Man Pages

rsync(1) - phpMan rsync(1) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  

rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of copying.

       Rsync  is  a  fast  and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It can copy locally, to/from another host
       over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large  number  of  options  that  control
       every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is
       famous for its delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only
       the  differences  between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default) that looks for files
       that  have  changed  in  size  or  in  last-modified  time.   Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as
       requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the quick check indicates that the  file's
       data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it does not support copying
       files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a remote-shell program as  the  trans-
       port  (such  as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used
       whenever the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Con-
       tacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double colon (::) sepa-
       rator after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEA-
       TURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files are listed in an output
       format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote host, the copy occurs locally (see also
       the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to  the  local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".  Don't confuse "server"
       with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server, but a server can be either  a  daemon  or  a  remote-shell
       spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell (as well as some that
       you can access using the rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses  ssh  for  its
       communications,  but  it  may  have  been configured to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e command line option, or by  setting  the
       RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

       You  use  rsync  in  the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination, one of which may be

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory to the directory src  on  the
       machine  foo.  If  any of the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update protocol is
       used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo into the  /data/tmp/bar
       directory on the local machine. The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic links,
       devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in the  transfer.   Additionally,  compression
       will be used to reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing  slash  on  the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional directory level at the
       destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents  of  this  directory"  as
       opposed  to  "copy  the  directory  by  name", but in both cases the attributes of the containing directory are
       transferred to the containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each  of  the  following  commands
       copies the files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host and module references don't require a trailing slash to copy the contents of the default
       directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and destination don't have a ':' in the  name.
       In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you  can  list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon by leaving off the
       module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by specifying additional  remote-host  args
       in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still  works  (by  default)  in  the latest rsync, but is not as easy to use as the first

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either  specify  the  --protect-args  (-s)
       option, or you'll need to escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.  For instance:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It  is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case you will directly con-
       nect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the daemon to be running
       on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for informa-
       tion on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname from  the  path,  or
              you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths on the daemon will be

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified files on the remote daemon  is  pro-

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you will receive a password prompt when
       you connect. You can avoid the password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to the  pass-
       word you want to use or using the --password-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those systems using --password-file
       is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PROXY  to  a  host-
       name:port pair pointing to your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy connec-
       tions to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a  proxy  by  setting  the  environment  variable
       RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG  to  the commands you wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection.  The string
       may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a
       single "%" in your string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The  command  specified  above  uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all data to port 873
       (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such  as  named  modules)  without  actually
       allowing  any  new  socket connections into a system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell
       access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and  then  spawning  a  single-use  "daemon"
       server that expects to read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want
       to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may
       not be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a
       daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and  configure  a  normal  rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly the same command-line
       syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly set the remote
       shell  program  on  the  command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment
       will not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix in front of  the  host
       is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This means that you
       must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the  short
       version of the --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to the "module".

       In  order  to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon already running (or it needs
       to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon  for  incoming  connections  on  a  particular
       port).   For  full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming socket connections, see the
       rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how  to
       run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If  you're  using  one  of  the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to manually start an
       rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This handles the merging  together
       of  the contents of identically named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse
       someone when the files are transferred in a different order than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, either  separate  the  files  into  different
       rsync  calls,  or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer order, but does make
       the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and mail folders, I use  a  cron  job
       that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do CVS operations on the
       remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed description below for a
       complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
        -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
            --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
        -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both  long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash + letter) options.  The full list of the
       available options are described below.  If an option can be specified in more than one  way,  the  choices  are
       comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the
       parameter is only listed after the long variant, even though it must also be specified  for  the  short.   When
       specifying  a  parameter,  you  can either use the form --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The
       parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's  command-line  parsing.   Keep  in
       mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  For  backward-compatibility
              with  older  versions  of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option without any other

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.   By  default,  rsync
              works silently. A single -v will give you information about what files are being transferred and a brief
              summary at the end. Two -v options will give you  information  on  what  files  are  being  skipped  and
              slightly  more information at the end. More than two -v options should only be used if you are debugging

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups of --info and  --debug  options.
              You  can  choose  to  use  these  newer  options  in addition to, or in place of using --verbose, as any
              fine-grained settings override the implied settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a  way  to  ask
              for help that tells you exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want to see.  An individ-
              ual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence  that  output,  1  being  the
              default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,  and  what  flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note  that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See
              those options for more information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server  side  might  reject  your  attempts  at
              fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was too old to
              understand them).

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output you want  to  see.   An  individual
              flag  name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default
              output level, and higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for those that support higher  lev-
              els).   Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag names are
              added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note that some debug messages will only be output when --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those per-
              taining to I/O and buffer debugging.

              This  option  was  added  to  3.1.0,  so an older rsync on the server side might reject your attempts at
              fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was too old to
              understand them).

              This  option changes rsync to send all its output directly to stderr rather than to send messages to the
              client side via the protocol (which normally outputs info messages via stdout).  This is mainly intended
              for  debugging  in order to avoid changing the data sent via the protocol, since the extra protocol data
              can change what is being tested.  Keep in mind that a daemon connection does not have a  stderr  channel
              to  send  messages back to the client side, so if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging using this
              option, you should start up a daemon using --no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the dae-
              mon side.

              This  option  has  the  side-effect of making stderr output get line-buffered so that the merging of the
              output of 3 programs happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the transfer,  notably  suppressing
              information messages from the remote server. This option is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

              This  option  affects  the  information  that is output by the client at the start of a daemon transfer.
              This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list  of  modules  that  the
              daemon  sends  in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so
              omit this option if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same modification  times-
              tamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be updated.

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files that need to be transferred, changing it
              from the default of transferring files with either a changed size or a  changed  last-modified  time  to
              just looking for files that have changed in size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if they differ by no more than
              the  modify-window  value.   This  is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may find it useful to set
              this to a larger value in some situations.  In particular, when transferring to or from  an  MS  Windows
              FAT  filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second resolution), --modify-window=1 is useful (allow-
              ing times to differ by up to 1 second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of a transfer.  Without
              this  option,  rsync  uses a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and time of last
              modification match between the sender and receiver.  This option  changes  this  to  compare  a  128-bit
              checksum  for  each  file that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means that both sides will
              expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and this  is  prior  to  any
              reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so this can slow things down significantly.

              The  sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the file-system scan that builds the list of
              the available files.  The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for  changed  files,  and
              will  checksum  any file that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a
              changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was correctly reconstructed on the  receiving
              side  by checking a whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but that automatic
              after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this file
              need to be updated?" check.

              For  protocol  30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols,
              the checksum used is MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want  recursion  and  want  to  preserve
              almost  everything  (with  -H being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above equivalence is
              when --files-from is specified, in which case -r is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files is expensive.  You  must
              separately specify -H.

              You  may  turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the option name with "no-".  Not all options
              may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied by other options (e.g.  --no-D,  --no-perms)
              or have different defaults in various circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
              You may specify either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same
              as --no-relative).

              For  example:  if  you  want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead of converting -a
              into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the  -r  option  would  end  up  being
              turned  on,  the  opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from option are
              NOT positional, as it affects the default state of several options and slightly changes the  meaning  of
              -a (see the --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

              Beginning  with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan that uses much less
              memory than before and begins the transfer after the scanning of the first  few  directories  have  been
              completed.  This incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recur-
              sive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the  incremental  recur-
              sion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and --delay-updates.
              Because of this, the default delete mode when you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends
              of  the  connection  are  at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved deletion
              mode explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice than using --delete-after.

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are  sent  to  the
              server  rather  than  just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly useful when you want to
              send several different directories at the same time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote machine, preserving its  full  path.
              These extra path elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories
              in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real directories in the file
              list,  even  if a path element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents some really unex-
              pected behaviors when copying the full path of a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.
              If  you  want  to  duplicate  a server-side symlink, include both the symlink via its path, and referent
              directory via its real path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may need to
              use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied directories for each
              path you specify.  With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a  dot
              and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be followed by a slash,
              so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit
              the source path.  For example, when pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd" command doesn't remain in
              effect for future commands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only  for
              a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the --relative option.  When it is specified, the attributes
              of the implied directories from the source names are not included in the transfer.  This means that  the
              corresponding  path elements on the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any missing
              implied directories are created with default attributes.  This even allows these implied  path  elements
              to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving side.

              For  instance,  if  a  command-line  arg  or  a  files-from  entry  told  rsync  to  transfer  the  file
              "path/foo/file", the directories "path"  and  "path/foo"  are  implied  when  --relative  is  used.   If
              "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete
              "path/foo",  recreate  it  as  a  directory,  and  receive  the  file  into  the  new  directory.   With
              --no-implied-dirs,  the  receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which
              means that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link  preserva-
              tion is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to directories in the rest of
              the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option if the  sending  side
              has  a  symlink in the path you request and you wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is transferred or deleted.  You
              can control where the backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and
              --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if
              --delete  is  also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the
              backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will  prevent  previously
              backed-up  files from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may need
              to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it has  a  high
              enough  priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the
              auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all backups in the  specified  direc-
              tory  on  the receiving side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally specify a
              backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the files backed up in the specified  directory  will
              keep their original filenames).

              Note  that  if  you  specify  a  relative path, the backup directory will be relative to the destination
              directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../".  If
              an  rsync  daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take
              extra care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the  --backup  (-b)  option.  The
              default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time that is
              newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file has  a  modification  time  equal  to  the
              source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)

              Note  that  this  does not affect the copying of symlinks or other special files.  Also, a difference of
              file format between the sender and receiver is always considered to be important enough for  an  update,
              no matter what date is on the objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destina-
              tion has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it  doesn't  affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the
              file-lists,  and  thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests
              to be transferred.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated: instead of the default
              method  of  creating  a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete, rsync instead
              writes the updated data directly to the destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible through other hard  links  to
                     the  destination  file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked
                     destination file will result in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

              o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be updated (either the OS will prevent this from happening, or binaries
                     that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and will be left that way if
                     the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A  file  that  rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user can update any file, a
                     normal user needs to be granted write permission for the open of the file for writing to be  suc-

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if some data in the destination
                     file is overwritten before it can be copied to a position later in the file.  This does not apply
                     if you use --backup, since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed by others, so be careful
              when choosing to use this for a copy.

              This  option  is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes or appended data, and also
              on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help  keep  a  copy-on-write  filesystem
              snapshot from diverging the entire contents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The  option  implies  --partial  (since an interrupted transfer does not delete the file), but conflicts
              with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync  2.6.4  --inplace  was  also  incompatible  with
              --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  causes  rsync to update a file by appending data onto the end of the file, which presumes that the
              data that already exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of the file  on  the  sending
              side.   If  a  file  needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the
              size on the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-con-
              tent  attributes  (e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be transferred, nor
              does it affect the updating of any non-regular files.  Implies --inplace, but  does  not  conflict  with
              --sparse (since it is always extending a file's length).

              This works just like the --append option, but the existing data on the receiving side is included in the
              full-file checksum verification step, which will cause a file to be resent  if  the  final  verification
              step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior  to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if you are interacting
              with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either  append  option
              will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a direc-
              tory's contents are not copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing  slash
              (e.g.  ".",  "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all
              directories it encounters (and output a message to that effect for  each  one).   If  you  specify  both
              --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

              The  --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the --list-only option (including an implied
              --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in the listing).  Spec-
              ify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn this off.

              There  is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a
              hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the referent) is  copied,  rather  than  the
              symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the receiving side
              to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to
              specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only exception is when sending files to an
              rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the side-effect of
              -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This  tells  rsync  to copy the referent of symbolic links that point outside the copied tree.  Absolute
              symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source  path  itself  when
              --relative is used.  This option has no additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks
              are also ignored. Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected results.

              This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in a way that makes them  unus-
              able but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in
              a munged state.  This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in  a
              symlink to a unexpected place.

              The  way  rsync  disables  the  use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".
              This prevents the links from being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this  option  is
              enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it to affect the server, specify
              it via --remote-option.  (Note that in a local transfer, the client side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants munged symlinks  via
              its  "munge  symlinks" parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of
              the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were  a  real  direc-
              tory.   This  is  useful  if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they would be
              using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink  to  a  directory,  the
              receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierar-
              chy (as long as --force or --delete is in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want to follow only a  few
              specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash,
              using --relative to make the paths match up right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source  arg  as  given,  and  the  trailing  slash  makes
              lstat(2)  follow  the  symlink,  giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the symlink
              found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real  direc-
              tory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option, the receiver's sym-
              link would be deleted and replaced with a real directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file", but "foo" is a  symlink
              to directory "bar" on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recre-
              ates it as a directory, and receives the  file  into  the  new  directory.   With  --keep-dirlinks,  the
              receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in the copy!  If it is
              possible for an untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then  (on  a
              subsequent  copy) replace the symlink with a real directory and affect the content of whatever directory
              the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using something like a bind mount instead
              of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together the corresponding files
              on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are  treated  as  though  they
              were separate files.

              This  option  does  NOT  necessarily  ensure  that  the pattern of hard links on the destination exactly
              matches that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links include the

              o      If  the  destination  contains  extraneous  hard-links  (more linking than what is present in the
                     source file list), the copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.  However, if one or more
                     of  the  paths  have  content  differences, the normal file-update process will break those extra
                     links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking of  the  destination
                     files  against  the  --link-dest  files  can cause some paths in the destination to become linked
                     together due to the --link-dest associations.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the  transfer  set.   If  rsync
              updates  a file that has extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be
              broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you
              know  how  your files are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen due to
              lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may  transfer  a  missing  hard-linked  file
              before  it  finds  that another link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This does not
              affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files are hard-linked  together),  just  its  efficiency
              (i.e.  copying  the data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later in
              the transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency  is
              to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
              This  option  causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the same as the source
              permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers  to  be  the  source

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their existing permissions, though the --exe-
                     cutability option might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file's permissions masked with the
                     receiving  directory's  default permissions (either the receiving process's umask, or the permis-
                     sions specified via the destination directory's default ACL), and their special  permission  bits
                     disabled  except  in  the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent direc-

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior is the same as that of  other
              file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions, use --perms.  To give
              new files the destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make  sure  that
              the  --perms option is off and use --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get enabled).
              If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as
              putting  this  line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option, and includes --no-g to use
              the default group of the destination dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two "--no-*"  options  mentioned

              The  preservation  of  the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories when --perms is off was
              added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits  for
              newly-created  files  when  --perms  was off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync  2.6.7,  so  older
              (or  non-ACL-enabled)  rsyncs  use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in mind that it is
              the version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-executability)  of  regular  files  when
              --perms  is not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x' is turned on
              in its permissions.  When an existing destination file's executability differs from that of  the  corre-
              sponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

              o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a corresponding 'r' per-
                     mission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs.   The  option
              also implies --perms.

              The  source  and  destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option to work properly.
              See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compatible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be  the  same  as  the  source

              For  systems  that  support  extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a super-user copies all
              namespaces except system.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be able to  backup  and
              restore non-user namespaces as a normal user, see the --fake-super option.

              Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless
              you repeat the option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes  to  the  permission  of  the
              files  in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions that the send-
              ing side supplied for the file, which means that this option can seem to  have  no  effect  on  existing
              files if --perms is not enabled.

              In  addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that
              should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that should  only  apply
              to  a  file by prefixing it with a 'F'.  For example, the following will ensure that all directories get
              marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are user-writable  and  group-writable,  and
              that both have consistent executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It  is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is just appended to the
              list of changes to make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value can be applied to the
              files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as the source file, but
              only if the receiving rsync is being run as the  super-user  (see  also  the  --super  and  --fake-super
              options).   Without  this option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user
              on the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to  using  the
              ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as the source file.  If
              the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super  was  specified),  only  groups
              that the invoking user on the receiving side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but  may  fall  back  to
              using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

              This  option  causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote system to recreate
              these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the super-user (see  also
              the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the files and update them on the remote sys-
              tem.  Note that if this option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been mod-
              ified  cannot be effective; in other words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as
              if it used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm  will  make  the
              update fairly efficient if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This  tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see --times).  If NFS is
              sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option is inferred  if
              you use --backup without --backup-dir.

       -J, --omit-link-times
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving modification times (see --times).

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by
              the super-user.  These activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,  preserving  all
              groups  (not  just  the  current  user's  groups)  via  the --groups option, and copying devices via the
              --devices option.  This is useful for systems that allow such activities without being  the  super-user,
              and  also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the super-user.
              To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-super.

              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities by  saving/restoring  the  privileged
              attributes  via  special  extended attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).  This includes
              the file's owner and group (if it is not the default), the file's device info (device  &  special  files
              are created as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the real file
              (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's access (since the real
              super-user  can  always  access/change a file, the files we create can always be accessed/changed by the
              creating user).  This option  also  handles  ACLs  (if  --acls  was  specified)  and  non-user  extended
              attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This  is  a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs from incompatible sys-

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To affect the remote side of  a
              remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For  a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If you wish a local copy to
              enable this option just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy  to
              enable this option just for the source files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try  to  handle  sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on the destination.  Conflicts with
              --inplace because it's not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its eventual size before  writing  data  to
              the  file.  Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by Linux's fal-
              locate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3), not the slow glibc implementation  that  writes  a
              zero byte into each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem, but with this option
              rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the destination is not an extent-supporting  filesystem  (such
              as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and produces mostly the same output
              as a real run).  It is most commonly used in combination with  the  -v,  --verbose  and/or  -i,  --item-
              ize-changes options to see what an rsync command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and a subsequent real
              run (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a  bug.   Other  output
              should  be  mostly unchanged, but may differ in some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual
              data for file transfers, so --progress has no effect,  the  "bytes  sent",  "bytes  received",  "literal
              data", and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run where
              no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used and the whole file is sent as-is  instead.
              The  transfer may be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and destination
              machines is higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths, but
              only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does not limit the user's
              ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy
              of each directory that the user specified, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.   Also  keep  in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the same

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all  mount-point  directories  from  the  copy.   Otherwise,  it
              includes  an  empty  directory  at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the mounted
              directory because those of the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or --copy-unsafe-links), a  symlink  to  a
              directory  on  another device is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected
              by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist yet  on  the  destina-
              tion.  If this option is combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be updated (which can
              be useful if all you want to do is delete extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it  doesn't  affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the
              file-lists,  and  thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests
              to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the  destination  (this  does  not  ignore
              existing directories, or nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This  option  is  a  transfer  rule,  not  an  exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that goes into the
              file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the  receiver  requests
              to be transferred.

              This  option  can  be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when they need to con-
              tinue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new directory hierar-
              chy (when it is used properly), using --ignore existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't
              get tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean  that  this
              option is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This  tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of
              the transfer and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If you are using this  to
              move  files  that  show  up  in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that the finished
              files get renamed into the source directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't  possibly
              transfer  a  file  that  is  not yet fully written.  If you can't first write the files into a different
              directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet  fin-
              ished (e.g. name the file "" when it is written, rename it to "foo" when it is done, and then use
              the option --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error) if the file's size or
              modify time has not stayed unchanged.

              This  tells  rsync  to  delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren't on the sending
              side), but only for the directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send  the
              whole  directory  (e.g.  "dir"  or  "dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g.
              "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer  individ-
              ual files, not the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also excluded
              from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded option or mark the rules as only matching on the
              sending side (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with
              2.6.7, deletions will also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for  directories  whose  contents
              are being copied.

              This  option  can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to first try a run using the
              --dry-run option (-n) to see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the  destination  will  be
              automatically  disabled.  This  is  to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the
              sending side from causing a massive deletion of files on the destination.  You can  override  this  with
              the --ignore-errors option.

              The  --delete  option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as
              --delete-excluded.  However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will  choose  the
              --delete-during  algorithm  when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when
              talking to an older rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before the transfer starts.  See  --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and removing extraneous
              files would help to make the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay before the start  of
              the  transfer, and this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to  scan  all  the
              files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on the receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens.
              The per-directory delete scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates, so it  behaves
              like  a  more efficient --delete-before, including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter
              files being updated.  This option was first added in  rsync  version  2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side  be  computed  during  the  transfer  (like
              --delete-during), and then removed after the transfer completes.  This  is  useful  when  combined  with
              --delay-updates  and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differ-
              ently, since --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are  done).   If
              the  number  of  removed  files  overflows  an  internal buffer, a temporary file will be created on the
              receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it  during  the  trans-
              fer).   If the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after
              (which it cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is  implied)  for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer has completed.  This is
              useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer  and  you  want  their
              exclusions to take effect for the delete phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
              old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer  into
              memory at once (see --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              In  addition  to  deleting  the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells
              rsync to also delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).  See the  FILTER
              RULES  section for a way to make individual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to
              protect files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details  on  file-dele-

              When  rsync  is  first  processing the explicitly requested source files (e.g. command-line arguments or
              --files-from entries), it is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This option suppresses that
              error, and does not try to transfer the file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a
              file was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step farther:  each miss-
              ing  arg  will  become  a  deletion  request of the corresponding destination file on the receiving side
              (should it exist).  If the destination file is a non-empty  directory,  it  will  only  be  successfully
              deleted  if --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of any other
              type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries  which  display  as  a  "*missing"
              entry in the --list-only output.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

              This  option  tells  rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced by a non-directory.
              This is only relevant if deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required when using --delete-after, and it  used
              to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This  tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If that limit is exceeded, all fur-
              ther deletions are skipped through the end of the  transfer.   At  the  end,  rsync  outputs  a  warning
              (including a count of the skipped deletions) and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more impor-
              tant error condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any extraneous files  in
              the  destination without removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you
              don't know what version the client is, you can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as  a  backward-com-
              patible  way  to  specify  that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't warn when the
              limit was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The  SIZE  value
              can  be  suffixed  with  a  string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it  doesn't  affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the
              file-lists,  and  thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests
              to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte  (1024),  "M"  (or  "MiB")  is  a  mebibyte
              (1024*1024),  and  "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multiplier to be 1000
              instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally,
              if  the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direc-

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can  help
              in  not  transferring  small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description of SIZE and other

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value.   It  is  normally
              selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This  option  allows  you to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for communication between
              the local and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by default, but you  may
              prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND will be used to run
              an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that remote  shell  connec-
              tion,  rather than through a direct socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented to rsync as a  single
              argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and args from each
              other, and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an  argument  (but  not  back-
              slashes).   Note  that  doubling  a single-quote inside a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote;
              likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your shell is  parsing  and
              which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable, which accepts the
              same range of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

              Use  this to specify what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when
              rsync is not in the default remote-shell's path  (e.g.  --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that
              PROGRAM  is  run  with  the help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd
              care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to commu-

              One tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote machine for use with the --rel-
              ative option.  For instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to  be  limited  to  one
              side  of  the  transfer only.  For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the
              remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when  it  normally  affects  both
              sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be  cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync to have a different
              idea about what data to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you want  to  pass.   This  makes
              your useage compatible with the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in your remote
              options will be split by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote" side is the  receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that prevents you from using an
              adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this bug
              affects your version of popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is  a  useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files that you often don't want to transfer
              between systems. It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items are marked  as  per-
              ishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

                     RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old
                     *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln  core  .svn/  .git/
                     .hg/ .bzr/

              then,  files  listed  in  a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE
              environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of  the
              patterns  listed  therein.  Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.
              See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules,  you  should  note  that  these  CVS  excludes  are
              appended  at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line.  This
              makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these
              CVS  excludes  get  inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and
              use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and
              "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time import of the  CVS  excludes  mentioned

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option  allows  you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be
              transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list  of  files  to
              exclude.   If  the  filter  contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to
              rsync as a single argument.  The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace  the
              space that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The  -F  option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command.  The first time it is used
              is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that  have  been  sprinkled  through  the
              hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand
              for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule  and  does  not
              allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This  option  is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns
              (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is  -,
              the list will be read from standard input.

              This  option  is  a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not
              allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains  include  patterns
              (one  per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is -,
              the list will be read from standard input.

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the  specified
              FILE  or  - for standard input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just
              the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for
                     each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --dirs  (-d)  option  is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the
                     destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to  turn  that

              o      The  --archive  (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly,
                     if you want it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from  option
                     on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before
                     or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes  are
              removed  and  no  ".."  references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For example, take this

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"),  the  /usr/bin  directory  will  be  created  as
              /backup/bin on the remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents
              of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned  in  the  file  --  this
              began in version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would
              also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,  since  it
              is  not  implied  by -a).  Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to
              duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not  force  the  duplication  of  the
              source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the  --files-from  file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you
              specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As  a  short-cut,
              you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src"

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames  are  being  sent
              from  one  host  to  another,  the  filenames  will be translated from the sending host's charset to the
              receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as  it  will
              avoid  re-visiting  the  path  elements  that  are shared between adjacent entries.  If the input is not
              sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will
              eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.

       -0, --from0
              This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') charac-
              ter, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any  merged
              files  specified  in  a  --filter  rule.   It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the  remote  shell
              to  interpret them.  This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special charac-
              ters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.).  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also be translated from
              the local to the remote character-set.  The translation happens before  wild-cards  are  expanded.   See
              also the --files-from option.

              You  may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable.  If this variable has
              a non-zero value, this option will be enabled by default, otherwise it  will  be  disabled  by  default.
              Either  state  is  overridden  by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option (note
              that --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since this option was first introduced in
              3.0.0,  you'll  need to make sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is
              older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by default (with is  overridden
              by both the environment and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new default setting
              at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when  creating  temporary  copies  of  the
              files  transferred  on the receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each temporary file in the
              same directory as the associated destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold
              a  copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a dif-
              ferent disk partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file over  the  top  of
              the  associated  destination  file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying the
              file over the top of the destination file, which means that the destination file will contain  truncated
              data during this copy.  If this were not done this way (even if the destination file were first removed,
              the data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed  into  place)
              it  would  be  possible  for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and
              thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to combine it
              with  the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in
              the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
              all  the  arriving  files on the destination partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly
              concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because  this  tells
              rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will use the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into  place
              from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This  option  tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing.
              The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that has  an
              identical  size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching alternate destination direc-
              tories that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use
              --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to  compare
              destination files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination directory).  If a
              file is found in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT  be  transferred  to  the
              destination directory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from
              an earlier backup.  This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause  rsync
              to  search the list in the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that differs only in
              attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative  path,  it  is relative to the destination directory.  See also --copy-dest and

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty destination  hierarchy  if
              an exact match is found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more closely match
              a fresh copy).

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in  DIR  to  the
              destination directory using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while
              leaving existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when  all  files  have  been  successfully

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order
              specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of  the  DIRs  will  be
              selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also --compare-dest and

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR  to  the  destination
              directory.   The  files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly owner-
              ship) in order for the files to be linked together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also check  if  some  attributes  are  getting
              forced  outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a
              removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync  to
              search  the  list  in  the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that differs only in
              attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their
              attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.  Also, itemizing  of
              changes  can  get  a  bit muddled.  Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match
              would never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because
              it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional
              check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also  --compare-dest  and

              Note  that  rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly
              for a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding
              the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces
              the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.

              Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a  com-
              pressing  remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit information
              in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.

              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting it default.  If  NUM  is
              non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

              Override  the  list  of  file suffixes that will not be compressed.  The LIST should be one or more file
              suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside  the  square
              brackets  (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version of rsync):

              7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z

              This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from a daemon
              rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may  be  config-
              ured to a different default).

              With  this  option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names
              and mapping them at both ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to give files. The spe-
              cial  uid  0  and  the  special  group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids
              option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination  system,  then
              the  numeric  ID from the source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the "use chroot" set-
              ting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how the chroot setting  affects  rsync's  ability  to
              look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiv-
              ing side.  The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by  commas.   Any  matching  FROM
              value  from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user
              IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched
              against  the  sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*'
              matches everything).  You may instead specify a range of ID numbers via an  inclusive  range:  LOW-HIGH.
              For example:

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The  first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should specify all your user mappings using a
              single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you  should
              either  match  these  values  using  a  0,  or  use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically
              "root").  All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in  use
              on the receiving side.

              Any  IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose
              of matching.  This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For instance:

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as
              having  an  empty name.  This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map
              these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used (or implied), and  the
              receiver will need to be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option).  For the --groupmap
              option to have any effect, the -g (--groups) option must be used (or implied),  and  the  receiver  will
              need to have permissions to set that group.

              This  option  forces  all  files to be owned by USER with group GROUP.  This is a simpler interface than
              using --usermap and --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options  internally,  so  you
              cannot  mix  them.   If  either  the  USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will
              occur.  If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must
              be supplied.

              If   you   specify   "--chown=foo:bar,   this   is  exactly  the  same  as  specifying  "--usermap=*:foo
              --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the speci-
              fied time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This  option  allows  you  to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync
              daemon to succeed.  If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync  daemon.   The  --address
              option  allows  you  to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See also this option in
              the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873.  This is only  needed
              if  you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has
              a way to specify the port as a part of the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree.  You
              can  set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the man page for
              the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set.  By  default  no
              special  socket  options  are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon.
              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport.  If the  remote  shell  is
              either  rsh  or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking
              I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka  Full).
              You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case.

              The  main  use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync's output is going
              to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to  each  file,  including  attribute
              changes.   This  is  exactly  the  same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option,
              unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you  can
              use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages).

              The  "%i"  escape  has  a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The general format is like the string
              YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the  file-type,  and
              the other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

              o      A  c  means  that  a  local  change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a
                     directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being mod-

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The  file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a
              device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that  will  be  output  if  the  associated
              attribute  for  the  item  is being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this are: (1) a
              newly created item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces,
              and  (3)  an unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires  --checksum)  or  that  a
                     symlink,  device,  or special file has a changed value.  Note that if you are sending files to an
                     rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires
                     --times).  An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to  the  transfer
                     time,  which  happens when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is
                     changed and the receiver can't set its time.  (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you  might
                     see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being updated to the sender's value (requires

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --owner
                     and super-user privileges).

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --group and
                     the authority to set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information changed.

              One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each
              item  that  is  being  removed  (assuming  that  you  are  talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs
              deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message).

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis.  The
              format  is  a  text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent
              (%) character.   A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v  is  specified  (this
              tells  you  just  the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list of
              the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention  each  file,  dir,
              etc.  that  gets  updated  in  a  significant  way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a
              touched directory).  In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g.  if
              the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used),  the  logging of names increases to mention any item that is
              changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes  option
              for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync  will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic
              escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the file's  transfer.   When  this
              late  logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file
              being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the logging that a  dae-
              mon  does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon transfer.  If
              specified as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".   See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

              This  allows  you  to  specify  exactly  what  per-update  logging is put into the file specified by the
              --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect).  If you specify  an
              empty  string,  updated  files will not be mentioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape
              characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i %n%L'.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing  you  to  tell  how
              effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is equivalent to --info=stats2
              if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which  includes  directories,
                     symlinks, etc.  The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is
                     non-zero).  For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"  lists  the  totals  for
                     regular  files,  directories,  symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0, it is
                     completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed
                     to  updated).   The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is

              o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed
                     to  updated).   The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is
                     non-zero).  Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only  if  protocol
                     31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number  of  regular  files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync's
                     delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks,  etc.   Note  that  rsync  3.1.0
                     added the word "regular" into this heading.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.  This does not count any size
                     for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to
                     recreate the updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files.

              o      File  list  size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver.  This
                     is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of  duplicated  data
                     when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list.
                     This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file  list  to
                     the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server

              o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side
                     from the server side.  "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose mes-
                     sage that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them
              to  see  if  they're  valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All control characters
              (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed  by
              exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in
              a filename is not escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3 possible levels:  (1) output numbers with a
              separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is
              represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a  character  suffix  for
              larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The  default  is  human-readable  level 1.  Each -h option increases the level by one.  You can take the
              level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifing the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera).
              For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your  local
              decimal point).

              Backward  compatibility  note:   versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-readable level 1,
              and they default to level 0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable  manner
              in  old  and new versions as long as you didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options.
              See the --list-only option for one difference.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer  is  interrupted.  In  some
              circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells
              rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the  rest  of  the  file  much

              A  better  way  to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will be used to
              hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the next transfer,  rsync
              will  use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is found for a file  that
              is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-trans-
              fer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole  path).   This  makes  it
              easy  to  use  a  relative  path  (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the par-
              tial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the
              partial file is deleted.

              If  the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your
              existing excludes.  This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending
              side,  and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An exam-
              ple: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end  of
              any other filter rules.

              If  you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for
              the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your  other  rules,  or
              (2)  you  may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up
              any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a  "risk"
              filter  rule,  e.g.  -f 'R .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless you
              don't need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID

              You  can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.  Setting this in the
              environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial  files  go  when
              --partial  is specified.  For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option  to  turn
              on  the  use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that the --partial option does
              not look for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply --par-
              tial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of des-
              tination  files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the
              transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This attempts to make
              the updating of the files a little more atomic.  By default the files are placed into a directory  named
              ".~tmp~"  in  each  file's destination directory, but if you've specified the --partial-dir option, that
              directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion  of  how
              this  ".~tmp~"  dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup
              old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per  file  transferred)  and  also  requires
              enough  free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files.  Note
              also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of  any  of
              the  files  in  the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a single
              directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed
              updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place).

              See  also  the  "atomic-rsync"  perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even
              more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty  directories  from  the  file-list,  including
              nested  directories  that have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the creation of a
              bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note  that  the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect what goes into the
              file list, and thus does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the
              transfer rule.

              Because  the  file-list  is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted
              when a delete is active.  However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing
              items  from  being  deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files.
              See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global  "protect"
              filter.  For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only  creating  the  necessary  destination
              directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in the desti-
              nation are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you  didn't  want  to  remove  superfluous  destination  files,  the  more  time-honored  options  of
              "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"  would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This  gives  a  bored
              user    something    to   watch.    With   a   modern   rsync   this   is   the   same   as   specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence  (e.g.
              "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being
              reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the
              current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use.  For example, if the
              sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported  rate  will  probably
              drop  dramatically  when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much
              longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line  that  looks  like

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In  this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole
              file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th  trans-
              fer of a regular file during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to
              check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the file-list  until  it
              reaches  the  ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a
              line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the  point  that
              it  knows  the  full  size  of  the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing
              "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going  to  increase  (and
              each  time  it does, the count of files left to check  will increase by the number of the files added to
              the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose is to make it much easier  to  specify
              these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than
              individual files.  Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0 if
              you  want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names.  (You don't
              need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

              This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file  or  via  standard
              input  if  FILE  is -.  The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are
              ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command  finds
              a non-root-owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote  shell  as  the
              transport,  this  option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
              if you have also specified a password in the daemon's config file).

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This option is inferred if
              there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy com-
              mand that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with
              a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an  arg
              without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting  with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option.
              By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will  output  the  sizes
              with  unit  suffixes.   Note  also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14
              characters for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the  old
              column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility  note:   when  requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or
              older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This is because a file  list-
              ing  implies  the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this
              problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand  a  directory's  content),  or
              turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified
              in units per second.  The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size  multiplier,  and
              may  be  a  fractional  value  (e.g.   "--bwlimit=1.5m").   If no suffix is specified, the value will be
              assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See the --max-size  option
              for a description of all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              For  backward-compatibility  reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate
              smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size  of  the  blocks  that
              rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some "burstiness" may
              be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average  rate  into  compli-

              Due  to  the  internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how
              fast the data is being sent.  This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data
              is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.
              This may be fixed in a future version.

              Record a file that can later be applied to another identical  destination  with  --read-batch.  See  the
              "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works  like  --write-batch,  except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the
              batch.  This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via  some  other  means  and  then
              apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note  that  you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to
              capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and
              repeat  the  whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated
              destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system because this  allows  the
              batched  data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to
              the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch.  If  FILE  is  -,
              the batch data will be read from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible
              with an older version of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4  is  being  used  with  the  --write-batch
              option,  but  rsync  2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--proto-
              col=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in  the  batch  file
              (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells
              rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you can  fully  specify
              what  conversion  to  do  by  giving  a  local  and  a  remote charset separated by a comma in the order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the  option  will  stay  the
              same  whether  you're  pushing  or  pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a CON-
              VERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The default setting of this option is  site-specific,  and
              can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If  you  specify  the  --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the
              command-line that are being sent to the remote host.  See also the --files-from option.

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (including  include/exclude  files).
              It  is  up  to  you  to ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the
              transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are  filename  differences
              on the two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified
              in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass.  Thus,  you
              may feel free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only affects sockets that rsync has direct
              control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an  rsync  daemon.   See  also  these
              options in the --daemon mode section.

              If  rsync  was  complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect.  The --version
              output will tell you if this is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block  and  MD4
              file  checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed).  By default the check-
              sum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to  set  a
              specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the
              case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default
              of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells  rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may be accessed using an
              rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise  it  will
              detach  from  the current terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read the config file
              (rsyncd.conf) on each  connect  made  by  a  client  and  respond  to  requests  accordingly.   See  the
              rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

              By  default  rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option.  The
              --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  This makes  vir-
              tual  hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option.  See also the "address" global option in
              the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the  data  the  daemon  sends  over  the
              socket.   The  client  can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed.
              See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This is only relevant when --daemon is speci-
              fied.   The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the
              remote user is not the super-user; in that case the default is  rsyncd.conf  in  the  current  directory
              (typically $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
              This  option  can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is
              equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of  the  global  settings  prior  to  the  first  module's
              definition.  The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When  running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background pro-
              cess.  This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is
              supervised  by  a  program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or

              This  specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873.
              See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log  file"  set-
              ting in the config file.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" set-
              ting in the config file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in  which  case
              transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option  increases  the  amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase.  After the
              client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and
              the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to  prefer  IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to
              listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work  around
              an  IPv6  bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the
              port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no  effect.   The  --version
              output will tell you if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the options available for starting an
              rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include)  and  which  files  to  skip
       (exclude).   The  rules  either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more
       include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to  be  transferred  against  the
       list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an exclude pat-
       tern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching
       pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line.  Filter rules have the following


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you  use  a  short-named
       rule,  the  ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when
       present) must come after either a single space or an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described
       above  -- they only allow the specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and
       the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).  If a pattern does not  begin  with  "-  "  (dash,
       space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
       an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A --filter option, on the  other  hand,  must  always  contain
       either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones,
       you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file  syntax  of  the  --filter  option,  or  the
       --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You  can  include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced
       in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is  matched  against
       the names of the files that are going to be transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if  the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the hierarchy of files, oth-
              erwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expres-
              sions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule)
              or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule).  An unqualified "foo" would match a name of
              "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as
              if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the  filename.   Even  the  unanchored  "sub/foo"
              would  match  at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See
              the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that
              matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends  with  a  /  then it will only match a directory, not a regular file, symlink, or

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern  con-
              tains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in  a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is matched liter-
              ally when no wildcards are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against  the  full
              pathname,  including  any  leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is
              matched only against the final component of the filename.   (Remember  that  the  algorithm  is  applied
              recursively  so  "full  filename"  can  actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as  if  "dir_name/"  had  been  specified)  and
              everything  in  the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  This behavior was added in ver-
              sion 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subcomponent of every path is
       visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's full name
       (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not  be  excluded).   The  exclude
       patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files to send.  If a pattern
       excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual  because  rsync  did
       not  descend  through  that  excluded  section  of  the hierarchy.  This is particularly important when using a
       trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits  any  of  the
       files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to
       be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the  "-  *"  rule),  and  perhaps  use  the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need
       to be visited.  For instance, this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below a directory  named  foo  in
              the transfer-root directory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"  would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a directory named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but noth-
              ing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c
              (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the  cur-
              rent  item.  For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was send-
              ing files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a  dir
              named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A  ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match.  For instance,
              "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of
              the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used  to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule affects the sending
              side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect both  sides  unless
              --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide
              (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a rule affects the receiving
              side, it prevents files from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also the protect (P)
              and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it  is  ignored  in  directories  that  are  being
              deleted.   For  instance,  the  -C  option's  default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are
              marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being deleted
              on the destination.

       You  can  merge  whole  files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory (':').  A single-instance  merge
       file  is  read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule.  For
       per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named  file,  merging  its
       contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files must be
       created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for  the  available  files  to
       transfer.   These  rule  files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect
       what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other  rule-parsing  except
              for in-file comments.

       o      A  +  specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other rule-parsing except
              for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner.   This  turns  on  'n',
              'w',  and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no filename is provided,
              ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e .rules"  is  like  "dir-merge
              .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies  that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting.  This
              also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated  specially,
              so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You  may  also  specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules
              that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for  the  !  modifier,  which
              would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path
              excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules  apply  only
              on  the  sending  side.   If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both),
              then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-file was found  unless
       the  'n'  modifier  was used.  Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from
       its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set  of
       dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to over-
       ride dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing
       rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another  way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading
       slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so  a  pattern
       "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the
       ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan
       follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If  a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer direc-
       tory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the  indicated
       per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common filter (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root down through the par-
       ent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file  in  the  directories
       that  are  sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the mod-
       ule's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins
       looking  for  the  file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and
       only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use  the  rule  ":C",  which
       creates  a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to affect
       where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore  file  gets  placed  into  your
       rules  by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge
       rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a  lower  priority  than  your  com-
       mand-line rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in
       the middle of the list rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules  to  supersede  the  rules
       that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e.
       the default list of exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should  omit
       the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES
       section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while  pars-
       ing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdi-
       rectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to
       per-directory  patterns,  which are anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If you think of the transfer as a
       subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be
       duplicated in the destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing
       your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in  addition  to  changing
       how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with
       a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a
       / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without  a  delete  option,  per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to
       exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the  'e'  modifier  adds
       this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if  you  want  to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being
       deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The  easiest  way  is  to
       include  the  per-directory  merge  files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the
       receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some  global  exclude
       rules  (i.e.  specified  on the command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on
       the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side)  the
       rules  are  subservient  to  the  rules  merged  from  the  .rules  files because they were specified after the
       per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but  we  want  to
       use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must specif-
       ically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local
       files to control what else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which
       is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to  this  source  tree  and  those
       changes  need  to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the
       write-batch option to apply the changes made to  the  source  tree  to  one  of  the  destination  trees.   The
       write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this
       operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum,  and  data  block  generation
       more  than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer
       the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host  indi-

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the
       name of the same batch file, and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using  the  informa-
       tion stored in the batch file.

       For  your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used:  it will be named the
       same as the batch file with ".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line suitable for  updating  a
       destination  tree  using  the  associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell,
       optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname  which  is  then  used  instead  of  the  original
       destination  path.  This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used
       to create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the  information  to  repeat  this
       operation  is stored in "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going into
       the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in
       how you deal with batches:

       o      The  first  example  shows  that  the initial copy doesn't have to be local -- you can push or pull data
              to/from a remote host using either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The first example uses the created "" file to  get  the  right  rsync  options  when  running  the
              read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads  the batch data via standard input so that the batch file doesn't need to be
              copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the script because it needed  to  use  a
              modified  --read-batch  option, but you could edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just
              be sure that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to the destination  tree
       that  was  used to create the batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees is encoun-
       tered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the
       file-update  may  be attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This
       means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you  wish  to
       force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use the -I option (when
       reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In
       that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to generate the batch file.
       Rsync will die with an error if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the  batch-reading  rsync
       to  handle.   See also the --protocol option for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an
       older rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing  versions  older
       than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data in the batch file if
       you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be changed.   For
       instance  --write-batch  changes to --read-batch, --files-from is dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude
       options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into a single  list  that
       is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude
       list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this  detail  and  just
       use the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links are not transferred at all.  A message "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for
       any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the  same  target  on  the  destination.   Note  that
       --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where this might be used  is  a  web
       site  mirror  that  wishes  to  ensure  that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links to
       /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied  as
       the  file  they  point  to  on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links to be omitted alto-
       gether.  (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /), empty, or  if  they  contain
       enough ".." components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a  summary  of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of precedence, so if your
       combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most
       confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message  is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing unwanted garbage on
       the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your remote  shell
       like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero length file. If you are
       getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at
       the  contents  and  try to work out what is producing it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell
       startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.  At this level of ver-
       bosity rsync will show why each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot
              support them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable  supplements  any  ignore  patterns  in  .cvsignore  files.  See  the
              --cvs-exclude option for more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify  a  non-zero  numeric value if you want the --protect-args option to be enabled by default, or a
              zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as  the  transport  for
              rsync.  Command line options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e option.

              The  RSYNC_PROXY  environment  variable allows you to redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when
              connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to  an
              rsync  daemon  without  user  intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to a remote shell
              transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the default username sent  to  an  rsync
              daemon.  If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments on the --modify-win-
       dow option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man page is current for version 3.1.0 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed by a user under  nor-
       mal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as when setting up
       a login that can only run an rsync command.  For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution  has
       an example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  See the file COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions
       unanswered by this manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from  you  if  you  like  this  program.   Please  contact  the  mailing-list  at

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebas-
       tian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen  Rothwell  and  David  Bell.   I've  probably
       missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       rsync  was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have later contributed to it.
       It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                  28 Sep 2013                         rsync(1)