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RDIST(1)                                                              RDIST(1)

       rdist - remote file distribution client program

       rdist [ -DFn ] [ -A num ] [ -a num ] [ -d var=value ] [ -l <local logopts> ] [ -L <remote logopts> ] [ -f dist-
       file ] [ -M maxproc ] [ -m host ] [ -o distopts ] [ -t timeout ] [ -p <rdistd-path> ] [ -P <transport-path> ] [
       name ...  ]

       rdist -DFn -c name ...  [login@]host[:dest]

       rdist -Server

       rdist -V

       Rdist  is  a program to maintain identical copies of files over multiple hosts.  It preserves the owner, group,
       mode, and mtime of files if possible and can update programs that are executing.   Rdist  reads  commands  from
       distfile  to  direct the updating of files and/or directories.  If distfile is '-', the standard input is used.
       If no -f option is present, the program looks first for 'distfile', then 'Distfile' to use as the input.  If no
       names are specified on the command line, rdist will update all of the files and directories listed in distfile.
       Otherwise, the argument is taken to be the name of a file to be updated or the label of a command  to  execute.
       If  label  and file names conflict, it is assumed to be a label.  These may be used together to update specific
       files using specific commands.

       The -c option forces rdist to interpret the remaining arguments as a small distfile.  The  equivalent  distfile
       is as follows.

            ( name ... ) -> [login@]host
                 install   [dest] ;

       The  -Server  option  is  recognized to provide partial backward compatible support for older versions of rdist
       which used this option to put rdist into server mode.  If rdist  is  started  with  the  -Server  command  line
       option,  it  will attempt to exec (run) the old version of rdist.  This option will only work if rdist was com-
       piled with the location of the old rdist (the path /usr/bin/oldrdist is used on Red Hat linux) and that program
       is available at run time.

       Rdist  can use either the rcmd(3) function call or run an arbitrary transport program such as rsh(1c) to access
       each target host.  The method used is selected at compile-time.  However, if the  later  method  is  used,  the
       transport  program  can  be  specified  at run-time on the command line with the default being rsh(1c).  If the
       rsh(1c) method is used and the target host is the string localhost and the remote user name is the same as  the
       local user name, rdist will run the command

              /bin/sh -c rdistd -S

       Otherwise rdist run will run the command

              rsh host -l remuser rdistd -S

       where  host  is  the  name  of  the target host, remuser is the name of the user to make the connection as and,
       rdistd is the rdist server command on the target host as shown below.  To use a transport  program  other  than
       rsh(1c)  use  the  -P  option.  Whatever transport program is used, must be compatible with the above specified
       syntax for rsh(1c).  If the transport program is not, it should be wrapped in a shell script which does  under-
       stand this command line syntax and which then executes the real transport program.

       Here's an example which uses ssh(1) as the transport:

              rdist -P /usr/local/bin/ssh -f myDistfile

       If  the  rcmd(3)  method is used, then rdist makes the connection to the target host itself and runs the rdistd
       server program as shown below.  The default, and preferred method, is to use rsh(1c) to make the connection  to
       target hosts.  This allows rdist to be run without being setuid to ''root''.

       On each target host Rdist will attempt to run the command

              rdistd -S


              <rdistd path> -S

       if the -p option was specified.  If no -p option is included, or the <rdistd path> is a simple filename, rdistd
       or <rdistd path> must be somewhere in the $PATH of the user running rdist on the remote (target) host.

       -A num Set the minimum number of free files (inodes) on a filesystem that must exist for  rdist  to  update  or
              install a file.

       -a num Set  the  minimum amount of free space (in bytes) on a filesystem that must exist for rdist to update or
              install a file.

       -D     Enable copious debugging messages.

       -d var=value
              Define var to have value.  This option is used to define or override variable definitions in  the  dist-
              file.   Value  can be the empty string, one name, or a list of names surrounded by parentheses and sepa-
              rated by tabs and/or spaces.

       -F     Do not fork any child rdist processes.  All clients are updated sequentially.

       -f distfile
              Set the name of the distfile to use to be distfile .  If distfile is specified as ''-'' (dash) then read
              from standard input (stdin).

       -l logopts
              Set local logging options.  See the section MESSAGE LOGGING for details on the syntax for logopts.

       -L logopts
              Set  remote  logging  options.  logopts is the same as for local logging except the values are passed to
              the remote server (rdistd).  See the section MESSAGE LOGGING for details on the syntax for logopts.

       -M num Set the maximum number of simultaneously running child rdist processes to num.  The default is 4.

       -m machine
              Limit which machines are to be updated. Multiple -m arguments can be given to limit updates to a  subset
              of the hosts listed in the distfile.

       -n     Print the commands without executing them. This option is useful for debugging distfile.

              Specify  the  dist  options  to  enable.  distopts is a comma separated list of options which are listed
              below.  The valid values for distopts are:

              verify Verify that the files are up to date on all the hosts. Any files that are out  of  date  will  be
                     displayed but no files will be changed nor any mail sent.

              whole  Whole  mode.  The  whole file name is appended to the destination directory name.  Normally, only
                     the last component of a name is used when renaming  files.   This  will  preserve  the  directory
                     structure  of  the files being copied instead of flattening the directory structure. For example,
                     rdisting a list of files such as /path/dir1/f1 and /path/dir2/f2 to /tmp/dir would  create  files
                     /tmp/dir/path/dir1/f1 and /tmp/dir/path/dir2/f2 instead of /tmp/dir/dir1/f1 and /tmp/dir/dir2/f2.

              noexec Automatically exclude executable files that are in a.out(5) format from being checked or updated.

                     Younger  mode.  Files  are  normally updated if their mtime and size (see stat(2)) disagree. This
                     option causes rdist not to update files that are younger than the master copy.  This can be  used
                     to  prevent  newer  copies  on other hosts from being replaced.  A warning message is printed for
                     files which are newer than the master copy.

                     Binary comparison. Perform a binary comparison and update files if they differ rather  than  com-
                     paring dates and sizes.

              follow Follow symbolic links. Copy the file that the link points to rather than the link itself.

                     Ignore  unresolved  links.  Rdist will normally try to maintain the link structure of files being
                     transferred and warn the user if all the links cannot be found.

              chknfs Do not check or update files on target host that reside on NFS filesystems.

                     Enable check on target host to see if a file resides on a read-only filesystem.  If a file  does,
                     then no checking or updating of the file is attempted.

              chksym If  the  target  on the remote host is a symbolic link, but is not on the master host, the remote
                     target will be left a symbolic link.  This behavior is generally considered a bug in the original
                     version of rdist, but is present to allow compatibility with older versions.

              quiet  Quiet  mode.  Files  that are being modified are normally printed on standard output. This option
                     suppresses this.

              remove Remove extraneous files. If a directory is being updated, any files that exist on the remote host
                     that  do  not  exist  in  the master directory are removed.  This is useful for maintaining truly
                     identical copies of directories.

                     Do not check user ownership of files that already exist.  The file ownership is only set when the
                     file is updated.

                     Do  not  check  group ownership of files that already exist.  The file ownership is only set when
                     the file is updated.

                     Do not check file and directory permission modes.  The permission mode is only set when the  file
                     is updated.

                     Do  not  descend  into  a directory.  Normally rdist will recursively check directories.  If this
                     option is enabled, then any files listed in the file list in the distfile  that  are  directories
                     are  not  recursively  scanned.   Only  the  existence,  ownership, and mode of the directory are

                     Use the numeric group id (gid) to check group ownership instead of the group name.

                     Use the numeric user id (uid) to check user ownership instead of the user name.

                     Save files that are updated instead of removing them.  Any target file that is updates  is  first
                     rename from file to file.OLD.

              sparse Enable checking for sparse (aka wholely) files.  One of the most common types of sparse files are
                     those produced by ndbm(3).  This option adds some additional processing  overhead  so  it  should
                     only be enabled for targets likely to contain sparse files.

       -p <rdistd-path>
              Set the path where the rdistd server is searched for on the target host.

       -P <transport-path>
              Set the path to the transport command to be used.  This is normally rsh(1c) but can be any other program
              - such as ssh(1) - which understands rsh(1c) command line  syntax  and  which  provides  an  appropriate
              connection  to the remote host.  The transport-path may be a colon seperated list of possible pathnames.
              In this case, the first component of the path to exist is  used.   i.e.   /usr/ucb/rsh:/usr/bin/remsh  ,

       -t timeout
              Set the timeout period (in seconds) for waiting for responses from the remote rdist server.  The default
              is 900 seconds.

       -V     Print version information and exit.

       Rdist uses a collection of predefined message facilities that each contain a list of message  types  specifying
       which types of messages to send to that facility.  The local client (rdist) and the remote server (rdistd) each
       maintain their own copy of what types of messages to log to what facilities.

       The -l logopts option to rdist tells rdist what logging options to use locally.  The -L logopts option to rdist
       tells rdist what logging options to pass to the remote rdistd server.

       The form of logopts should be of form


       The valid facility names are:

              stdout Messages to standard output.

              file   Log  to  a  file.   To  specify  the  file  name,  use  the format ''file=filename=types''.  e.g.

              syslog Use the syslogd(8) facility.

              notify Use the internal rdist notify facility.  This facility is used in  conjunction  with  the  notify
                     keyword in a distfile to specify what messages are mailed to the notify address.

       types  should  be  a  comma  separated list of message types.  Each message type specified enables that message
       level.  This is unlike the syslog(3) system facility which uses an ascending order scheme.  The  following  are
       the valid types:

              change Things that change.  This includes files that are installed or updated in some way.

              info   General information.

              notice General  info  about  things that change.  This includes things like making directories which are
                     needed in order to install a specific target, but which are not explicitly specified in the dist-

              nerror Normal errors that are not fatal.

              ferror Fatal errors.

                     Warnings about errors which are not as serious as nerror type messages.

              debug  Debugging information.

              all    All but debug messages.

       Here is a sample command line option:

              -l stdout=all:syslog=change,notice:file=/tmp/rdist.log=all

       This  entry  will  set local message logging to have all but debug messages sent to standard output, change and
       notice messages will be sent to syslog(3), and all messages will be written to the file /tmp/rdist.log.

       The distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the files to be copied,  the  destination  hosts,  and
       what operations to perform to do the updating. Each entry has one of the following formats.

              <variable name> '=' <name list>
              [ label: ] <source list> '->' <destination list> <command list>
              [ label: ] <source list> '::' <time_stamp file> <command list>

       The  first  format  is  used for defining variables.  The second format is used for distributing files to other
       hosts.  The third format is used for making lists of files that have been changed since some given  date.   The
       source  list  specifies a list of files and/or directories on the local host which are to be used as the master
       copy for distribution.  The destination list is the list of hosts to which these files are to be copied.   Each
       file  in  the  source  list is added to a list of changes if the file is out of date on the host which is being
       updated (second format) or the file is newer than the time stamp file (third format).

       Labels are optional. They are used to identify a command for partial updates.

       Newlines, tabs, and blanks are only used as separators and are otherwise ignored. Comments begin with  '#'  and
       end with a newline.

       Variables  to  be expanded begin with '$' followed by one character or a name enclosed in curly braces (see the
       examples at the end).

       The source and destination lists have the following format:

            '(' <zero or more names separated by white-space> ')'

       These simple lists can be modified by using one level of set addition, subtraction, or intersection like this:

            list '-' list
            list '+' list
            list '&' list

       If additional modifications are  needed  (e.g.,  ''all  servers  and  client  machines  except  for  the  OSF/1
       machines'') then the list will have to be explicitly constructed in steps using "temporary" variables.

       The  shell  meta-characters  '[',  ']',  '{', '}', '*', and '?'  are recognized and expanded (on the local host
       only) in the same way as csh(1).  They can be escaped with a backslash.  The '~' character is also expanded  in
       the  same way as csh but is expanded separately on the local and destination hosts.  When the -owhole option is
       used with a file name that begins with '~', everything except the home directory is appended to the destination
       name.   File  names  which  do  not begin with '/' or '~' use the destination user's home directory as the root
       directory for the rest of the file name.

       The command list consists of zero or more commands of the following format.

              'install'     <options>    opt_dest_name ';'
              'notify'      <name list>  ';'
              'except'      <name list>  ';'
              'except_pat'  <pattern list>';'
              'special'     <name list>  string ';'
              'cmdspecial'  <name list>  string ';'

       The install command is used to copy out of date files and/or directories.  Each source file is copied  to  each
       host  in  the  destination  list.   Directories  are  recursively  copied in the same way.  Opt_dest_name is an
       optional parameter to rename files.  If no install command appears in the command list or the destination  name
       is  not  specified,  the source file name is used.  Directories in the path name will be created if they do not
       exist on the remote host.  The -o distopts option as specified above under OPTIONS, has the same  semantics  as
       on  the command line except they only apply to the files in the source list.  The login name used on the desti-
       nation host is the same as the local host unless the destination name is of the format ''login@host".

       The notify command is used to mail the list of files updated (and any errors that may  have  occurred)  to  the
       listed  names.   If no '@' appears in the name, the destination host is appended to the name (e.g., name1@host,
       name2@host, ...).

       The except command is used to update all of the files in the source list except for the files  listed  in  name
       list.  This is usually used to copy everything in a directory except certain files.

       The  except_pat  command  is  like the except command except that pattern list is a list of regular expressions
       (see ed(1) for details).  If one of the patterns matches some string within a file  name,  that  file  will  be
       ignored.   Note  that  since '\' is a quote character, it must be doubled to become part of the regular expres-
       sion.  Variables are expanded in pattern list but not shell file pattern matching  characters.   To  include  a
       '$', it must be escaped with '\'.

       The special command is used to specify sh(1) commands that are to be executed on the remote host after the file
       in name list is updated or installed.  If the name list is omitted then the shell commands will be executed for
       every  file  updated  or  installed.  String starts and ends with '"' and can cross multiple lines in distfile.
       Multiple commands to the shell should be separated by ';'.  Commands are executed in the user's home  directory
       on the host being updated.  The special command can be used to rebuild private databases, etc.  after a program
       has been updated.  The following environment variables are set for each special command:

       FILE   The full pathname of the local file that was just updated.

              The full pathname of the remote file that was just updated.

              The basename of the remote file that was just updated.

       The cmdspecial command is similar to the special command, except it is executed only when the entire command is
       completed  instead  of  after  each  file  is updated.  The list of files is placed in the environment variable
       $FILES.  Each file name in $FILES is separated by a ':' (colon).

       If a hostname ends in a ''+'' (plus sign), then the plus is stripped off and NFS checks are disabled.  This  is
       equivalent to disabling the -ochknfs option just for this one host.

       The following is a small example.

              HOSTS = ( matisse root@arpa)

              FILES = ( /bin /lib /usr/bin /usr/games
                            /usr/lib /usr/man/man? /usr/ucb /usr/local/rdist )

              EXLIB = ( Mail.rc aliases aliases.dir aliases.pag crontab dshrc
                   sendmail.fc sendmail.hf uucp vfont )

              ${FILES} -> ${HOSTS}
                            install -oremove,chknfs ;
                            except /usr/lib/${EXLIB} ;
                            except /usr/games/lib ;
                            special /usr/lib/sendmail "/usr/lib/sendmail -bz" ;

              /usr/src/bin -> arpa
                            except_pat ( \\.o\$ /SCCS\$ ) ;

              IMAGEN = (ips dviimp catdvi)

              /usr/local/${IMAGEN} -> arpa
                            install /usr/local/lib ;
                            notify ralph ;

              ${FILES} :: stamp.cory
                            notify root@cory ;

       TMPDIR Name of temporary directory to use.  Default is /tmp.

       distfile       - input command file
       $TMPDIR/rdist* - temporary file for update lists

       sh(1), csh(1), stat(2), rsh(1c), rcmd(3)

       If the basename of a file  (the last component in the pathname) is ".", then rdist assumes the remote (destina-
       tion) name is a directory.  i.e.  /tmp/.  means that /tmp should be a directory on the remote host.

       The following options are still recognized for backwards compatibility:

              -v -N -O -q -b -r -R -s -w -y -h -i -x

       Source files must reside on the local host where rdist is executed.

       Variable expansion only works for name lists; there should be a general macro facility.

       Rdist aborts on files which have a negative mtime (before Jan 1, 1970).

       If a hardlinked file is listed more than once in the same target, then rdist will report missing  links.   Only
       one instance of a link should be listed in each target.

4.3 Berkeley Distribution        June 13, 1998                        RDIST(1)