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PSQL(1)                 PostgreSQL Client Applications                 PSQL(1)



NAME
       psql - PostgreSQL interactive terminal


SYNOPSIS
       psql [ option... ]  [ dbname
        [ username ]  ]

DESCRIPTION
       psql  is  a terminal-based front-end to PostgreSQL. It enables you to type in queries interactively, issue them
       to PostgreSQL, and see the query results.  Alternatively, input can be from a file. In addition, it provides  a
       number  of  meta-commands  and  various shell-like features to facilitate writing scripts and automating a wide
       variety of tasks.

OPTIONS
       -a

       --echo-all
              Print all input lines to standard output as they are read. This is more  useful  for  script  processing
              rather than interactive mode. This is equivalent to setting the variable ECHO to all.

       -A

       --no-align
              Switches to unaligned output mode. (The default output mode is otherwise aligned.)

       -c command

       --command command
              Specifies  that  psql  is to execute one command string, command, and then exit. This is useful in shell
              scripts.

              command must be either a command string that is completely parsable by the server (i.e., it contains  no
              psql  specific  features), or a single backslash command. Thus you cannot mix SQL and psql meta-commands
              with this option. To achieve that, you could pipe the string into psql, for example: echo '\x \\  SELECT
              * FROM foo;' | psql.  (\\ is the separator meta-command.)

              If the command string contains multiple SQL commands, they are processed in a single transaction, unless
              there are explicit BEGIN/COMMIT commands included in the string to divide it into multiple transactions.
              This is different from the behavior when the same string is fed to psql's standard input. Also, only the
              result of the last SQL command is returned.

              Because of these legacy behaviors, putting more than one command in the -c string often  has  unexpected
              results.  It's  better  to  feed multiple commands to psql's standard input, either using echo as illus-
              trated above, or via a shell here-document, for example:

              psql <<EOF
              \x
              SELECT * FROM foo;
              EOF


       -d dbname

       --dbname dbname
              Specifies the name of the database to connect to. This is equivalent to specifying dbname as  the  first
              non-option argument on the command line.

              If  this  parameter contains an = sign, it is treated as a conninfo string. See in the documentation for
              more information.

       -e

       --echo-queries
              Copy all SQL commands sent to the server to standard output as well.  This is equivalent to setting  the
              variable ECHO to queries.

       -E

       --echo-hidden
              Echo  the  actual queries generated by \d and other backslash commands. You can use this to study psql's
              internal operations. This is equivalent to setting the variable ECHO_HIDDEN from within psql.

       -f filename

       --file filename
              Use the file filename as the source of commands instead of reading commands  interactively.   After  the
              file is processed, psql terminates. This is in many ways equivalent to the internal command \i.

              If filename is - (hyphen), then standard input is read.

              Using  this  option  is subtly different from writing psql < filename. In general, both will do what you
              expect, but using -f enables some nice features such as error messages with line numbers. There is  also
              a slight chance that using this option will reduce the start-up overhead. On the other hand, the variant
              using the shell's input redirection is (in theory) guaranteed to yield exactly the same output that  you
              would have gotten had you entered everything by hand.

       -F separator

       --field-separator separator
              Use separator as the field separator for unaligned output. This is equivalent to \pset fieldsep or \f.

       -h hostname

       --host hostname
              Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is running. If the value begins with a slash,
              it is used as the directory for the Unix-domain socket.

       -H

       --html Turn on HTML tabular output. This is equivalent to \pset format html or the \H command.

       -l

       --list List all available databases, then exit. Other non-connection options are ignored. This  is  similar  to
              the internal command \list.

       -L filename

       --log-file filename
              Write all query output into file filename, in addition to the normal output destination.

       -n

       --no-readline
              Do  not  use  readline  for line editing and do not use the history.  This can be useful to turn off tab
              expansion when cutting and pasting.

       -o filename

       --output filename
              Put all query output into file filename. This is equivalent to the command \o.

       -p port

       --port port
              Specifies the TCP port or the local Unix-domain socket file extension on which the server  is  listening
              for  connections.  Defaults  to the value of the PGPORT environment variable or, if not set, to the port
              specified at compile time, usually 5432.

       -P assignment

       --pset assignment
              Allows you to specify printing options in the style of \pset on the command line.  Note  that  here  you
              have  to separate name and value with an equal sign instead of a space. Thus to set the output format to
              LaTeX, you could write -P format=latex.

       -q

       --quiet
              Specifies that psql should do its work quietly. By default,  it  prints  welcome  messages  and  various
              informational  output.  If this option is used, none of this happens. This is useful with the -c option.
              Within psql you can also set the QUIET variable to achieve the same effect.

       -R separator

       --record-separator separator
              Use separator as the record separator for unaligned output. This is equivalent to  the  \pset  recordsep
              command.

       -s

       --single-step
              Run in single-step mode. That means the user is prompted before each command is sent to the server, with
              the option to cancel execution as well. Use this to debug scripts.

       -S

       --single-line
              Runs in single-line mode where a newline terminates an SQL command, as a semicolon does.

              Note: This mode is provided for those who insist on it, but you are not necessarily  encouraged  to  use
              it. In particular, if you mix SQL and meta-commands on a line the order of execution might not always be
              clear to the inexperienced user.


       -t

       --tuples-only
              Turn off printing of column names and result row count footers, etc. This is equivalent to the  \t  com-
              mand.

       -T table_options

       --table-attr table_options
              Allows you to specify options to be placed within the HTML table tag. See \pset for details.

       -U username

       --username username
              Connect  to  the  database as the user username instead of the default.  (You must have permission to do
              so, of course.)

       -v assignment

       --set assignment

       --variable assignment
              Perform a variable assignment, like the \set internal command. Note that  you  must  separate  name  and
              value,  if  any, by an equal sign on the command line. To unset a variable, leave off the equal sign. To
              just set a variable without a value, use the equal sign but leave off the value. These  assignments  are
              done  during a very early stage of start-up, so variables reserved for internal purposes might get over-
              written later.

       -V

       --version
              Print the psql version and exit.

       -w

       --no-password
              Never issue a password prompt. If the server requires password authentication  and  a  password  is  not
              available  by  other  means such as a .pgpass file, the connection attempt will fail. This option can be
              useful in batch jobs and scripts where no user is present to enter a password.

              Note that this option will remain set for the entire session, and so it affects uses of the meta-command
              \connect as well as the initial connection attempt.

       -W

       --password
              Force psql to prompt for a password before connecting to a database.

              This  option  is  never  essential,  since  psql  will automatically prompt for a password if the server
              demands password authentication. However, psql will waste a connection  attempt  finding  out  that  the
              server wants a password. In some cases it is worth typing -W to avoid the extra connection attempt.

              Note that this option will remain set for the entire session, and so it affects uses of the meta-command
              \connect as well as the initial connection attempt.

       -x

       --expanded
              Turn on the expanded table formatting mode. This is equivalent to the \x command.

       -X,

       --no-psqlrc
              Do not read the start-up file (neither the system-wide psqlrc file nor the user's ~/.psqlrc file).

       -1

       --single-transaction
              When psql executes a script with the -f option, adding this option wraps BEGIN/COMMIT around the  script
              to  execute it as a single transaction. This ensures that either all the commands complete successfully,
              or no changes are applied.

              If the script itself uses BEGIN, COMMIT, or ROLLBACK, this option will not  have  the  desired  effects.
              Also,  if the script contains any command that cannot be executed inside a transaction block, specifying
              this option will cause that command (and hence the whole transaction) to fail.

       -?

       --help Show help about psql command line arguments, and exit.

EXIT STATUS
       psql returns 0 to the shell if it finished normally, 1 if a fatal error of its own (out  of  memory,  file  not
       found)  occurs,  2  if  the  connection to the server went bad and the session was not interactive, and 3 if an
       error occurred in a script and the variable ON_ERROR_STOP was set.

USAGE
   CONNECTING TO A DATABASE
       psql is a regular PostgreSQL client application. In order to connect to a database you need to know the name of
       your  target  database,  the host name and port number of the server and what user name you want to connect as.
       psql can be told about those parameters via command line options, namely -d, -h, -p, and -U respectively. If an
       argument  is  found that does not belong to any option it will be interpreted as the database name (or the user
       name, if the database name is already given). Not all these options are required; there are useful defaults. If
       you omit the host name, psql will connect via a Unix-domain socket to a server on the local host, or via TCP/IP
       to localhost on machines that don't have Unix-domain sockets. The default port number is determined at  compile
       time.   Since  the  database server uses the same default, you will not have to specify the port in most cases.
       The default user name is your Unix user name, as is the default database name. Note that you cannot  just  con-
       nect  to  any  database  under  any  user name. Your database administrator should have informed you about your
       access rights.

       When the defaults aren't quite right, you can save yourself some typing by setting  the  environment  variables
       PGDATABASE,  PGHOST,  PGPORT and/or PGUSER to appropriate values. (For additional environment variables, see in
       the documentation.) It is also convenient to have a ~/.pgpass  file  to  avoid  regularly  having  to  type  in
       passwords. See in the documentation for more information.

       An  alternative  way  to  specify  connection  parameters  is  in a conninfo string, which is used instead of a
       database name. This mechanism give you very wide control over the connection. For example:

       $ psql "service=myservice sslmode=require"

       This way you can also use LDAP for connection parameter lookup as described in in the  documentation.   See  in
       the documentation for more information on all the available connection options.

       If the connection could not be made for any reason (e.g., insufficient privileges, server is not running on the
       targeted host, etc.), psql will return an error and terminate.

   ENTERING SQL COMMANDS
       In normal operation, psql provides a prompt with the name of the database to which psql is currently connected,
       followed by the string =>. For example:

       $ psql testdb
       psql (8.4.20)
       Type "help" for help.

       testdb=>


       At  the  prompt, the user can type in SQL commands.  Ordinarily, input lines are sent to the server when a com-
       mand-terminating semicolon is reached. An end of line does not terminate a command. Thus commands can be spread
       over  several lines for clarity. If the command was sent and executed without error, the results of the command
       are displayed on the screen.

       Whenever a command is executed, psql also polls for asynchronous notification events generated by LISTEN  [lis-
       ten(7)] and NOTIFY [notify(7)].

   META-COMMANDS
       Anything  you  enter in psql that begins with an unquoted backslash is a psql meta-command that is processed by
       psql itself. These commands help make psql more useful for administration or scripting. Meta-commands are  more
       commonly called slash or backslash commands.

       The  format of a psql command is the backslash, followed immediately by a command verb, then any arguments. The
       arguments are separated from the command verb and each other by any number of whitespace characters.

       To include whitespace into an argument you can quote it with a single quote. To include  a  single  quote  into
       such  an  argument, use two single quotes. Anything contained in single quotes is furthermore subject to C-like
       substitutions for \n (new line), \t (tab), \digits (octal), and \xdigits (hexadecimal).

       If an unquoted argument begins with a colon (:), it is taken as a psql variable and the value of  the  variable
       is used as the argument instead.

       Arguments that are enclosed in backquotes (') are taken as a command line that is passed to the shell. The out-
       put of the command (with any trailing newline removed) is  taken  as  the  argument  value.  The  above  escape
       sequences also apply in backquotes.

       Some  commands  take  an  SQL  identifier (such as a table name) as argument. These arguments follow the syntax
       rules of SQL: Unquoted letters are forced to lowercase, while double quotes (") protect letters from case  con-
       version  and  allow incorporation of whitespace into the identifier. Within double quotes, paired double quotes
       reduce to a single double quote in the resulting name. For example, FOO"BAR"BAZ is  interpreted  as  fooBARbaz,
       and "A weird"" name" becomes A weird" name.

       Parsing  for  arguments  stops when another unquoted backslash occurs.  This is taken as the beginning of a new
       meta-command. The special sequence \\ (two backslashes) marks the end of arguments and  continues  parsing  SQL
       commands,  if any. That way SQL and psql commands can be freely mixed on a line. But in any case, the arguments
       of a meta-command cannot continue beyond the end of the line.

       The following meta-commands are defined:

       \a     If the current table output format is unaligned, it is switched to aligned.  If it is not unaligned,  it
              is  set  to  unaligned.  This  command is kept for backwards compatibility. See \pset for a more general
              solution.

       \cd [ directory ]
              Changes the current working directory to directory. Without argument, changes to the current user's home
              directory.

              Tip: To print your current working directory, use \! pwd.


       \C [ title ]
              Sets  the  title of any tables being printed as the result of a query or unset any such title. This com-
              mand is equivalent to \pset title title. (The name of this command derives from ''caption'', as  it  was
              previously only used to set the caption in an HTML table.)

       \connect (or \c) [ dbname [ username ] [ host ] [ port ] ]
              Establishes  a  new  connection  to a PostgreSQL server. If the new connection is successfully made, the
              previous connection is closed. If any of dbname, username, host or port are omitted or specified  as  -,
              the  value  of  that parameter from the previous connection is used. If there is no previous connection,
              the libpq default for the parameter's value is used.

              If the connection attempt failed (wrong user name, access denied, etc.), the  previous  connection  will
              only  be  kept  if psql is in interactive mode. When executing a non-interactive script, processing will
              immediately stop with an error. This distinction was chosen as a user convenience against typos  on  the
              one  hand,  and a safety mechanism that scripts are not accidentally acting on the wrong database on the
              other hand.

       \copy { table [ ( column_list ) ] | ( query ) }
              Performs a frontend (client) copy. This is an operation that runs an SQL  COPY  [copy(7)]  command,  but
              instead  of  the  server reading or writing the specified file, psql reads or writes the file and routes
              the data between the server and the local file system.  This means that file  accessibility  and  privi-
              leges are those of the local user, not the server, and no SQL superuser privileges are required.

              The  syntax  of  the command is similar to that of the SQL COPY [copy(7)] command. Note that, because of
              this, special parsing rules apply to the \copy command. In particular, the variable  substitution  rules
              and backslash escapes do not apply.

              \copy  ...  from stdin | to stdout reads/writes based on the command input and output respectively.  All
              rows are read from the same source that issued the command, continuing until \. is read  or  the  stream
              reaches  EOF.  Output  is  sent  to the same place as command output. To read/write from psql's standard
              input or output, use pstdin or pstdout. This option is useful for populating tables in-line within a SQL
              script file.

              Tip:  This  operation is not as efficient as the SQL COPY command because all data must pass through the
              client/server connection. For large amounts of data the SQL command might be preferable.


       \copyright
              Shows the copyright and distribution terms of PostgreSQL.

       \d[S+] [ pattern ]
              For each relation (table, view, index, or sequence) matching the pattern, show all columns, their types,
              the  tablespace  (if  not  the default) and any special attributes such as NOT NULL or defaults, if any.
              Associated indexes, constraints, rules, and triggers are also shown, as is the view  definition  if  the
              relation is a view.  (''Matching the pattern'' is defined below.)

              The  command  form  \d+ is identical, except that more information is displayed: any comments associated
              with the columns of the table are shown, as is the presence of OIDs in the table.

              By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier  to  include  system
              objects.

              Note:  If \d is used without a pattern argument, it is equivalent to \dtvs which will show a list of all
              tables, views, and sequences. This is purely a convenience measure.


       \da[S] [ pattern ]
              Lists all available aggregate functions, together with their return type and the data types they operate
              on.  If pattern is specified, only aggregates whose names match the pattern are shown.  By default, only
              user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

       \db[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists all available tablespaces. If pattern is specified, only tablespaces whose names match the pattern
              are shown.  If + is appended to the command name, each object is listed with its associated permissions.

       \dc[S] [ pattern ]
              Lists all available conversions between character-set encodings.  If pattern is specified, only  conver-
              sions whose names match the pattern are listed.  By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply
              a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

       \dC [ pattern ]
              Lists all available type casts.  If pattern is specified, only casts whose source or target types  match
              the pattern are listed.

       \dd[S] [ pattern ]
              Shows  the  descriptions  of  objects  matching the pattern, or of all visible objects if no argument is
              given. But in either case, only objects that have a description are listed.  By default, only  user-cre-
              ated objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.  ''Object'' covers
              aggregates, functions, operators, types, relations (tables, views, indexes, sequences),  large  objects,
              rules, and triggers. For example:

              => \dd version
                                   Object descriptions
                 Schema   |  Name   |  Object  |        Description
              ------------+---------+----------+---------------------------
               pg_catalog | version | function | PostgreSQL version string
              (1 row)


              Descriptions for objects can be created with the COMMENT [comment(7)] SQL command.

       \dD[S] [ pattern ]
              Lists all available domains. If pattern is specified, only matching domains are shown.  By default, only
              user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

       \des[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists all foreign servers (mnemonic: ''external servers'').  If pattern is specified, only those servers
              whose  name matches the pattern are listed. If the form \des+ is used, a full description of each server
              is shown, including the server's ACL, type, version, and options.

       \deu[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists all user mappings (mnemonic: ''external users'').  If pattern is specified,  only  those  mappings
              whose  user  names match the pattern are listed. If the form \deu+ is used, additional information about
              each mapping is shown.

              Caution: \deu+ might also display the user name and password of the remote user, so care should be taken
              not to disclose them.


       \dew[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  all foreign-data wrappers (mnemonic: ''external wrappers'').  If pattern is specified, only those
              foreign-data wrappers whose name matches the pattern are listed. If the form \dew+ is used, the ACL  and
              options of the foreign-data wrapper are also shown.

       \df[antwS+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  available functions, together with their arguments, return types, and their function types: 'agg'
              (aggregate), 'normal', 'trigger', and 'window'. To display only functions of a specific  type,  use  the
              corresponding  letters a, n, t, or w. If pattern is specified, only functions whose names match the pat-
              tern are shown. If the form \df+ is used, additional information about each function, including volatil-
              ity,  language,  source code and description, is shown. By default, only user-created objects are shown;
              supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

              Note: To look up functions taking arguments or returning values of a specific  type,  use  your  pager's
              search capability to scroll through the \df output.


       \dF[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  available  text  search configurations.  If pattern is specified, only configurations whose names
              match the pattern are shown.  If the form \dF+ is used, a full  description  of  each  configuration  is
              shown, including the underlying text search parser and the dictionary list for each parser token type.

       \dFd[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  available text search dictionaries.  If pattern is specified, only dictionaries whose names match
              the pattern are shown.  If the form \dFd+ is used, additional information is shown about  each  selected
              dictionary, including the underlying text search template and the option values.

       \dFp[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  available  text search parsers.  If pattern is specified, only parsers whose names match the pat-
              tern are shown.  If the form \dFp+ is used, a full description of each parser is  shown,  including  the
              underlying functions and the list of recognized token types.

       \dFt[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  available  text  search templates.  If pattern is specified, only templates whose names match the
              pattern are shown.  If the form \dFt+ is used, additional information  is  shown  about  each  template,
              including the underlying function names.

       \dg[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  all  database  roles. If pattern is specified, only those roles whose names match the pattern are
              listed.  (This command is now effectively the same as \du).  If the form \dg+ is used, additional infor-
              mation is shown about each role, including the comment for each role.

       \di[S+] [ pattern ]

       \ds[S+] [ pattern ]

       \dt[S+] [ pattern ]

       \dv[S+] [ pattern ]
              In  this  group  of  commands,  the  letters  i, s, t, and v stand for index, sequence, table, and view,
              respectively.  You can specify any or all of these letters, in any order, to obtain a listing of all the
              matching objects. For example, \dit lists indexes and tables. If + is appended to the command name, each
              object is listed with its physical size on disk and its associated description,  if  any.   By  default,
              only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

              If pattern is specified, only objects whose names match the pattern are listed.

       \dl    This is an alias for \lo_list, which shows a list of large objects.

       \dn[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists available schemas (namespaces). If pattern (a regular expression) is specified, only schemas whose
              names match the pattern are listed.  Non-local temporary schemas are suppressed. If + is appended to the
              command name, each object is listed with its associated permissions and description, if any.

       \do[S] [ pattern ]
              Lists  available operators with their operand and return types.  If pattern is specified, only operators
              whose names match the pattern are listed.  By default, only user-created objects  are  shown;  supply  a
              pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

       \dp [ pattern ]
              Lists  available  tables,  views  and  sequences with their associated access privileges.  If pattern is
              specified, only tables, views and sequences whose names match the pattern are listed.

              The GRANT [grant(7)] and REVOKE [revoke(7)] commands are used to set access privileges.

       \dT[S+] [ pattern ]
              Lists available data types.  If pattern is specified, only types  whose  names  match  the  pattern  are
              listed.   If  + is appended to the command name, each type is listed with its internal name and size, as
              well as its allowed values if it is an enum type.  By default, only user-created objects are shown; sup-
              ply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects.

       \du[+] [ pattern ]
              Lists  all  database  roles. If pattern is specified, only those roles whose names match the pattern are
              listed.  If the form \du+ is used, additional information is shown about each role, including  the  com-
              ment for each role.

       \edit (or \e) [ filename ]
              If  filename is specified, the file is edited; after the editor exits, its content is copied back to the
              query buffer. If no argument is given, the current query buffer is copied to a temporary file  which  is
              then edited in the same fashion.

              The  new query buffer is then re-parsed according to the normal rules of psql, where the whole buffer is
              treated as a single line. (Thus you cannot make scripts this way. Use \i for that.) This means also that
              if  the  query ends with (or rather contains) a semicolon, it is immediately executed. In other cases it
              will merely wait in the query buffer.

              Tip: psql searches the environment variables PSQL_EDITOR, EDITOR, and VISUAL (in that order) for an edi-
              tor to use. If all of them are unset, vi is used on Unix systems, notepad.exe on Windows systems.


       \ef [ function_description ]
              This  command fetches and edits the definition of the named function, in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE
              FUNCTION command.  Editing is done in the same way as for \e.   After  the  editor  exits,  the  updated
              command waits in the query buffer; type semicolon or \g to send it, or \r to cancel.

              The  target  function can be specified by name alone, or by name and arguments, for example foo(integer,
              text).  The argument types must be given if there is more than one function of the same name.

              If no function is specified, a blank CREATE FUNCTION template is presented for editing.

       \echo text [ ... ]
              Prints the arguments to the standard output, separated by one space and followed by a newline. This  can
              be useful to intersperse information in the output of scripts. For example:

              => \echo 'date'
              Tue Oct 26 21:40:57 CEST 1999

              If the first argument is an unquoted -n the trailing newline is not written.

              Tip:  If  you  use  the \o command to redirect your query output you might wish to use \qecho instead of
              this command.


       \encoding [ encoding ]
              Sets the client character set encoding. Without an argument, this command shows the current encoding.

       \f [ string ]
              Sets the field separator for unaligned query output. The default is the vertical bar (|). See also \pset
              for a generic way of setting output options.

       \g [ { filename | |command } ]
              Sends  the current query input buffer to the server and optionally stores the query's output in filename
              or pipes the output into a separate Unix shell executing command. A bare \g is virtually equivalent to a
              semicolon. A \g with argument is a ''one-shot'' alternative to the \o command.

       \help (or \h) [ command ]
              Gives syntax help on the specified SQL command. If command is not specified, then psql will list all the
              commands for which syntax help is available. If command is an asterisk (*), then syntax help on all  SQL
              commands is shown.

              Note:  To  simplify typing, commands that consists of several words do not have to be quoted. Thus it is
              fine to type \help alter table.


       \H     Turns on HTML query output format. If the HTML format is already on, it is switched back to the  default
              aligned  text  format.  This  command  is for compatibility and convenience, but see \pset about setting
              other output options.

       \i filename
              Reads input from the file filename and executes it as though it had been typed on the keyboard.

              Note: If you want to see the lines on the screen as they are read you must set the variable ECHO to all.


       \l (or \list)

       \l+ (or \list+)
              List  the  names,  owners,  character  set  encodings, and access privileges of all the databases in the
              server.  If + is appended to the command name, database sizes, default tablespaces, and descriptions are
              also  displayed.   (Size  information  is only available for databases that the current user can connect
              to.)

       \lo_export loid filename
              Reads the large object with OID loid from the database and writes it to filename. Note that this is sub-
              tly  different  from the server function lo_export, which acts with the permissions of the user that the
              database server runs as and on the server's file system.

              Tip: Use \lo_list to find out the large object's OID.


       \lo_import filename [ comment ]
              Stores the file into a PostgreSQL large object. Optionally, it associates the  given  comment  with  the
              object. Example:

              foo=> \lo_import '/home/peter/pictures/photo.xcf' 'a picture of me'
              lo_import 152801

              The  response indicates that the large object received object ID 152801, which can be used to access the
              newly-created large object in the future. For the sake of readability, it is recommended to always asso-
              ciate a human-readable comment with every object. Both OIDs and comments can be viewed with the \lo_list
              command.

              Note that this command is subtly different from the server-side lo_import because it acts as  the  local
              user on the local file system, rather than the server's user and file system.

       \lo_list
              Shows  a  list of all PostgreSQL large objects currently stored in the database, along with any comments
              provided for them.

       \lo_unlink loid
              Deletes the large object with OID loid from the database.

              Tip: Use \lo_list to find out the large object's OID.


       \o [ {filename | |command} ]
              Saves future query results to the file filename or pipes future results into a separate  Unix  shell  to
              execute command. If no arguments are specified, the query output will be reset to the standard output.

              ''Query results'' includes all tables, command responses, and notices obtained from the database server,
              as well as output of various backslash commands that query the database (such as \d), but not error mes-
              sages.

              Tip: To intersperse text output in between query results, use \qecho.


       \p     Print the current query buffer to the standard output.

       \password [ username ]
              Changes  the password of the specified user (by default, the current user). This command prompts for the
              new password, encrypts it, and sends it to the server as an ALTER ROLE command. This makes sure that the
              new password does not appear in cleartext in the command history, the server log, or elsewhere.

       \prompt [ text ] name
              Prompts  the  user  to  set  variable  name. An optional prompt, text, can be specified. (For multi-word
              prompts, use single-quotes.)

              By default, \prompt uses the terminal for input and output. However, if the -f command  line  switch  is
              used, \prompt uses standard input and standard output.

       \pset parameter [ value ]
              This  command sets options affecting the output of query result tables. parameter describes which option
              is to be set. The semantics of value depend thereon.

              Adjustable printing options are:

              format Sets the output format to one of unaligned, aligned, wrapped, html, latex, or  troff-ms.   Unique
                     abbreviations are allowed. (That would mean one letter is enough.)

                     ''Unaligned'' writes all columns of a row on a line, separated by the currently active field sep-
                     arator. This is intended to create output that might be intended to be read in by other  programs
                     (tab-separated,  comma-separated).  ''Aligned'' mode is the standard, human-readable, nicely for-
                     matted text output that is default.

                     ''Wrapped'' is like aligned but wraps output to the specified width. If  \pset  columns  is  zero
                     (the  default),  wrapped  mode  only affects screen output and wrapped width is controlled by the
                     environment variable COLUMNS or the detected screen width. If \pset columns is set to a  non-zero
                     value, all output is wrapped, including file and pipe output.

                     The  ''HTML''  and  ''LaTeX''  modes put out tables that are intended to be included in documents
                     using the respective mark-up language. They are not complete documents! (This  might  not  be  so
                     dramatic in HTML, but in LaTeX you must have a complete document wrapper.)

              columns
                     Controls  the  target  width  for  the  wrapped  format, and width for determining if wide output
                     requires the pager.  Zero (the default) causes the wrapped format to affect only screen output.

              border The second argument must be a number. In general, the higher the  number  the  more  borders  and
                     lines  the  tables  will have, but this depends on the particular format. In HTML mode, this will
                     translate directly into the border=... attribute, in the others only  values  0  (no  border),  1
                     (internal dividing lines), and 2 (table frame) make sense.

              expanded (or x)
                     You  can  specify an optional second argument, if it is provided it may be either on or off which
                     will enable or disable expanded mode. If the second argument is not provided then we will  toggle
                     between regular and expanded format. When expanded format is enabled, query results are displayed
                     in two columns, with the column name on the left and the data on the right. This mode  is  useful
                     if the data wouldn't fit on the screen in the normal ''horizontal'' mode.

                     Expanded mode is supported by all four output formats.

              null   The  second argument is a string that should be printed whenever a column is null. The default is
                     not to print anything, which can easily be mistaken for, say, an empty string.  Thus,  one  might
                     choose to write \pset null '(null)'.

              fieldsep
                     Specifies  the  field separator to be used in unaligned output mode. That way one can create, for
                     example, tab- or comma-separated output, which other programs might prefer. To set a tab as field
                     separator, type \pset fieldsep '\t'. The default field separator is '|' (a vertical bar).

              footer You  can  specify an optional second argument, if it is provided it may be either on or off which
                     will enable or disable display of the default footer (x rows). If the second argument is not pro-
                     vided then we will toggle between on and off.

              numericlocale
                     You  can  specify an optional second argument, if it is provided it may be either on or off which
                     will enable or disable display of a locale-aware character to separate groups of  digits  to  the
                     left of the decimal marker. If the second argument is not provided then we will toggle between on
                     and off.

              recordsep
                     Specifies the record (line) separator to use in unaligned output mode. The default is  a  newline
                     character.

              tuples_only (or t)
                     You  can  specify an optional second argument, if it is provided it may be either on or off which
                     will enable or disable the tuples only mode. If the second argument is not provided then we  will
                     toggle  between tuples only and full display. Full display shows extra information such as column
                     headers, titles, and various footers. In tuples only mode, only actual table data is shown.

              title [ text ]
                     Sets the table title for any subsequently printed tables. This can be used to  give  your  output
                     descriptive tags. If no argument is given, the title is unset.

              tableattr (or T) [ text ]
                     Allows you to specify any attributes to be placed inside the HTML table tag. This could for exam-
                     ple be cellpadding or bgcolor. Note that you probably don't want to specify border here, as  that
                     is already taken care of by \pset border.

              pager  Controls use of a pager for query and psql help output. If the environment variable PAGER is set,
                     the output is piped to the specified program.  Otherwise a platform-dependent  default  (such  as
                     more) is used.

                     When  the  pager is off, the pager is not used. When the pager is on, the pager is used only when
                     appropriate, i.e. the output is to a terminal and will not fit on the screen.  \pset pager  turns
                     the  pager on and off. Pager can also be set to always, which causes the pager to be always used.


       Illustrations on how these different formats look can be seen in the Examples [psql(1)] section.

              Tip: There are various shortcut commands for \pset. See \a, \C, \H, \t, \T, and \x.


              Note: It is an error to call \pset without arguments. In the future this call  might  show  the  current
              status of all printing options.


       \q or \quit
              Quits the psql program.  In a script file, only execution of that script is terminated.

       \qecho text [ ... ]
              This  command  is identical to \echo except that the output will be written to the query output channel,
              as set by \o.

       \r     Resets (clears) the query buffer.

       \s [ filename ]
              Print or save the command line history to filename. If filename is omitted, the history  is  written  to
              the  standard  output.  This  option  is  only  available  if psql is configured to use the GNU Readline
              library.

       \set [ name [ value [ ... ] ] ]
              Sets the internal variable name to value or, if more than one value is given, to  the  concatenation  of
              all  of  them.  If no second argument is given, the variable is just set with no value. To unset a vari-
              able, use the \unset command.

              Valid variable names can  contain  characters,  digits,  and  underscores.  See  the  section  Variables
              [psql(1)] below for details.  Variable names are case-sensitive.

              Although you are welcome to set any variable to anything you want, psql treats several variables as spe-
              cial. They are documented in the section about variables.

              Note: This command is totally separate from the SQL command SET [set(7)].


       \t     Toggles the display of output column name headings and row count footer. This command is  equivalent  to
              \pset tuples_only and is provided for convenience.

       \T table_options
              Allows  you  to  specify  attributes to be placed within the table tag in HTML tabular output mode. This
              command is equivalent to \pset tableattr table_options.

       \timing [ on | off ]
              Without parameter, toggles a display of how long each SQL statement takes, in milliseconds. With parame-
              ter, sets same.

       \w {filename | |command}
              Outputs the current query buffer to the file filename or pipes it to the Unix command command.

       \x     Toggles expanded table formatting mode. As such it is equivalent to \pset expanded.

       \z [ pattern ]
              Produces  a  list  of all available tables, views and sequences with their associated access privileges.
              If a pattern is specified, only tables,views and sequences whose names match the pattern are listed.

              The GRANT [grant(7)] and REVOKE [revoke(7)] commands are used to set access privileges.

              This is an alias for \dp (''display privileges'').

       \! [ command ]
              Escapes to a separate Unix shell or executes the Unix command command. The  arguments  are  not  further
              interpreted, the shell will see them as is.

       \?     Shows help information about the backslash commands.


   PATTERNS
       The  various  \d commands accept a pattern parameter to specify the object name(s) to be displayed. In the sim-
       plest case, a pattern is just the exact name of the object. The characters within a pattern are normally folded
       to  lower  case,  just as in SQL names; for example, \dt FOO will display the table named foo. As in SQL names,
       placing double quotes around a pattern stops folding to lower case. Should you need to include an actual double
       quote character in a pattern, write it as a pair of double quotes within a double-quote sequence; again this is
       in accord with the rules for SQL quoted identifiers. For example, \dt "FOO""BAR" will display the  table  named
       FOO"BAR  (not  foo"bar). Unlike the normal rules for SQL names, you can put double quotes around just part of a
       pattern, for instance \dt FOO"FOO"BAR will display the table named fooFOObar.

       Within a pattern, * matches any sequence of characters (including no characters) and ? matches any single char-
       acter.   (This  notation  is  comparable to Unix shell file name patterns.)  For example, \dt int* displays all
       tables whose names begin with int. But within double quotes, * and ? lose these special meanings and  are  just
       matched literally.

       A  pattern  that contains a dot (.) is interpreted as a schema name pattern followed by an object name pattern.
       For example, \dt foo*.*bar* displays all tables whose table name includes bar that are in schemas whose  schema
       name  starts  with foo. When no dot appears, then the pattern matches only objects that are visible in the cur-
       rent schema search path.  Again, a dot within double quotes loses its special meaning and is matched literally.

       Advanced  users  can use regular-expression notations such as character classes, for example [0-9] to match any
       digit. All regular expression special characters work as specified in in the documentation, except for .  which
       is  taken  as  a  separator  as mentioned above, * which is translated to the regular-expression notation .*, ?
       which is translated to ., and $ which is matched literally. You can emulate these pattern characters at need by
       writing  ?  for  .,  (R+|) for R*, or (R|) for R?.  $ is not needed as a regular-expression character since the
       pattern must match the whole name, unlike the usual interpretation of regular expressions (in other words, $ is
       automatically  appended  to your pattern). Write * at the beginning and/or end if you don't wish the pattern to
       be anchored.  Note that within double quotes, all regular expression  special  characters  lose  their  special
       meanings  and  are  matched literally. Also, the regular expression special characters are matched literally in
       operator name patterns (i.e., the argument of \do).

       Whenever the pattern parameter is omitted completely, the \d commands display all objects that are  visible  in
       the  current  schema  search  path  --  this  is  equivalent  to using the pattern *.  To see all objects in the
       database, use the pattern *.*.

   ADVANCED FEATURES
   VARIABLES
       psql provides variable substitution features similar to common  Unix  command  shells.   Variables  are  simply
       name/value  pairs, where the value can be any string of any length. To set variables, use the psql meta-command
       \set:

       testdb=> \set foo bar

       sets the variable foo to the value bar. To retrieve the content of the variable, precede the name with a  colon
       and use it as the argument of any slash command:

       testdb=> \echo :foo
       bar


              Note:  The arguments of \set are subject to the same substitution rules as with other commands. Thus you
              can construct interesting references such as \set :foo 'something' and get ''soft links'' or  ''variable
              variables''  of  Perl  or PHP fame, respectively. Unfortunately (or fortunately?), there is no way to do
              anything useful with these constructs. On the other hand, \set bar :foo is a perfectly valid way to copy
              a variable.


       If  you  call  \set without a second argument, the variable is set, with an empty string as value. To unset (or
       delete) a variable, use the command \unset.

       psql's internal variable names can consist of letters, numbers, and underscores in any order and any number  of
       them. A number of these variables are treated specially by psql. They indicate certain option settings that can
       be changed at run time by altering the value of the variable  or  represent  some  state  of  the  application.
       Although  you  can  use these variables for any other purpose, this is not recommended, as the program behavior
       might grow really strange really quickly. By convention, all specially treated variables consist of all  upper-
       case letters (and possibly numbers and underscores). To ensure maximum compatibility in the future, avoid using
       such variable names for your own purposes. A list of all specially treated variables follows.


       AUTOCOMMIT
              When on (the default), each SQL command is automatically committed upon successful completion. To  post-
              pone  commit  in  this mode, you must enter a BEGIN or START TRANSACTION SQL command. When off or unset,
              SQL commands are not committed until you explicitly issue COMMIT or END. The autocommit-off  mode  works
              by issuing an implicit BEGIN for you, just before any command that is not already in a transaction block
              and is not itself a BEGIN or other transaction-control command, nor a command that  cannot  be  executed
              inside a transaction block (such as VACUUM).

              Note:  In  autocommit-off  mode, you must explicitly abandon any failed transaction by entering ABORT or
              ROLLBACK.  Also keep in mind that if you exit the session without committing, your work will be lost.


              Note: The autocommit-on mode is PostgreSQL's traditional behavior, but autocommit-off is closer  to  the
              SQL  spec. If you prefer autocommit-off, you might wish to set it in the system-wide psqlrc file or your
              ~/.psqlrc file.


       DBNAME The name of the database you are currently connected to. This  is  set  every  time  you  connect  to  a
              database (including program start-up), but can be unset.

       ECHO   If  set  to all, all lines entered from the keyboard or from a script are written to the standard output
              before they are parsed or executed. To select this behavior on program start-up, use the switch  -a.  If
              set  to  queries,  psql merely prints all queries as they are sent to the server. The switch for this is
              -e.

       ECHO_HIDDEN
              When this variable is set and a backslash command queries the database, the query is first  shown.  This
              way  you  can study the PostgreSQL internals and provide similar functionality in your own programs. (To
              select this behavior on program start-up, use the switch -E.) If you  set  the  variable  to  the  value
              noexec, the queries are just shown but are not actually sent to the server and executed.

       ENCODING
              The current client character set encoding.

       FETCH_COUNT
              If this variable is set to an integer value > 0, the results of SELECT queries are fetched and displayed
              in groups of that many rows, rather than the default behavior of collecting the entire result set before
              display.  Therefore  only  a limited amount of memory is used, regardless of the size of the result set.
              Settings of 100 to 1000 are commonly used when enabling this feature.  Keep in mind that when using this
              feature, a query might fail after having already displayed some rows.

              Tip:  Although you can use any output format with this feature, the default aligned format tends to look
              bad because each group of FETCH_COUNT rows will be  formatted  separately,  leading  to  varying  column
              widths across the row groups. The other output formats work better.


       HISTCONTROL
              If  this variable is set to ignorespace, lines which begin with a space are not entered into the history
              list. If set to a value of ignoredups, lines matching the previous history line are not entered. A value
              of  ignoreboth  combines  the  two options. If unset, or if set to any other value than those above, all
              lines read in interactive mode are saved on the history list.

              Note: This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.


       HISTFILE
              The file name that will be used to store the history list. The default  value  is  ~/.psql_history.  For
              example, putting:

              \set HISTFILE ~/.psql_history- :DBNAME

              in ~/.psqlrc will cause psql to maintain a separate history for each database.

              Note: This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.


       HISTSIZE
              The number of commands to store in the command history. The default value is 500.

              Note: This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.


       HOST   The  database  server  host  you  are  currently  connected  to. This is set every time you connect to a
              database (including program start-up), but can be unset.

       IGNOREEOF
              If unset, sending an EOF character (usually Control+D) to an interactive session of psql will  terminate
              the  application. If set to a numeric value, that many EOF characters are ignored before the application
              terminates. If the variable is set but has no numeric value, the default is 10.

              Note: This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from Bash.


       LASTOID
              The value of the last affected OID, as returned from an INSERT or lo_insert command.  This  variable  is
              only guaranteed to be valid until after the result of the next SQL command has been displayed.


       ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK
              When on, if a statement in a transaction block generates an error, the error is ignored and the transac-
              tion continues. When interactive, such errors are only ignored in interactive  sessions,  and  not  when
              reading script files. When off (the default), a statement in a transaction block that generates an error
              aborts the entire transaction. The on_error_rollback-on mode works by issuing an implicit SAVEPOINT  for
              you,  just before each command that is in a transaction block, and rolls back to the savepoint on error.

       ON_ERROR_STOP
              By default, if non-interactive scripts encounter an error, such as a malformed SQL command  or  internal
              meta-command,  processing  continues. This has been the traditional behavior of psql but it is sometimes
              not desirable. If this variable is set, script processing will immediately terminate. If the script  was
              called from another script it will terminate in the same fashion. If the outermost script was not called
              from an interactive psql session but rather using the -f option, psql will return error code 3, to  dis-
              tinguish this case from fatal error conditions (error code 1).

       PORT   The  database server port to which you are currently connected.  This is set every time you connect to a
              database (including program start-up), but can be unset.

       PROMPT1

       PROMPT2

       PROMPT3
              These specify what the prompts psql issues should look like. See Prompting [psql(1)] below.

       QUIET  This variable is equivalent to the command line option -q. It is probably not too useful in  interactive
              mode.

       SINGLELINE
              This variable is equivalent to the command line option -S.

       SINGLESTEP
              This variable is equivalent to the command line option -s.

       USER   The  database  user  you  are  currently  connected as. This is set every time you connect to a database
              (including program start-up), but can be unset.

       VERBOSITY
              This variable can be set to the values default, verbose, or terse to  control  the  verbosity  of  error
              reports.

   SQL INTERPOLATION
       An  additional  useful feature of psql variables is that you can substitute (''interpolate'') them into regular
       SQL statements. The syntax for this is again to prepend the variable name with a colon (:):

       testdb=> \set foo 'my_table'
       testdb=> SELECT * FROM :foo;

       would then query the table my_table. The value of the variable is copied literally,  so  it  can  even  contain
       unbalanced  quotes  or  backslash  commands.  You must make sure that it makes sense where you put it. Variable
       interpolation will not be performed into quoted SQL entities.

       One possible use of this mechanism is to copy the contents of a file into a table column. First load  the  file
       into a variable and then proceed as above:

       testdb=> \set content '''' 'cat my_file.txt' ''''
       testdb=> INSERT INTO my_table VALUES (:content);

       One  problem  with  this  approach is that my_file.txt might contain single quotes. These need to be escaped so
       that they don't cause a syntax error when the second line is processed. This could be  done  with  the  program
       sed:

       testdb=> \set content '''' 'sed -e "s/'/''/g" < my_file.txt' ''''

       If  you  are  using  non-standard-conforming strings then you'll also need to double backslashes. This is a bit
       tricky:

       testdb=> \set content '''' 'sed -e "s/'/''/g" -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' < my_file.txt' ''''

       Note the use of different shell quoting conventions so that neither the single quote marks nor the  backslashes
       are  special  to the shell.  Backslashes are still special to sed, however, so we need to double them. (Perhaps
       at one point you thought it was great that all Unix commands use the same escape character.)

       Since colons can legally appear in SQL commands, the following rule applies: the character  sequence  '':name''
       is  not  changed  unless ''name'' is the name of a variable that is currently set. In any case you can escape a
       colon with a backslash to protect it from substitution. (The colon syntax for variables  is  standard  SQL  for
       embedded query languages, such as ECPG.  The colon syntax for array slices and type casts are PostgreSQL exten-
       sions, hence the conflict.)

   PROMPTING
       The prompts psql issues can be customized to your preference. The three variables PROMPT1, PROMPT2, and PROMPT3
       contain strings and special escape sequences that describe the appearance of the prompt. Prompt 1 is the normal
       prompt that is issued when psql requests a new command. Prompt 2 is issued when more input is  expected  during
       command  input  because the command was not terminated with a semicolon or a quote was not closed.  Prompt 3 is
       issued when you run an SQL COPY command and you are expected to type in the row values on the terminal.

       The value of the selected prompt variable is printed literally, except where a percent sign (%) is encountered.
       Depending on the next character, certain other text is substituted instead. Defined substitutions are:

       %M     The  full  host  name  (with domain name) of the database server, or [local] if the connection is over a
              Unix domain socket, or [local:/dir/name], if the Unix domain socket is not at the  compiled  in  default
              location.

       %m     The host name of the database server, truncated at the first dot, or [local] if the connection is over a
              Unix domain socket.

       %>     The port number at which the database server is listening.

       %n     The database session user name. (The expansion of this value might change during a database  session  as
              the result of the command SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION.)

       %/     The name of the current database.

       %~     Like %/, but the output is ~ (tilde) if the database is your default database.

       %#     If  the  session  user  is  a database superuser, then a #, otherwise a >.  (The expansion of this value
              might change during a database session as the result of the command SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION.)

       %R     In prompt 1 normally =, but ^ if in single-line mode, and ! if the  session  is  disconnected  from  the
              database  (which  can  happen if \connect fails). In prompt 2 the sequence is replaced by -, *, a single
              quote, a double quote, or a dollar sign, depending on whether psql expects more input because  the  com-
              mand  wasn't  terminated  yet,  because  you are inside a /* ... */ comment, or because you are inside a
              quoted or dollar-escaped string. In prompt 3 the sequence doesn't produce anything.

       %x     Transaction status: an empty string when not in a transaction block, or * when in a  transaction  block,
              or ! when in a failed transaction block, or ?  when the transaction state is indeterminate (for example,
              because there is no connection).

       %digits
              The character with the indicated octal code is substituted.

       %:name:
              The value of the psql variable name. See the section Variables [psql(1)] for details.

       %'command'
              The output of command, similar to ordinary ''back-tick'' substitution.

       %[ ... %]
              Prompts can contain terminal control characters which, for example, change  the  color,  background,  or
              style of the prompt text, or change the title of the terminal window. In order for the line editing fea-
              tures of Readline to work properly, these non-printing control characters must be designated as  invisi-
              ble  by  surrounding them with %[ and %]. Multiple pairs of these can occur within the prompt. For exam-
              ple:

              testdb=> \set PROMPT1 '%[%033[1;33;40m%]%n@%/%R%[%033[0m%]%# '

              results in a boldfaced (1;) yellow-on-black (33;40) prompt on VT100-compatible, color-capable terminals.

       To insert a percent sign into your prompt, write %%. The default prompts are '%/%R%# ' for prompts 1 and 2, and
       '>> ' for prompt 3.

              Note: This feature was shamelessly plagiarized from tcsh.


   COMMAND-LINE EDITING
       psql supports the Readline library for convenient line editing and retrieval. The command history is  automati-
       cally saved when psql exits and is reloaded when psql starts up. Tab-completion is also supported, although the
       completion logic makes no claim to be an SQL parser. If for some reason you do not like the tab completion, you
       can turn it off by putting this in a file named .inputrc in your home directory:

       $if psql
       set disable-completion on
       $endif

       (This is not a psql but a Readline feature. Read its documentation for further details.)

ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS
              If  \pset  columns  is zero, controls the width for the wrapped format and width for determining if wide
              output requires the pager.

       PAGER  If the query results do not fit on the screen, they are piped through this command. Typical  values  are
              more or less. The default is platform-dependent. The use of the pager can be disabled by using the \pset
              command.

       PGDATABASE

       PGHOST

       PGPORT

       PGUSER Default connection parameters (see in the documentation).

       PSQL_EDITOR

       EDITOR

       VISUAL Editor used by the \e command. The variables are examined in the order listed; the first that is set  is
              used.

       SHELL  Command executed by the \! command.

       TMPDIR Directory for storing temporary files. The default is /tmp.

       This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment variables supported by libpq (see
       in the documentation).


FILES
       ? Before starting up, psql attempts to read and execute commands from  the  system-wide  psqlrc  file  and  the
         user's ~/.psqlrc file.  (On Windows, the user's startup file is named %APPDATA%\postgresql\psqlrc.conf.)  See
         PREFIX/share/psqlrc.sample for information on setting up the system-wide file. It could be used to set up the
         client or the server to taste (using the \set and SET commands).

       ? Both  the  system-wide  psqlrc file and the user's ~/.psqlrc file can be made version-specific by appending a
         dash and the PostgreSQL release number, for example ~/.psqlrc-8.4.20.  A matching version-specific file  will
         be read in preference to a non-version-specific file.

       ? The  command-line history is stored in the file ~/.psql_history, or %APPDATA%\postgresql\psql_history on Win-
         dows.

NOTES
       ? In an earlier life psql allowed the first argument of a single-letter backslash  command  to  start  directly
         after the command, without intervening whitespace.  As of PostgreSQL 8.4 this is no longer allowed.

       ? psql  is only guaranteed to work smoothly with servers of the same version. That does not mean other combina-
         tions will fail outright, but subtle and not-so-subtle problems might come up. Backslash commands are partic-
         ularly  likely  to  fail if the server is of a newer version than psql itself. However, backslash commands of
         the \d family should work with servers of versions back to 7.4, though not  necessarily  with  servers  newer
         than psql itself.

NOTES FOR WINDOWS USERS
       psql is built as a ''console application''. Since the Windows console windows use a different encoding than the
       rest of the system, you must take special care when using 8-bit characters within  psql.   If  psql  detects  a
       problematic  console  code  page,  it will warn you at startup. To change the console code page, two things are
       necessary:

       ? Set the code page by entering cmd.exe /c chcp 1252. (1252 is a code page  that  is  appropriate  for  German;
         replace it with your value.) If you are using Cygwin, you can put this command in /etc/profile.

       ? Set the console font to Lucida Console, because the raster font does not work with the ANSI code page.


EXAMPLES
       The first example shows how to spread a command over several lines of input. Notice the changing prompt:

       testdb=> CREATE TABLE my_table (
       testdb(>  first integer not null default 0,
       testdb(>  second text)
       testdb-> ;
       CREATE TABLE

       Now look at the table definition again:

       testdb=> \d my_table
                    Table "my_table"
        Attribute |  Type   |      Modifier
       -----------+---------+--------------------
        first     | integer | not null default 0
        second    | text    |

       Now we change the prompt to something more interesting:

       testdb=> \set PROMPT1 '%n@%m %~%R%# '
       peter@localhost testdb=>

       Let's assume you have filled the table with data and want to take a look at it:

       peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
        first | second
       -------+--------
            1 | one
            2 | two
            3 | three
            4 | four
       (4 rows)

       You can display tables in different ways by using the \pset command:

       peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 2
       Border style is 2.
       peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
       +-------+--------+
       | first | second |
       +-------+--------+
       |     1 | one    |
       |     2 | two    |
       |     3 | three  |
       |     4 | four   |
       +-------+--------+
       (4 rows)

       peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 0
       Border style is 0.
       peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
       first second
       ----- ------
           1 one
           2 two
           3 three
           4 four
       (4 rows)

       peter@localhost testdb=> \pset border 1
       Border style is 1.
       peter@localhost testdb=> \pset format unaligned
       Output format is unaligned.
       peter@localhost testdb=> \pset fieldsep ","
       Field separator is ",".
       peter@localhost testdb=> \pset tuples_only
       Showing only tuples.
       peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT second, first FROM my_table;
       one,1
       two,2
       three,3
       four,4

       Alternatively, use the short commands:

       peter@localhost testdb=> \a \t \x
       Output format is aligned.
       Tuples only is off.
       Expanded display is on.
       peter@localhost testdb=> SELECT * FROM my_table;
       -[ RECORD 1 ]-
       first  | 1
       second | one
       -[ RECORD 2 ]-
       first  | 2
       second | two
       -[ RECORD 3 ]-
       first  | 3
       second | three
       -[ RECORD 4 ]-
       first  | 4
       second | four




Application                       2014-02-17                           PSQL(1)