     too  low  (e.g.  less than 30%) then the virtual memory is having some difficulty.  This field is
                     displayed as zero if no pages have been scanned during the interval of time.

       -C     When reading data from a file, tell sar to display comments that have been inserted by sadc.

       -d     Report activity for each block device (kernels 2.4 and newer only).  When data is displayed, the  device
              specification  dev  m-n  is  generally  used  ( DEV column).  m is the major number of the device.  With
              recent kernels (post 2.5), n is the minor number of the device, but is only a sequence number  with  pre
              2.5 kernels. Device names may also be pretty-printed if option -p is used or persistent device names can
              be printed if option -j is used (see below). Values for fields avgqu-sz, await, svctm and %util  may  be
              unavailable  and  displayed  as  0.00  with  some  2.4 kernels.  Note that disk activity depends on sadc
              options "-S DISK" and "-S XDISK" to be collected. The following values are displayed:

              tps
                     Indicate the number of transfers per second that were issued to  the  device.   Multiple  logical
                     requests  can be combined into a single I/O request to the device. A transfer is of indeterminate
                     size.

              rd_sec/s
                     Number of sectors read from the device. The size of a sector is 512 bytes.

              wr_sec/s
                     Number of sectors written to the device. The size of a sector is 512 bytes.

              avgrq-sz
                     The average size (in sectors) of the requests that were issued to the device.

              avgqu-sz
                     The average queue length of the requests that were issued to the device.

              await
                     The average time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests issued to  the  device  to  be  served.  This
                     includes the time spent by the requests in queue and the time spent servicing them.

              svctm
                     The average service time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests that were issued to the device.

              %util
                     Percentage  of  elapsed  time during which I/O requests were issued to the device (bandwidth uti-
                     lization for the device). Device saturation occurs when this value is close to 100%.

       -e [ hh:mm:ss ]
              Set the ending time of the report. The default ending time is 18:00:00. Hours must be given  in  24-hour
              format.  This option can be used when data are read from or written to a file (options -f or -o ).

       -f [ filename ]
              Extract  records  from  filename  (created  by  the -o filename flag). The default value of the filename
              parameter is the current daily data file, the /var/log/sa/sadd file. The -f option is exclusive  of  the
              -o option.

       -h     Display a short help message then exit.

       -i interval
              Select data records at seconds as close as possible to the number specified by the interval parameter.

       -I { int [,...] | SUM | ALL | XALL }
              Report statistics for a given interrupt.  int is the interrupt number. Specifying multiple -I int param-
              eters on the command line will look at multiple independent interrupts.  The SUM keyword indicates  that
              the  total  number  of interrupts received per second is to be displayed. The ALL keyword indicates that
              statistics from the first 16 interrupts are to be reported, whereas  the  XALL  keyword  indicates  that
              statistics  from  all  interrupts, including potential APIC interrupt sources, are to be reported.  Note
              that interrupt statistics depend on sadc option "-S INT" to be collected.

       -j { ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... }
              Display persistent device names. Use this option in conjunction with option -d.  Options ID, LABEL, etc.
              specify the type of the persistent name. These options are not limited, only prerequisite is that direc-
              tory with required persistent names is present in /dev/disk.  If persistent name is not  found  for  the
              device, the device name is pretty-printed (see option -p below).

       --legacy
              Enable  reading older /var/log/sa/sadd data files.  In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3, the sysstat package
              was updated to version 9.0.4-20. This update changed the format  of  /var/log/sa/sadd  data  files,  but
              unfortunately,  the format version was not updated. Because of this, sysstat did not restrict reading of
              data files in old format and while interpreting them, some displayed values could have  been  incorrect.
              The  updated sysstat package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 contains fixed format version of data files
              and prevents reading data files created by older sysstat packages.  However, data files created  by  the
              sysstat packages from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 and 6.4 are fully compatible with the sysstat package
              from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5. To enable latest sysstat to read older data files, use  this  option.
              Note  that  this  option  allows you to read also data files created on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and
              earlier, however, these files are not compatible with the latest sysstat package.

       -m     Report power management statistics.  Note that these statistics depend on sadc option "-S POWER"  to  be
              collected.  The following value is displayed:

              MHz
                     CPU clock frequency in MHz.

       -n { keyword [,...] | ALL }
              Report network statistics.

              Possible  keywords  are  DEV,  EDEV,  NFS, NFSD, SOCK, IP, EIP, ICMP, EICMP, TCP, ETCP, UDP, SOCK6, IP6,
              EIP6, ICMP6, EICMP6 and UDP6.

              With the DEV keyword, statistics from the network devices are reported.  The following values  are  dis-
              played:

              IFACE
                     Name of the network interface for which statistics are reported.

              rxpck/s
                     Total number of packets received per second.

              txpck/s
                     Total number of packets transmitted per second.

              rxkB/s
                     Total number of kilobytes received per second.

              txkB/s
                     Total number of kilobytes transmitted per second.

              rxcmp/s
                     Number of compressed packets received per second (for cslip etc.).

              txcmp/s
                     Number of compressed packets transmitted per second.

              rxmcst/s
                     Number of multicast packets received per second.

              With  the EDEV keyword, statistics on failures (errors) from the network devices are reported.  The fol-
              lowing values are displayed:

              IFACE
                     Name of the network interface for which statistics are reported.

              rxerr/s
                     Total number of bad packets received per second.

              txerr/s
                     Total number of errors that happened per second while transmitting packets.

              coll/s
                     Number of collisions that happened per second while transmitting packets.

              rxdrop/s
                     Number of received packets dropped per second because of a lack of space in linux buffers.

              txdrop/s
                     Number of transmitted packets dropped per second because of a lack of space in linux buffers.

              txcarr/s
                     Number of carrier-errors that happened per second while transmitting packets.

              rxfram/s
                     Number of frame alignment errors that happened per second on received packets.

              rxfifo/s
                     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on received packets.

              txfifo/s
                     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on transmitted packets.

              With the NFS keyword, statistics about NFS client activity are reported.  The following values are  dis-
              played:

              call/s
                     Number of RPC requests made per second.

              retrans/s
                     Number of RPC requests per second, those which needed to be retransmitted (for example because of
                     a server timeout).

              read/s
                     Number of 'read' RPC calls made per second.

              write/s
                     Number of 'write' RPC calls made per second.

              access/s
                     Number of 'access' RPC calls made per second.

              getatt/s
                     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls made per second.

              With the NFSD keyword, statistics about NFS server activity are reported.  The following values are dis-
              played:

              scall/s
                     Number of RPC requests received per second.

              badcall/s
                     Number of bad RPC requests received per second, those whose processing generated an error.

              packet/s
                     Number of network packets received per second.

              udp/s
                     Number of UDP packets received per second.

              tcp/s
                     Number of TCP packets received per second.

              hit/s
                     Number of reply cache hits per second.

              miss/s
                     Number of reply cache misses per second.

              sread/s
                     Number of 'read' RPC calls received per second.

              swrite/s
                     Number of 'write' RPC calls received per second.

              saccess/s
                     Number of 'access' RPC calls received per second.

              sgetatt/s
                     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls received per second.

              With  the SOCK keyword, statistics on sockets in use are reported (IPv4).  The following values are dis-
              played:

              totsck
                     Total number of sockets used by the system.

              tcpsck
                     Number of TCP sockets currently in use.

              udpsck
                     Number of UDP sockets currently in use.

              rawsck
                     Number of RAW sockets currently in use.

              ip-frag
                     Number of IP fragments currently in use.

              tcp-tw
                     Number of TCP sockets in TIME_WAIT state.

              With the IP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network traffic are  reported.   Note  that  IPv4  statistics
              depend  on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP names
              between square brackets):

              irec/s
                     The total number of input datagrams received from interfaces per second, including those received
                     in error [ipInReceives].

              fwddgm/s
                     The  number  of input datagrams per second, for which this entity was not their final IP destina-
                     tion, as a result of which an attempt was made to find a route to forward them to that final des-
                     tination [ipForwDatagrams].

              idel/s
                     The  total  number  of  input  datagrams  successfully  delivered per second to IP user-protocols
                     (including ICMP) [ipInDelivers].

              orq/s
                     The total number of IP datagrams which local IP user-protocols (including ICMP) supplied per sec-
                     ond  to IP in requests for transmission [ipOutRequests].  Note that this counter does not include
                     any datagrams counted in fwddgm/s.

              asmrq/s
                     The number of IP fragments received per second which needed to  be  reassembled  at  this  entity
                     [ipReasmReqds].

              asmok/s
                     The number of IP datagrams successfully re-assembled per second [ipReasmOKs].

              fragok/s
                     The  number  of  IP  datagrams  that  have been successfully fragmented at this entity per second
                     [ipFragOKs].

              fragcrt/s
                     The number of IP datagram fragments that have been generated per second as a result of fragmenta-
                     tion at this entity [ipFragCreates].

              With  the  EIP  keyword,  statistics  about IPv4 network errors are reported.  Note that IPv4 statistics
              depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP  names
              between square brackets):

              ihdrerr/s
                     The  number  of input datagrams discarded per second due to errors in their IP headers, including
                     bad checksums, version number mismatch, other format errors, time-to-live exceeded,  errors  dis-
                     covered in processing their IP options, etc. [ipInHdrErrors]

              iadrerr/s
                     The  number  of  input datagrams discarded per second because the IP address in their IP header's
                     destination field was not a valid address to be received at  this  entity.  This  count  includes
                     invalid addresses (e.g., 0.0.0.0) and addresses of unsupported Classes (e.g., Class E). For enti-
                     ties which are not IP routers and therefore do  not  forward  datagrams,  this  counter  includes
                     datagrams discarded because the destination address was not a local address [ipInAddrErrors].

              iukwnpr/s
                     The  number of locally-addressed datagrams received successfully but discarded per second because
                     of an unknown or unsupported protocol [ipInUnknownProtos].

              idisc/s
                     The number of input IP datagrams per second for which no problems  were  encountered  to  prevent
                     their  continued  processing, but which were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space) [ipInDis-
                     cards].  Note that this counter does not include any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assem-
                     bly.

              odisc/s
                     The  number  of  output  IP  datagrams per second for which no problem was encountered to prevent
                     their transmission to their destination, but which were  discarded  (e.g.,  for  lack  of  buffer
                     space)  [ipOutDiscards].   Note  that this counter would include datagrams counted in fwddgm/s if
                     any such packets met this (discretionary) discard criterion.

              onort/s
                     The number of IP datagrams discarded per second because no route could be found to transmit  them
                     to  their  destination  [ipOutNoRoutes].   Note that this counter includes any packets counted in
                     fwddgm/s which meet this 'no-route' criterion.  Note that this includes  any  datagrams  which  a
                     host cannot route because all of its default routers are down.

              asmf/s
                     The  number of failures detected per second by the IP re-assembly algorithm (for whatever reason:
                     timed out, errors, etc) [ipReasmFails].  Note that this is not necessarily a count  of  discarded
                     IP fragments since some algorithms can lose track of the number of fragments by combining them as
                     they are received.

              fragf/s
                     The number of IP datagrams that have been discarded per second because they needed  to  be  frag-
                     mented  at this entity but could not be, e.g., because their Don't Fragment flag was set [ipFrag-
                     Fails].

              With the ICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 network traffic are reported.  Note that  ICMPv4  statis-
              tics  depend  on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP
              names between square brackets):

              imsg/s
                     The total number of ICMP messages which the entity received per second [icmpInMsgs].   Note  that
                     this counter includes all those counted by ierr/s.

              omsg/s
                     The  total  number of ICMP messages which this entity attempted to send per second [icmpOutMsgs].
                     Note that this counter includes all those counted by oerr/s.

              iech/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received per second [icmpInEchos].

              iechr/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received per second [icmpInEchoReps].

              oech/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent per second [icmpOutEchos].

              oechr/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent per second [icmpOutEchoReps].

              itm/s
                     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages received per second [icmpInTimestamps].

              itmr/s
                     The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages received per second [icmpInTimestampReps].

              otm/s
                     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages sent per second [icmpOutTimestamps].

              otmr/s
                     The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages sent per second [icmpOutTimestampReps].

              iadrmk/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages received per second [icmpInAddrMasks].

              iadrmkr/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages received per second [icmpInAddrMaskReps].

              oadrmk/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages sent per second [icmpOutAddrMasks].

              oadrmkr/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages sent per second [icmpOutAddrMaskReps].

              With the EICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 error messages are reported.  Note that  ICMPv4  statis-
              tics  depend  on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP
              names between square brackets):

              ierr/s
                     The number of ICMP messages per second which the entity received but determined as  having  ICMP-
                     specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.) [icmpInErrors].

              oerr/s
                     The  number of ICMP messages per second which this entity did not send due to problems discovered
                     within ICMP such as a lack of buffers [icmpOutErrors].

              idstunr/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages received per second [icmpInDestUnreachs].

              odstunr/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent per second [icmpOutDestUnreachs].

              itmex/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received per second [icmpInTimeExcds].

              otmex/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent per second [icmpOutTimeExcds].

              iparmpb/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received per second [icmpInParmProbs].

              oparmpb/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent per second [icmpOutParmProbs].

              isrcq/s
                     The number of ICMP Source Quench messages received per second [icmpInSrcQuenchs].

              osrcq/s
                     The number of ICMP Source Quench messages sent per second [icmpOutSrcQuenchs].

              iredir/s
                     The number of ICMP Redirect messages received per second [icmpInRedirects].

              oredir/s
                     The number of ICMP Redirect messages sent per second [icmpOutRedirects].

              With the TCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network traffic are reported.  Note that  TCPv4  statistics
              depend  on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP names
              between square brackets):

              active/s
                     The number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the SYN-SENT state from  the
                     CLOSED state per second [tcpActiveOpens].

              passive/s
                     The  number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the SYN-RCVD state from the
                     LISTEN state per second [tcpPassiveOpens].

              iseg/s
                     The total number of segments received per second, including those received in error  [tcpInSegs].
                     This count includes segments received on currently established connections.

              oseg/s
                     The  total number of segments sent per second, including those on current connections but exclud-
                     ing those containing only retransmitted octets [tcpOutSegs].

              With the ETCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network errors are reported.  Note that  TCPv4  statistics
              depend  on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP names
              between square brackets):

              atmptf/s
                     The number of times per second TCP connections have made a direct transition to the CLOSED  state
                     from  either  the  SYN-SENT  state or the SYN-RCVD state, plus the number of times per second TCP
                     connections have made a direct transition to the LISTEN state from  the  SYN-RCVD  state  [tcpAt-
                     temptFails].

              estres/s
                     The  number of times per second TCP connections have made a direct transition to the CLOSED state
                     from either the ESTABLISHED state or the CLOSE-WAIT state [tcpEstabResets].

              retrans/s
                     The total number of segments retransmitted per second - that  is,  the  number  of  TCP  segments
                     transmitted containing one or more previously transmitted octets [tcpRetransSegs].

              isegerr/s
                     The  total number of segments received in error (e.g., bad TCP checksums) per second [tcpInErrs].

              orsts/s
                     The number of TCP segments sent per second containing the RST flag [tcpOutRsts].

              With the UDP keyword, statistics about UDPv4 network traffic are reported.  Note that  UDPv4  statistics
              depend  on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP names
              between square brackets):

              idgm/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

              odgm/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams sent per second from this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

              noport/s
                     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for which there was no application  at  the
                     destination port [udpNoPorts].

              idgmerr/s
                     The  number  of  received  UDP datagrams per second that could not be delivered for reasons other
                     than the lack of an application at the destination port [udpInErrors].

              With the SOCK6 keyword, statistics on sockets in use are reported (IPv6).   Note  that  IPv6  statistics
              depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed:

              tcp6sck
                     Number of TCPv6 sockets currently in use.

              udp6sck
                     Number of UDPv6 sockets currently in use.

              raw6sck
                     Number of RAWv6 sockets currently in use.

              ip6-frag
                     Number of IPv6 fragments currently in use.

              With  the  IP6  keyword,  statistics about IPv6 network traffic are reported.  Note that IPv6 statistics
              depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP  names
              between square brackets):

              irec6/s
                     The total number of input datagrams received from interfaces per second, including those received
                     in error [ipv6IfStatsInReceives].

              fwddgm6/s
                     The number of output datagrams per second which this entity received and forwarded to their final
                     destinations [ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams].

              idel6/s
                     The total number of datagrams successfully delivered per second to IPv6 user-protocols (including
                     ICMP) [ipv6IfStatsInDelivers].

              orq6/s
                     The total number of IPv6 datagrams which local IPv6 user-protocols (including ICMP) supplied  per
                     second  to  IPv6  in  requests for transmission [ipv6IfStatsOutRequests].  Note that this counter
                     does not include any datagrams counted in fwddgm6/s.

              asmrq6/s
                     The number of IPv6 fragments received per second which needed to be reassembled at this interface
                     [ipv6IfStatsReasmReqds].

              asmok6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams successfully reassembled per second [ipv6IfStatsReasmOKs].

              imcpck6/s
                     The number of multicast packets received per second by the interface [ipv6IfStatsInMcastPkts].

              omcpck6/s
                     The  number  of  multicast packets transmitted per second by the interface [ipv6IfStatsOutMcastP-
                     kts].

              fragok6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been successfully fragmented at this output interface  per
                     second [ipv6IfStatsOutFragOKs].

              fragcr6/s
                     The  number of output datagram fragments that have been generated per second as a result of frag-
                     mentation at this output interface [ipv6IfStatsOutFragCreates].

              With the EIP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network errors are reported.   Note  that  IPv6  statistics
              depend  on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP names
              between square brackets):

              ihdrer6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to errors in their IPv6 headers, including
                     version number mismatch, other format errors, hop count exceeded, errors discovered in processing
                     their IPv6 options, etc. [ipv6IfStatsInHdrErrors]

              iadrer6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per  second  because  the  IPv6  address  in  their  IPv6
                     header's  destination  field  was  not  a valid address to be received at this entity. This count
                     includes invalid addresses (e.g., ::0) and unsupported addresses (e.g.,  addresses  with  unallo-
                     cated  prefixes). For entities which are not IPv6 routers and therefore do not forward datagrams,
                     this counter includes datagrams discarded because the destination address was not a local address
                     [ipv6IfStatsInAddrErrors].

              iukwnp6/s
                     The  number of locally-addressed datagrams received successfully but discarded per second because
                     of an unknown or unsupported protocol [ipv6IfStatsInUnknownProtos].

              i2big6/s
                     The number of input datagrams that could not be forwarded per second because their size  exceeded
                     the link MTU of outgoing interface [ipv6IfStatsInTooBigErrors].

              idisc6/s
                     The  number  of input IPv6 datagrams per second for which no problems were encountered to prevent
                     their continued processing, but which were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer  space)  [ipv6IfS-
                     tatsInDiscards].  Note  that this counter does not include any datagrams discarded while awaiting
                     re-assembly.

              odisc6/s
                     The number of output IPv6 datagrams per second for which no problem was  encountered  to  prevent
                     their  transmission  to  their  destination,  but  which were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer
                     space) [ipv6IfStatsOutDiscards]. Note that this counter would include datagrams counted  in  fwd-
                     dgm6/s if any such packets met this (discretionary) discard criterion.

              inort6/s
                     The  number  of  input datagrams discarded per second because no route could be found to transmit
                     them to their destination [ipv6IfStatsInNoRoutes].

              onort6/s
                     The number of locally generated IP datagrams discarded per second because no route could be found
                     to transmit them to their destination [unknown formal SNMP name].

              asmf6/s
                     The  number  of failures detected per second by the IPv6 re-assembly algorithm (for whatever rea-
                     son: timed out, errors, etc.) [ipv6IfStatsReasmFails].  Note that this is not necessarily a count
                     of  discarded  IPv6  fragments since some algorithms can lose track of the number of fragments by
                     combining them as they are received.

              fragf6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been discarded per second because they needed to be  frag-
                     mented at this output interface but could not be [ipv6IfStatsOutFragFails].

              itrpck6/s
                     The  number  of  input  datagrams discarded per second because datagram frame didn't carry enough
                     data [ipv6IfStatsInTruncatedPkts].

              With the ICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 network traffic are reported.  Note that ICMPv6  statis-
              tics  depend  on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP
              names between square brackets):

              imsg6/s
                     The total number of ICMP messages received by the interface per second which includes  all  those
                     counted by ierr6/s [ipv6IfIcmpInMsgs].

              omsg6/s
                     The  total  number of ICMP messages which this interface attempted to send per second [ipv6IfIcm-
                     pOutMsgs].

              iech6/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received by the interface per  second  [ipv6IfIcmpInE-
                     chos].

              iechr6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  Echo  Reply  messages received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInE-
                     choReplies].

              oechr6/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo  Reply  messages  sent  by  the  interface  per  second  [ipv6IfIcmpOutE-
                     choReplies].

              igmbq6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMPv6  Group  Membership  Query  messages  received by the interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembQueries].

              igmbr6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages received  by  the  interface  per  second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembResponses].

              ogmbr6/s
                     The  number  of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages sent per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMem-
                     bResponses].

              igmbrd6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages received by  the  interface  per  second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembReductions].

              ogmbrd6/s
                     The  number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages sent per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMem-
                     bReductions].

              irtsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Router Solicit messages received by the interface  per  second  [ipv6IfIcmpIn-
                     RouterSolicits].

              ortsol6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  Router  Solicitation messages sent by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcm-
                     pOutRouterSolicits].

              irtad6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  Router  Advertisement  messages  received  by  the  interface  per  second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterAdvertisements].

              inbsol6/s
                     The  number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpIn-
                     NeighborSolicits].

              onbsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicitation messages sent by the interface  per  second  [ipv6IfIcm-
                     pOutNeighborSolicits].

              inbad6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  Neighbor  Advertisement  messages  received  by  the  interface per second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborAdvertisements].

              onbad6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages sent by the interface per  second  [ipv6IfIcm-
                     pOutNeighborAdvertisements].

              With  the EICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 error messages are reported.  Note that ICMPv6 statis-
              tics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed  (formal  SNMP
              names between square brackets):

              ierr6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  messages  per second which the interface received but determined as having
                     ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.)  [ipv6IfIcmpInErrors]

              idtunr6/s
                     The number of ICMP  Destination  Unreachable  messages  received  by  the  interface  per  second
                     [ipv6IfIcmpInDestUnreachs].

              odtunr6/s
                     The  number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcm-
                     pOutDestUnreachs].

              itmex6/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInTime-
                     Excds].

              otmex6/s
                     The  number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutTimeEx-
                     cds].

              iprmpb6/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpIn-
                     ParmProblems].

              oprmpb6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOut-
                     ParmProblems].

              iredir6/s
                     The number of Redirect messages received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRedirects].

              oredir6/s
                     The number of Redirect messages sent by the interface by second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRedirects].

              ipck2b6/s
                     The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInPkt-
                     TooBigs].

              opck2b6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Packet Too Big messages sent by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutPkt-
                     TooBigs].

              With the UDP6 keyword, statistics about UDPv6 network traffic are reported.  Note that UDPv6  statistics
              depend  on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (formal SNMP names
              between square brackets):

              idgm6/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

              odgm6/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams sent per second from this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

              noport6/s
                     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for which there was no application  at  the
                     destination port [udpNoPorts].

              idgmer6/s
                     The  number  of  received  UDP datagrams per second that could not be delivered for reasons other
                     than the lack of an application at the destination port [udpInErrors].

              The ALL keyword is equivalent to specifying all the keywords above and therefore all the network activi-
              ties are reported.

       -o [ filename ]
              Save the readings in the file in binary form. Each reading is in a separate record. The default value of
              the filename parameter is the current daily data file, the  /var/log/sa/sadd  file.  The  -o  option  is
              exclusive  of the -f option.  All the data available from the kernel are saved in the file (in fact, sar
              calls its data collector sadc with the option "-S ALL". See sadc(8) manual page).

       -P { cpu [,...] | ALL }
              Report per-processor statistics for the specified processor or processors.  Specifying the  ALL  keyword
              reports  statistics for each individual processor, and globally for all processors.  Note that processor
              0 is the first processor.

       -p     Pretty-print device names. Use this option in conjunction with option -d.  By default names are  printed
              as  dev  m-n  where m and n are the major and minor numbers for the device.  Use of this option displays
              the names of the devices as they (should) appear in /dev. Name mappings are controlled  by  /etc/syscon-
              fig/sysstat.ioconf.

       -q     Report queue length and load averages. The following values are displayed:

              runq-sz
                     Run queue length (number of tasks waiting for run time).

              plist-sz
                     Number of tasks in the task list.

              ldavg-1
                     System load average for the last minute.  The load average is calculated as the average number of
                     runnable or running tasks (R state), and the number of tasks in uninterruptible sleep  (D  state)
                     over the specified interval.

              ldavg-5
                     System load average for the past 5 minutes.

              ldavg-15
                     System load average for the past 15 minutes.

       -r     Report memory utilization statistics.  The following values are displayed:

              kbmemfree
                     Amount of free memory available in kilobytes.

              kbmemused
                     Amount  of  used  memory  in kilobytes. This does not take into account memory used by the kernel
                     itself.

              %memused
                     Percentage of used memory.

              kbbuffers
                     Amount of memory used as buffers by the kernel in kilobytes.

              kbcached
                     Amount of memory used to cache data by the kernel in kilobytes.

              kbcommit
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes needed for current workload.  This  is  an  estimate  of  how  much
                     RAM/swap is needed to guarantee that there never is out of memory.

              %commit
                     Percentage  of  memory  needed  for  current  workload  in relation to the total amount of memory
                     (RAM+swap).  This number may be greater than 100% because the kernel usually overcommits  memory.


       -R     Report memory statistics. The following values are displayed:

              frmpg/s
                     Number  of  memory pages freed by the system per second.  A negative value represents a number of
                     pages allocated by the system.  Note that a page has a size of 4 kB or  8  kB  according  to  the
                     machine architecture.

              bufpg/s
                     Number  of  additional  memory  pages used as buffers by the system per second.  A negative value
                     means fewer pages used as buffers by the system.

              campg/s
                     Number of additional memory pages cached by the system per second.  A negative value means  fewer
                     pages in the cache.

       -s [ hh:mm:ss ]
              Set the starting time of the data, causing the sar command to extract records time-tagged at, or follow-
              ing, the time specified. The default starting time is 08:00:00.  Hours must be given in 24-hour  format.
              This option can be used only when data are read from a file (option -f ).

       -S     Report swap space utilization statistics.  The following values are displayed:

              kbswpfree
                     Amount of free swap space in kilobytes.

              kbswpused
                     Amount of used swap space in kilobytes.

              %swpused
                     Percentage of used swap space.

              kbswpcad
                     Amount  of cached swap memory in kilobytes.  This is memory that once was swapped out, is swapped
                     back in but still also is in the swap area (if memory is needed it doesn't need to be swapped out
                     again because it is already in the swap area. This saves I/O).

              %swpcad
                     Percentage of cached swap memory in relation to the amount of used swap space.

       -t     When  reading data from a daily data file, indicate that sar should display the timestamps in the origi-
              nal locale time of the data file creator. Without this option, the sar command displays  the  timestamps
              in the user's locale time.

       -u [ ALL ]
              Report  CPU  utilization.  The  ALL  keyword indicates that all the CPU fields should be displayed.  The
              report may show the following fields:

              %user
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level (application). Note
                     that this field includes time spent running virtual processors.

              %usr
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level (application). Note
                     that this field does NOT include time spent running virtual processors.

              %nice
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level with nice priority.

              %system
                     Percentage  of  CPU  utilization that occurred while executing at the system level (kernel). Note
                     that this field includes time spent servicing hardware and software interrupts.

              %sys
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the system  level  (kernel).  Note
                     that this field does NOT include time spent servicing hardware or software interrupts.

              %iowait
                     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle during which the system had an outstanding disk
                     I/O request.

              %steal
                     Percentage of time spent in involuntary wait by the virtual CPU or CPUs while the hypervisor  was
                     servicing another virtual processor.

              %irq
                     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to service hardware interrupts.

              %soft
                     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to service software interrupts.

              %guest
                     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run a virtual processor.

              %idle
                     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle and the system did not have an outstanding disk
                     I/O request.

              Note: On SMP machines a processor that does not have any activity at all (0.00 for  every  field)  is  a
              disabled (offline) processor.

       -v     Report status of inode, file and other kernel tables.  The following values are displayed:

              dentunusd
                     Number of unused cache entries in the directory cache.

              file-nr
                     Number of file handles used by the system.

              inode-nr
                     Number of inode handlers used by the system.

              pty-nr
                     Number of pseudo-terminals used by the system.

       -V     Print version number then exit.

       -w     Report task creation and system switching activity.

              proc/s
                     Total number of tasks created per second.

              cswch/s
                     Total number of context switches per second.

       -W     Report swapping statistics. The following values are displayed:

              pswpin/s
                     Total number of swap pages the system brought in per second.

              pswpout/s
                     Total number of swap pages the system brought out per second.

       -y     Report TTY device activity. The following values are displayed:

              rcvin/s
                     Number  of  receive interrupts per second for current serial line. Serial line number is given in
                     the TTY column.

              xmtin/s
                     Number of transmit interrupts per second for current serial line.

              framerr/s
                     Number of frame errors per second for current serial line.

              prtyerr/s
                     Number of parity errors per second for current serial line.

              brk/s
                     Number of breaks per second for current serial line.

              ovrun/s
                     Number of overrun errors per second for current serial line.

              Note that with recent 2.6 kernels, these statistics can be retrieved only by root.


ENVIRONMENT
       The sar command takes into account the following environment variables:


       S_TIME_FORMAT
              If this variable exists and its value is ISO then the current locale will be ignored when  printing  the
              date in the report header.  The sar command will use the ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD) instead.


       S_TIME_DEF_TIME
              If this variable exists and its value is UTC then sar will save its data in UTC time (data will still be
              displayed in local time).  sar will also use UTC time instead of local time  to  determine  the  current
              daily data file located in the /var/log/sa directory. This variable may be useful for servers with users
              located across several timezones.

EXAMPLES
       sar -u 2 5
              Report CPU utilization for each 2 seconds. 5 lines are displayed.

       sar -I 14 -o int14.file 2 10
              Report statistics on IRQ 14 for each 2 seconds. 10 lines are displayed.   Data  are  stored  in  a  file
              called int14.file.

       sar -r -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa16
              Display memory and network statistics saved in daily data file 'sa16'.

       sar -A
              Display all the statistics saved in current daily data file.

BUGS
       /proc filesystem must be mounted for the sar command to work.

       All the statistics are not necessarily available, depending on the kernel version used.

FILES
       /var/log/sa/sadd
              Indicate the daily data file, where the dd parameter is a number representing the day of the month.

       /proc contains various files with system statistics.

AUTHOR
       Sebastien Godard (sysstat <at> orange.fr)

SEE ALSO
       sadc(8), sa1(8), sa2(8), sadf(1), isag(1), pidstat(1), mpstat(1), iostat(1), vmstat(8)

       http://pagesperso-orange.fr/sebastien.godard/



Linux                              MAY 2009                             SAR(1)