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PWD(1P)                    POSIX Programmer's Manual                   PWD(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       pwd - return working directory name

SYNOPSIS
       pwd [-L | -P ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  pwd  utility  shall  write to standard output an absolute pathname of the current working directory, which
       does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot.

OPTIONS
       The pwd utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  12.2,  Utility
       Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported by the implementation:

       -L     If  the  PWD  environment  variable contains an absolute pathname of the current directory that does not
              contain the filenames dot or dot-dot, pwd shall write this pathname to standard output.  Otherwise,  the
              -L option shall behave as the -P option.

       -P     The absolute pathname written shall not contain filenames that, in the context of the pathname, refer to
              files of type symbolic link.


       If both -L and -P are specified, the last one shall apply.  If neither -L nor -P is specified, the pwd  utility
       shall behave as if -L had been specified.

OPERANDS
       None.

STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of pwd:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value  for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base
              Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for  the  prece-
              dence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages  writ-
              ten to standard error.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

       PWD    If the -P option is in effect, this variable shall be set to an absolute pathname of the current working
              directory that does not contain any components that specify symbolic links, does not contain any  compo-
              nents  that  are  dot,  and  does not contain any components that are dot-dot. If an application sets or
              unsets the value of PWD,  the behavior of pwd is unspecified.


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The pwd utility output is an absolute pathname of the current working directory:


              "%s\n", <directory pathname>

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       If an error is detected, output shall not be written to standard output, a diagnostic message shall be  written
       to standard error, and the exit status is not zero.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       Some implementations have historically provided pwd as a shell special built-in command.

       In  most  utilities, if an error occurs, partial output may be written to standard output. This does not happen
       in historical implementations of pwd. Because pwd is frequently used in historical shell scripts without check-
       ing the exit status, it is important that the historical behavior is required here; therefore, the CONSEQUENCES
       OF ERRORS section specifically disallows any partial output being written to standard output.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       cd, the System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, getcwd()

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifica-
       tions Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and  The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee  document.  The  original  Standard  can  be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                              PWD(1P)