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PR(1P)                     POSIX Programmer's Manual                    PR(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       pr - print files

SYNOPSIS
       pr [+page][-column][-adFmrt][-e[char][ gap]][-h header][-i[char][gap]]

               [-l lines][-n[char][width]][-o offset][-s[char]][-w width][-fp]
               [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  pr utility is a printing and pagination filter. If multiple input files are specified, each shall be read,
       formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input shall be separated into  66-line  pages,  each
       with:

        * A 5-line header that includes the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file


        * A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines


       If  standard  output  is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages shall be deferred until the pr utility
       has completed processing.

       When options specifying multi-column output are specified, output text columns shall be of equal  width;  input
       lines  that  do not fit into a text column shall be truncated. By default, text columns shall be separated with
       at least one <blank>.

OPTIONS
       The pr utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility Syn-
       tax  Guidelines,  except that: the page option has a '+' delimiter; page and column can be multi-digit numbers;
       some of the option-arguments are optional; and some of the option-arguments cannot  be  specified  as  separate
       arguments from the preceding option letter. In particular, the -s option does not allow the option letter to be
       separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i, and -n require that both arguments,  if  present,  not  be
       separated from the option letter.

       The  following  options  shall be supported. In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page,
       and width are positive decimal integers; gap is a non-negative decimal integer.

       +page  Begin output at page number page of the formatted input.

       -column
              Produce multi-column output that is arranged in column columns (the default shall be 1) and  is  written
              down  each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. This option should not
              be used with -m. The options -e and -i shall be assumed for multiple text-column output.  Whether or not
              text  columns are produced with identical vertical lengths is unspecified, but a text column shall never
              exceed the length of the page (see the -l option). When used with -t, use the minimum number of lines to
              write the output.

       -a     Modify the effect of the - column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a round-robin
              order (for example, when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second  heads  column  2,
              the third is the second line in column 1, and so on).

       -d     Produce  output  that is double-spaced; append an extra <newline> following every <newline> found in the
              input.

       -e[char][gap]

              Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n* gap+1,  where  n
              is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted, it shall default to 8. All <tab>s in the input shall be
              expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any non-digit character,  char,  is  specified,  it
              shall be used as the input <tab>.

       -f     Use  a  <form-feed>  for  new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline>s.
              Pause before beginning the first page if the standard output is associated with a terminal.

       -F     Use a <form-feed> for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline>s.

       -h  header
              Use the string header to replace the contents of the file operand in the page header.

       -i[char][gap]
              In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s wherever two or more  adjacent  <space>s  reach  column
              positions  gap+1,  2* gap+1, 3* gap+1, and so on.  If gap is zero or is omitted, default tab settings at
              every eighth column position shall be assumed. If any non-digit character, char, is specified, it  shall
              be used as the output <tab>.

       -l  lines
              Override  the  66-line default and reset the page length to lines.  If lines is not greater than the sum
              of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility shall  suppress  both  the  header  and
              trailer, as if the -t option were in effect.

       -m     Merge  files. Standard output shall be formatted so the pr utility writes one line from each file speci-
              fied by a file operand, side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number  of
              column positions.  Implementations shall support merging of at least nine file operands.

       -n[char][width]

              Provide  width-digit  line  numbering  (default for width shall be 5). The number shall occupy the first
              width column positions of each text column of default output or each line of -m  output.  If  char  (any
              non-digit character) is given, it shall be appended to the line number to separate it from whatever fol-
              lows (default for char is a <tab>).

       -o  offset
              Each line of output shall be preceded by offset <space>s. If the -o option is not specified, the default
              offset shall be zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width (see the -w option below).

       -p     Pause before beginning each page if the standard output is directed to a terminal ( pr  shall  write  an
              <alert> to standard error and wait for a <carriage-return> to be read on /dev/tty).

       -r     Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open files.

       -s[char]
              Separate  text  columns  by  the  single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s
              (default for char shall be <tab>).

       -t     Write neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page.
              Quit writing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

       -w  width
              Set  the  width  of  the  line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w
              option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width shall be  72.  If  the  -w
              option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width shall be 512.

       For single column output, input lines shall not be truncated.


OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A  pathname of a file to be written. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is '-', the
              standard input shall be used.


STDIN
       The standard input shall be used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is '-' .  See the
       INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       The input files shall be text files.

       The file /dev/tty shall be used to read responses required by the -p option.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of pr:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value  for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base
              Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for  the  prece-
              dence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for  exam-
              ple,  single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files) and which characters
              are defined as printable (character class print). Non-printable characters are still written to standard
              output, but are not counted for the purpose for column-width and line-length calculations.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine  the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages writ-
              ten to standard error.

       LC_TIME
              Determine the format of the date and time for use in writing header lines.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

       TZ     Determine the timezone used to calculate date and time strings written in header lines. If TZ  is  unset
              or null, an unspecified default timezone shall be used.


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       If  pr  receives an interrupt while writing to a terminal, it shall flush all accumulated error messages to the
       screen before terminating.

STDOUT
       The pr utility output shall be a paginated version of the original file (or files). This  pagination  shall  be
       accomplished using either <form-feed>s or a sequence of <newline>s, as controlled by the -F  or -f option. Page
       headers shall be generated unless the -t option is specified. The page headers shall be of the form:


              "\n\n%s %s Page %d\n\n\n", <output of date>, <file>, <page number>

       In the POSIX locale, the <output of date> field, representing the date and time of  last  modification  of  the
       input  file (or the current date and time if the input file is standard input), shall be equivalent to the out-
       put of the following command as it would appear if executed at the given time:


              date "+%b %e %H:%M %Y"

       without the trailing <newline>, if the page being written is from standard input. If the page being written  is
       not  from  standard  input,  in the POSIX locale, the same format shall be used, but the time used shall be the
       modification time of the file corresponding to file instead of the current time. When the LC_TIME locale  cate-
       gory is not set to the POSIX locale, a different format and order of presentation of this field may be used.

       If the standard input is used instead of a file operand, the <file> field shall be replaced by a null string.

       If the -h option is specified, the <file> field shall be replaced by the header argument.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used for diagnostic messages and for alerting the terminal when -p is specified.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
        1. Print a numbered list of all files in the current directory:


           ls -a | pr -n -h "Files in $(pwd)."


        2. Print file1 and file2 as a double-spaced, three-column listing headed by "file list'':


           pr -3d -h "file list" file1 file2


        3. Write file1 on file2, expanding tabs to columns 10, 19, 28, ...:


           pr -e9 -t <file1 >file2


RATIONALE
       This  utility is one of those that does not follow the Utility Syntax Guidelines because of its historical ori-
       gins. The standard developers could have added new options that obeyed  the  guidelines  (and  marked  the  old
       options  obsolescent)  or devised an entirely new utility; there are examples of both actions in this volume of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001. Because of its widespread use by historical applications, the standard developers decided
       to exempt this version of pr from many of the guidelines.

       Implementations  are required to accept option-arguments to the -h, -l, -o, and -w options whether presented as
       part of the same argument or as a separate argument to pr, as suggested by the Utility Syntax  Guidelines.  The
       -n and -s options, however, are specified as in historical practice because they are frequently specified with-
       out their optional arguments. If a <blank> were allowed before the  option-argument  in  these  cases,  a  file
       operand could mistakenly be interpreted as an option-argument in historical applications.

       The  text about the minimum number of lines in multi-column output was included to ensure that a best effort is
       made in balancing the length of the columns. There are known historical implementations in which, for  example,
       60-line  files  are listed by pr -2 as one column of 56 lines and a second of 4. Although this is not a problem
       when a full page with headers and trailers is produced, it would be relatively useless when used with -t.

       Historical implementations of the pr utility have differed in the action taken for the -f option. BSD  uses  it
       as  described  here  for the -F option; System V uses it to change trailing <newline>s on each page to a <form-
       feed> and, if standard output is a TTY device, sends an <alert>  to  standard  error  and  reads  a  line  from
       /dev/tty before the first page. There were strong arguments from both sides of this issue concerning historical
       practice and as a result the -F option was added.  XSI-conformant  systems  support  the  System  V  historical
       actions for the -f option.

       The <output of date> field in the -l format is specified only for the POSIX locale. As noted, the format can be
       different in other locales. No mechanism for defining this is present in this volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       as the appropriate vehicle is a message catalog; that is, the format should be specified as a "message".

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       expand, lp

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base  Specifica-
       tions  Issue  6,  Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard,  the  original  IEEE  and  The  Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                               PR(1P)