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rpcgen(1)                                                            rpcgen(1)



NAME
       rpcgen - an RPC protocol compiler

SYNOPSIS
       rpcgen infile
       rpcgen [-Dname[=value]] [-T] [-K secs] infile
       rpcgen -c|-h|-l|-m|-t [-o outfile ] infile
       rpcgen [-I] -s nettype [-o outfile] infile
       rpcgen -n netid [-o outfile] infile

DESCRIPTION
       rpcgen is a tool that generates C code to implement an RPC protocol.  The input to rpcgen is a language similar
       to C known as RPC Language (Remote Procedure Call Language).

       rpcgen is normally used as in the first synopsis where it takes an input file and generates up to  four  output
       files.   If  the  infile  is named proto.x, then rpcgen will generate a header file in proto.h, XDR routines in
       proto_xdr.c, server-side stubs in proto_svc.c, and client-side stubs in proto_clnt.c.  With the -T  option,  it
       will  also  generate the RPC dispatch table in proto_tbl.i.  With the -Sc option, it will also generate  sample
       code which would illustrate how to use the remote procedures on the client side. This code would be created  in
       proto_client.c.   With the -Ss option, it will also generate a sample server code which would illustrate how to
       write the remote procedures. This code would be created in proto_server.c.

       The server created can be started both by the port monitors (for example, inetd or listen) or by itself.   When
       it  is started by a port monitor, it creates servers only for the transport for which the file descriptor 0 was
       passed.  The name of the transport must be specified by setting up  the  environmental  variable  PM_TRANSPORT.
       When  the server generated by rpcgen is executed, it creates server handles for all the transports specified in
       NETPATH environment variable, or if it is unset, it creates server handles for all the visible transports  from
       /etc/netconfig  file.  Note: the transports are chosen at run time and not at compile time.  When the server is
       self-started, it backgrounds itself by default.  A special define symbol RPC_SVC_FG can  be  used  to  run  the
       server process in foreground.

       The  second  synopsis provides special features which allow for the creation of more sophisticated RPC servers.
       These features include support for user provided #defines and RPC dispatch tables.  The entries in the RPC dis-
       patch table contain:
              ?  pointers to the service routine corresponding to that procedure,
              ?  a pointer to the input and output arguments
              ?  the size of these routines
       A  server  can  use the dispatch table to check authorization and then to execute the service routine; a client
       library may use it to deal with the details of storage management and XDR data conversion.

       The other three synopses shown above are used when one does not want to generate all the output files, but only
       a particular one.  Some examples of their usage is described in the EXAMPLE section below.  When rpcgen is exe-
       cuted with the -s option, it creates servers for that particular class of transports.  When executed  with  the
       -n  option,  it  creates  a  server  for  the transport specified by netid.  If infile is not specified, rpcgen
       accepts the standard input.

       The C preprocessor, cc -E [see cc(1)], is run on the input file before it is actually  interpreted  by  rpcgen.
       For each type of output file, rpcgen defines a special preprocessor symbol for use by the rpcgen programmer:

       RPC_HDR     defined when compiling into header files
       RPC_XDR     defined when compiling into XDR routines
       RPC_SVC     defined when compiling into server-side stubs
       RPC_CLNT    defined when compiling into client-side stubs
       RPC_TBL     defined when compiling into RPC dispatch tables

       Any line beginning with '%' is passed directly into the output file, uninterpreted by rpcgen.

       For  every  data  type  referred  to in infile, rpcgen assumes that there exists a routine with the string xdr_
       prepended to the name of the data type.  If this routine does not exist in the RPC/XDR library, it must be pro-
       vided.  Providing an undefined data type allows customization of XDR routines.

       The following options are available:

       -a     Generate all the files including sample code for client and server side.

       -b     This  generates  code  for  the  SunOS4.1  style  of  rpc. It is for backward compatibilty.  This is the
              default.

       -5     This generates code for the SysVr4 style of rpc. It is used by the Transport Independent RPC that is  in
              Svr4 systems.  By default rpcgen generates code for SunOS4.1 stype of rpc.

       -c     Compile into XDR routines.

       -C     Generate  code  in ANSI C. This option also generates code that could be compiled with the C++ compiler.
              This is the default.

       -k     Generate code in K&R C.  The default is ANSI C.

       -Dname[=value]
              Define a symbol name.  Equivalent to the #define directive in the source.  If no value is  given,  value
              is defined as 1.  This option may be specified more than once.

       -h     Compile  into  C  data-definitions  (a  header file).  -T option can be used in conjunction to produce a
              header file which supports RPC dispatch tables.

       -I     Generate a service that can be started from inetd.  The default is to generate  a  static  service  that
              handles transports selected with -s.  Using -I allows starting a service by either method.

       -K secs
              By  default,  services  created  using rpcgen wait 120 seconds after servicing a request before exiting.
              That interval can be changed using the -K flag.  To create a server that exits immediately upon  servic-
              ing  a  request,  -K 0  can  be  used.  To create a server that never exits, the appropriate argument is
              -K -1.

              When monitoring for a server, some portmonitors, like listen(1M), always spawn a new process in response
              to  a service request.  If it is known that a server will be used with such a monitor, the server should
              exit immediately on completion.  For such servers, rpcgen should be used with -K -1.

       -l     Compile into client-side stubs.

       -m     Compile into server-side stubs, but do not generate a "main" routine.  This option is useful  for  doing
              callback-routines and for users who need to write their own "main" routine to do initialization.

       -n netid
              Compile into server-side stubs for the transport specified by netid.  There should be an entry for netid
              in the netconfig database.  This option may be specified more than once, so as to compile a server  that
              serves multiple transports.

       -N     Use  the  newstyle of rpcgen. This allows procedures to have multiple arguments.  It also uses the style
              of parameter passing that closely resembles C. So, when passing an argument to a remote procedure you do
              not have to pass a pointer to the argument but the argument itself. This behaviour is different from the
              oldstyle of rpcgen generated code. The newstyle is not the default case because of backward  compatibil-
              ity.

       -o outfile
              Specify the name of the output file.  If none is specified, standard output is used (-c, -h, -l, -m, -n,
              -s, -s -sand -t modes only).

       -s nettype
              Compile into server-side stubs for all the transports belonging to the  class  nettype.   The  supported
              classes  are  netpath,  visible, circuit_n, circuit_v, datagram_n, datagram_v, tcp, and udp [see rpc(3N)
              for the meanings associated with these classes].  This option may be specified more  than  once.   Note:
              the transports are chosen at run time and not at compile time.

       -Sc    Generate  sample  code  to show the use of remote procedure and how to bind to the server before calling
              the client side stubs generated by rpcgen.

       -Ss    Generate skeleton code for the remote procedures on the server side. You  would  need  to  fill  in  the
              actual code for the remote procedures.

       -t     Compile into RPC dispatch table.

       -T     Generate the code to support RPC dispatch tables.

       The  options  -c,  -h,  -l, -m, -s and -t are used exclusively to generate a particular type of file, while the
       options -D and -T are global and can be used with the other options.

NOTES
       The RPC Language does not support nesting of structures.  As a work-around, structures can be declared  at  the
       top-level, and their name used inside other structures in order to achieve the same effect.

       Name  clashes can occur when using program definitions, since the apparent scoping does not really apply.  Most
       of these can be avoided by giving unique names for programs, versions, procedures and types.

       The server code generated with -n option refers to the transport indicated by netid and hence is very site spe-
       cific.

EXAMPLE
       The following example:

              $ rpcgen -T prot.x

       generates the five files: prot.h, prot_clnt.c, prot_svc.c, prot_xdr.c and prot_tbl.i.

       The following example sends the C data-definitions (header file) to the standard output.

              $ rpcgen -h prot.x

       To  send  the  test version of the -DTEST, server side stubs for all the transport belonging to the class data-
       gram_n to standard output, use:

              $ rpcgen -s datagram_n -DTEST prot.x

       To create the server side stubs for the transport indicated by netid tcp, use:

              $ rpcgen -n tcp -o prot_svc.c prot.x

SEE ALSO
       gcc(1).



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