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FTP(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   FTP(1)

NAME
     ftp - Internet file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
     ftp [-pinegvd] [host]
     pftp [-inegvd] [host]

DESCRIPTION
     Ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.  The program allows a user to transfer
     files to and from a remote network site.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command interpreter.

     -A    Use active mode for data transfers. This is useful for transmissions to servers which do not support pas-
           sive connections (for whatever reason.)

     -p    Use passive mode for data transfers. Allows use of ftp in environments where a firewall prevents connec-
           tions from the outside world back to the client machine. Requires that the ftp server support the PASV com-
           mand. This is the default now for all clients (ftp and pftp) due to security concerns using the PORT trans-
           fer mode.  The flag is kept for compatibility only and has no effect anymore.

     -i    Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

     -n    Restrains ftp from attempting "auto-login" upon initial connection.  If auto-login is enabled, ftp will
           check the .netrc (see netrc(5)) file in the user's home directory for an entry describing an account on the
           remote machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will prompt for the remote machine login name (default is the user
           identity on the local machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an account with which to
           login.

     -e    Disables command editing and history support, if it was compiled into the ftp executable. Otherwise, does
           nothing.

     -g    Disables file name globbing.

     -m    The default requires that ftp explicitly binds to the same interface for the data channel as the control
           channel in passive mode. Useful on multi-homed clients. This option disables this behavior.

     -v    Verbose option forces ftp to show all responses from the remote server, as well as report on data transfer
           statistics.

     -d    Enables debugging.

     The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the command line.  If this is done, ftp will
     immediately attempt to establish a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its com-
     mand interpreter and await instructions from the user.  When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt
     'ftp>' is provided to the user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command [args]]
                 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there are arguments, the first is taken to be a
                 command to execute directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
                 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef command.  Arguments are passed to the
                 macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
                 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for access to resources once a login has
                 been successfully completed.  If no argument is included, the user will be prompted for an account
                 password in a non-echoing input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
                 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is left unspecified, the local
                 file name is used in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans or nmap setting.  File
                 transfer uses the current settings for type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the default type.

     bell        Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command is completed.

     binary      Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye         Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp.  An end of file will also terminate
                 the session and exit.

     case        Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget commands.  When case is on (default is
                 off), remote computer file names with all letters in upper case are written in the local directory
                 with the letters mapped to lower case.

     cd remote-directory
                 Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-directory.

     cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the current remote machine working
                 directory.

     chmod mode file-name
                 Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the remote sytem to mode.

     close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return to the command interpreter.  Any defined
                 macros are erased.

     cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage
                 return/linefeed sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the default), carriage
                 returns are stripped from this sequence to conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
                 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single linefeeds; when an ascii type transfer is made,
                 these linefeeds may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is off.

     delete remote-file
                 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

     debug [debug-value]
                 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is specified it is used to set the debugging
                 level.  When debugging is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded by the
                 string '-->'

     dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
                 Print a listing of the directory contents in the directory, remote-directory, and, optionally, plac-
                 ing the output in local-file.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify
                 that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no directory is
                 specified, the current working directory on the remote machine is used.  If no local file is speci-
                 fied, or local-file is -, output comes to the terminal.

     disconnect  A synonym for close.

     form format
                 Set the file transfer form to format.  The default format is "file".

     get remote-file [local-file]
                 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.  If the local file name is not specified,
                 it is given the same name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by the current case,
                 ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
                 transferring the file.

     glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput.  If globbing is turned off with glob, the file
                 name arguments are taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for mput is done as in csh(1).  For
                 mdelete and mget, each remote file name is expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists
                 are not merged.  Expansion of a directory name is likely to be different from expansion of the name
                 of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp server, and can
                 be previewed by doing 'mls remote-files -' Note: mget and mput are not meant to transfer entire
                 directory subtrees of files.  That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the subtree (in
                 binary mode).

     hash        Toggle hash-sign (''#'') printing for each data block transferred.  The size of a data block is 1024
                 bytes.

     help [command]
                 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.  If no argument is given, ftp prints a
                 list of the known commands.

     idle [seconds]
                 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds.  If seconds is ommitted, the cur-
                 rent inactivity timer is printed.

     lcd [directory]
                 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no directory is specified, the user's home
                 directory is used.

     ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
                 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote machine.  The listing includes any sys-
                 tem-dependent information that the server chooses to include; for example, most UNIX systems will
                 produce output from the command 'ls -l'.  (See also nlist.)  If remote-directory is left unspecified,
                 the current working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to
                 verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving ls output.  If no local
                 file is specified, or if local-file is '-', the output is sent to the terminal.

     macdef macro-name
                 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-name; a null line (consecutive new-
                 line characters in a file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro input mode.  There
                 is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined until
                 a close command is executed.  The macro processor interprets '$' and '\' as special characters.  A
                 '$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding argument on the macro invoca-
                 tion command line.  A '$' followed by an 'i' signals that macro processor that the executing macro is
                 to be looped.  On the first pass '$i' is replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation com-
                 mand line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second argument, and so on.  A '\' followed by
                 any character is replaced by that character.  Use the '\' to prevent special treatment of the '$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
                 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
                 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will
                 prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mdir
                 output.

     mget remote-files
                 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for each file name thus produced.  See
                 glob for details on the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be processed according to
                 case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  Files are transferred into the local working directory, which can
                 be changed with 'lcd directory'; new local directories can be created with '! mkdir directory'.

     mkdir directory-name
                 Make a directory on the remote machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
                 Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be specified, and the local-file must be specified.  If
                 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
                 target local file for receiving mls output.

     mode [mode-name]
                 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is "stream" mode.

     modtime file-name
                 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine.

     mput local-files
                 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments and do a put for each file in the
                 resulting list.  See glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be pro-
                 cessed according to ntrans and nmap settings.

     newer file-name [local-file]
                 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is more recent that the file on the
                 current system.  If the file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is considered
                 newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to get.

     nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
                 Print a  list of the files in a directory on the remote machine.  If remote-directory is left unspec-
                 ified, the current working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the
                 user to verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving nlist output.  If
                 no local file is specified, or if local-file is -, the output is sent to the terminal.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
                 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments are specified, the filename mapping
                 mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during mput commands and
                 put commands issued without a specified remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
                 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands issued without a specified local target
                 filename.  This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with different file
                 naming conventions or practices.  The mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
                 [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may have already been processed according to
                 the ntrans and case settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including the sequences '$1',
                 '$2', ..., '$9' in inpattern.  Use '\' to prevent this special treatment of the '$' character.  All
                 other characters are treated literally, and are used to determine the nmap [inpattern] variable val-
                 ues.  For example, given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data", $1 would have the
                 value "mydata", and $2 would have the value "data".  The outpattern determines the resulting mapped
                 filename.  The sequences '$1', '$2', ...., '$9' are replaced by any value resulting from the
                 inpattern template.  The sequence '$0' is replace by the original filename.  Additionally, the
                 sequence '[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by [seq1] if seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced
                 by seq2.  For example, the command

                       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

                 would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input filenames "myfile.data" and
                 "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the input
                 filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in outpattern, as in the example: 'nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//"
                 > $1' .  Use the '\' character to prevent special treatment of the '$','[','[', and ',' characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
                 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If no arguments are specified, the file-
                 name character translation mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, characters in remote
                 filenames are translated during mput commands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar-
                 get filename.  If arguments are specified, characters in local filenames are translated during mget
                 commands and get commands issued without a specified local target filename.  This command is useful
                 when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
                 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are replaced with the corresponding charac-
                 ter in outchars.  If the character's position in inchars is longer than the length of outchars, the
                 character is deleted from the file name.

     open host [port]
                 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An optional port number may be supplied, in
                 which case, ftp will attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.  If the auto-login option is on
                 (default), ftp will also attempt to automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     prompt      Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs during multiple file transfers to allow
                 the user to selectively retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off (default is on), any
                 mget or mput will transfer all files, and any mdelete will delete all files.

     proxy ftp-command
                 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.  This command allows simultaneous connec-
                 tion to two remote ftp servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The first proxy com-
                 mand should be an open, to establish the secondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?"
                 to see other ftp commands executable on the secondary connection.  The following commands behave dif-
                 ferently when prefaced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the auto-login process, close
                 will not erase existing macro definitions, get and mget transfer files from the host on the primary
                 control connection to the host on the secondary control connection, and put, mput, and append trans-
                 fer files from the host on the secondary control connection to the host on the primary control con-
                 nection.  Third party file transfers depend upon support of the ftp protocol PASV command by the
                 server on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
                 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is
                 used after processing according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the remote file.  File
                 transfer uses the current settings for type, format, mode, and structure.

     pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote machine.

     quit        A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
                 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
                 Reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is smaller than remote-file, local-file is
                 presumed to be a partially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is continued from the
                 apparent point of failure.  This command is useful when transferring very large files over networks
                 that are prone to dropping connections.

     remotehelp [command-name]
                 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name is specified it is supplied to the server
                 as well.

     remotestatus [file-name]
                 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If file-name is specified, show status of
                 file-name on remote machine.

     rename [from] [to]
                 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

     reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply sequencing with the remote ftp server.
                 Resynchronization may be necessary following a violation of the ftp protocol by the remote server.

     restart marker
                 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is
                 usually a byte offset into the file.

     rmdir directory-name
                 Delete a directory on the remote machine.

     runique     Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique filenames.  If a file already exists with a
                 name equal to the target local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is appended to the name.
                 If the resulting name matches another existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
                 this process continues up to ".99", an error message is printed, and the transfer does not take
                 place.  The generated unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not affect local
                 files generated from a shell command (see below).  The default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
                 A synonym for put.

     sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will attempt to use a PORT command when establish-
                 ing a connection for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent delays when performing
                 multiple file transfers.  If the PORT command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the
                 use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT commands for each data trans-
                 fer.  This is useful for certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands but, incorrectly,
                 indicate they've been accepted.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server as a SITE command.

     size file-name
                 Return size of file-name on remote machine.

     status      Show the current status of ftp.

     struct [struct-name]
                 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  By default "stream" structure is used.

     sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file names.  Remote ftp server must support
                 ftp protocol STOU command for successful completion.  The remote server will report unique name.
                 Default value is off.

     system      Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.

     tenex       Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX machines.

     trace       Toggle packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
                 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is specified, the current type is printed.  The
                 default type is network ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
                 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If newmask is ommitted, the current umask is
                 printed.

     user user-name [password] [account]
                 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password is not specified and the server requires
                 it, ftp will prompt the user for it (after disabling local echo).  If an account field is not speci-
                 fied, and the FTP server requires it, the user will be prompted for it.  If an account field is spec-
                 ified, an account command will be relayed to the remote server after the login sequence is completed
                 if the remote server did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked with "auto-login" dis-
                 abled, this process is done automatically on initial connection to the FTP server.

     verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the FTP server are displayed to the user.
                 In addition, if verbose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding the efficiency of
                 the transfer are reported.  By default, verbose is on.

     ? [command]
                 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote '"' marks.

ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-C).  Sending transfers will be immediately
     halted.  Receiving transfers will be halted by sending a ftp protocol ABOR command to the remote server, and dis-
     carding any further data received.  The speed at which this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's sup-
     port for ABOR processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an 'ftp>' prompt will not
     appear until the remote server has completed sending the requested file.

     The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp has completed any local processing and is awaiting a
     reply from the remote server.  A long delay in this mode may result from the ABOR processing described above, or
     from unexpected behavior by the remote server, including violations of the ftp protocol.  If the delay results
     from unexpected remote server behavior, the local ftp program must be killed by hand.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to the following rules.

     1.   If the file name '-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout (for writing) is used.

     2.   If the first character of the file name is '|', the remainder of the argument is interpreted as a shell com-
          mand.  Ftp then forks a shell, using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from the stdout
          (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argument must be quoted; e.g.  "" ls -lt"".  A particu-
          larly useful example of this mechanism is: "dir more".

     3.   Failing the above checks, if ''globbing'' is enabled, local file names are expanded according to the rules
          used in the csh(1); c.f. the glob command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file (.e.g.  put),
          only the first filename generated by the "globbing" operation is used.

     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file names, the local filename is the remote file-
          name, which may be altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may then be altered
          if runique is on.

     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file names, the remote filename is the local
          filename, which may be altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may then be altered by
          the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file transfer.  The type may be one of
     "ascii", "image" (binary), "ebcdic", and "local byte size" (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).  Ftp supports the
     ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

     Ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer parameters: mode, form, and struct.

ENVIRONMENT
     Ftp utilizes the following environment variables.

     HOME        For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     SHELL       For default shell.

SEE ALSO
     ftpd(8), RFC 959

HISTORY
     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the remote server.

     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode transfer code has been corrected.  This
     correction may result in incorrect transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii type.
     Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.

Linux NetKit (0.17)             August 15, 1999            Linux NetKit (0.17)