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PERLGUTS(1)            Perl Programmers Reference Guide            PERLGUTS(1)



NAME
       perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API

DESCRIPTION
       This document attempts to describe how to use the Perl API, as well as to provide some info on the basic work-
       ings of the Perl core. It is far from complete and probably contains many errors. Please refer any questions or
       comments to the author below.

Variables
       Datatypes

       Perl has three typedefs that handle Perl's three main data types:

           SV  Scalar Value
           AV  Array Value
           HV  Hash Value

       Each typedef has specific routines that manipulate the various data types.

       What is an "IV"?

       Perl uses a special typedef IV which is a simple signed integer type that is guaranteed to be large enough to
       hold a pointer (as well as an integer).  Additionally, there is the UV, which is simply an unsigned IV.

       Perl also uses two special typedefs, I32 and I16, which will always be at least 32-bits and 16-bits long,
       respectively. (Again, there are U32 and U16, as well.)  They will usually be exactly 32 and 16 bits long, but
       on Crays they will both be 64 bits.

       Working with SVs

       An SV can be created and loaded with one command.  There are five types of values that can be loaded: an inte-
       ger value (IV), an unsigned integer value (UV), a double (NV), a string (PV), and another scalar (SV).

       The seven routines are:

           SV*  newSViv(IV);
           SV*  newSVuv(UV);
           SV*  newSVnv(double);
           SV*  newSVpv(const char*, STRLEN);
           SV*  newSVpvn(const char*, STRLEN);
           SV*  newSVpvf(const char*, ...);
           SV*  newSVsv(SV*);

       "STRLEN" is an integer type (Size_t, usually defined as size_t in config.h) guaranteed to be large enough to
       represent the size of any string that perl can handle.

       In the unlikely case of a SV requiring more complex initialisation, you can create an empty SV with newSV(len).
       If "len" is 0 an empty SV of type NULL is returned, else an SV of type PV is returned with len + 1 (for the
       NUL) bytes of storage allocated, accessible via SvPVX.  In both cases the SV has value undef.

           SV *sv = newSV(0);   /* no storage allocated  */
           SV *sv = newSV(10);  /* 10 (+1) bytes of uninitialised storage allocated  */

       To change the value of an already-existing SV, there are eight routines:

           void  sv_setiv(SV*, IV);
           void  sv_setuv(SV*, UV);
           void  sv_setnv(SV*, double);
           void  sv_setpv(SV*, const char*);
           void  sv_setpvn(SV*, const char*, STRLEN)
           void  sv_setpvf(SV*, const char*, ...);
           void  sv_vsetpvfn(SV*, const char*, STRLEN, va_list *, SV **, I32, bool *);
           void  sv_setsv(SV*, SV*);

       Notice that you can choose to specify the length of the string to be assigned by using "sv_setpvn", "newSVpvn",
       or "newSVpv", or you may allow Perl to calculate the length by using "sv_setpv" or by specifying 0 as the sec-
       ond argument to "newSVpv".  Be warned, though, that Perl will determine the string's length by using "strlen",
       which depends on the string terminating with a NUL character.

       The arguments of "sv_setpvf" are processed like "sprintf", and the formatted output becomes the value.

       "sv_vsetpvfn" is an analogue of "vsprintf", but it allows you to specify either a pointer to a variable argu-
       ment list or the address and length of an array of SVs.  The last argument points to a boolean; on return, if
       that boolean is true, then locale-specific information has been used to format the string, and the string's
       contents are therefore untrustworthy (see perlsec).  This pointer may be NULL if that information is not impor-
       tant.  Note that this function requires you to specify the length of the format.

       The "sv_set*()" functions are not generic enough to operate on values that have "magic".  See "Magic Virtual
       Tables" later in this document.

       All SVs that contain strings should be terminated with a NUL character.  If it is not NUL-terminated there is a
       risk of core dumps and corruptions from code which passes the string to C functions or system calls which
       expect a NUL-terminated string.  Perl's own functions typically add a trailing NUL for this reason.  Neverthe-
       less, you should be very careful when you pass a string stored in an SV to a C function or system call.

       To access the actual value that an SV points to, you can use the macros:

           SvIV(SV*)
           SvUV(SV*)
           SvNV(SV*)
           SvPV(SV*, STRLEN len)
           SvPV_nolen(SV*)

       which will automatically coerce the actual scalar type into an IV, UV, double, or string.

       In the "SvPV" macro, the length of the string returned is placed into the variable "len" (this is a macro, so
       you do not use &len).  If you do not care what the length of the data is, use the "SvPV_nolen" macro.  Histori-
       cally the "SvPV" macro with the global variable "PL_na" has been used in this case.  But that can be quite
       inefficient because "PL_na" must be accessed in thread-local storage in threaded Perl.  In any case, remember
       that Perl allows arbitrary strings of data that may both contain NULs and might not be terminated by a NUL.

       Also remember that C doesn't allow you to safely say "foo(SvPV(s, len), len);". It might work with your com-
       piler, but it won't work for everyone.  Break this sort of statement up into separate assignments:

           SV *s;
           STRLEN len;
           char * ptr;
           ptr = SvPV(s, len);
           foo(ptr, len);

       If you want to know if the scalar value is TRUE, you can use:

           SvTRUE(SV*)

       Although Perl will automatically grow strings for you, if you need to force Perl to allocate more memory for
       your SV, you can use the macro

           SvGROW(SV*, STRLEN newlen)

       which will determine if more memory needs to be allocated.  If so, it will call the function "sv_grow".  Note
       that "SvGROW" can only increase, not decrease, the allocated memory of an SV and that it does not automatically
       add a byte for the a trailing NUL (perl's own string functions typically do "SvGROW(sv, len + 1)").

       If you have an SV and want to know what kind of data Perl thinks is stored in it, you can use the following
       macros to check the type of SV you have.

           SvIOK(SV*)
           SvNOK(SV*)
           SvPOK(SV*)

       You can get and set the current length of the string stored in an SV with the following macros:

           SvCUR(SV*)
           SvCUR_set(SV*, I32 val)

       You can also get a pointer to the end of the string stored in the SV with the macro:

           SvEND(SV*)

       But note that these last three macros are valid only if "SvPOK()" is true.

       If you want to append something to the end of string stored in an "SV*", you can use the following functions:

           void  sv_catpv(SV*, const char*);
           void  sv_catpvn(SV*, const char*, STRLEN);
           void  sv_catpvf(SV*, const char*, ...);
           void  sv_vcatpvfn(SV*, const char*, STRLEN, va_list *, SV **, I32, bool);
           void  sv_catsv(SV*, SV*);

       The first function calculates the length of the string to be appended by using "strlen".  In the second, you
       specify the length of the string yourself.  The third function processes its arguments like "sprintf" and
       appends the formatted output.  The fourth function works like "vsprintf".  You can specify the address and
       length of an array of SVs instead of the va_list argument. The fifth function extends the string stored in the
       first SV with the string stored in the second SV.  It also forces the second SV to be interpreted as a string.

       The "sv_cat*()" functions are not generic enough to operate on values that have "magic".  See "Magic Virtual
       Tables" later in this document.

       If you know the name of a scalar variable, you can get a pointer to its SV by using the following:

           SV*  get_sv("package::varname", FALSE);

       This returns NULL if the variable does not exist.

       If you want to know if this variable (or any other SV) is actually "defined", you can call:

           SvOK(SV*)

       The scalar "undef" value is stored in an SV instance called "PL_sv_undef".

       Its address can be used whenever an "SV*" is needed. Make sure that you don't try to compare a random sv with
       &PL_sv_undef. For example when interfacing Perl code, it'll work correctly for:

         foo(undef);

       But won't work when called as:

         $x = undef;
         foo($x);

       So to repeat always use SvOK() to check whether an sv is defined.

       Also you have to be careful when using &PL_sv_undef as a value in AVs or HVs (see "AVs, HVs and undefined val-
       ues").

       There are also the two values "PL_sv_yes" and "PL_sv_no", which contain boolean TRUE and FALSE values, respec-
       tively.  Like "PL_sv_undef", their addresses can be used whenever an "SV*" is needed.

       Do not be fooled into thinking that "(SV *) 0" is the same as &PL_sv_undef.  Take this code:

           SV* sv = (SV*) 0;
           if (I-am-to-return-a-real-value) {
                   sv = sv_2mortal(newSViv(42));
           }
           sv_setsv(ST(0), sv);

       This code tries to return a new SV (which contains the value 42) if it should return a real value, or undef
       otherwise.  Instead it has returned a NULL pointer which, somewhere down the line, will cause a segmentation
       violation, bus error, or just weird results.  Change the zero to &PL_sv_undef in the first line and all will be
       well.

       To free an SV that you've created, call "SvREFCNT_dec(SV*)".  Normally this call is not necessary (see "Refer-
       ence Counts and Mortality").

       Offsets

       Perl provides the function "sv_chop" to efficiently remove characters from the beginning of a string; you give
       it an SV and a pointer to somewhere inside the PV, and it discards everything before the pointer. The effi-
       ciency comes by means of a little hack: instead of actually removing the characters, "sv_chop" sets the flag
       "OOK" (offset OK) to signal to other functions that the offset hack is in effect, and it puts the number of
       bytes chopped off into the IV field of the SV. It then moves the PV pointer (called "SvPVX") forward that many
       bytes, and adjusts "SvCUR" and "SvLEN".

       Hence, at this point, the start of the buffer that we allocated lives at "SvPVX(sv) - SvIV(sv)" in memory and
       the PV pointer is pointing into the middle of this allocated storage.

       This is best demonstrated by example:

         % ./perl -Ilib -MDevel::Peek -le '$a="12345"; $a=~s/.//; Dump($a)'
         SV = PVIV(0x8128450) at 0x81340f0
           REFCNT = 1
           FLAGS = (POK,OOK,pPOK)
           IV = 1  (OFFSET)
           PV = 0x8135781 ( "1" . ) "2345"\0
           CUR = 4
           LEN = 5

       Here the number of bytes chopped off (1) is put into IV, and "Devel::Peek::Dump" helpfully reminds us that this
       is an offset. The portion of the string between the "real" and the "fake" beginnings is shown in parentheses,
       and the values of "SvCUR" and "SvLEN" reflect the fake beginning, not the real one.

       Something similar to the offset hack is performed on AVs to enable efficient shifting and splicing off the
       beginning of the array; while "AvARRAY" points to the first element in the array that is visible from Perl,
       "AvALLOC" points to the real start of the C array. These are usually the same, but a "shift" operation can be
       carried out by increasing "AvARRAY" by one and decreasing "AvFILL" and "AvLEN".  Again, the location of the
       real start of the C array only comes into play when freeing the array. See "av_shift" in av.c.

       What's Really Stored in an SV?

       Recall that the usual method of determining the type of scalar you have is to use "Sv*OK" macros.  Because a
       scalar can be both a number and a string, usually these macros will always return TRUE and calling the "Sv*V"
       macros will do the appropriate conversion of string to integer/double or integer/double to string.

       If you really need to know if you have an integer, double, or string pointer in an SV, you can use the follow-
       ing three macros instead:

           SvIOKp(SV*)
           SvNOKp(SV*)
           SvPOKp(SV*)

       These will tell you if you truly have an integer, double, or string pointer stored in your SV.  The "p" stands
       for private.

       The are various ways in which the private and public flags may differ.  For example, a tied SV may have a valid
       underlying value in the IV slot (so SvIOKp is true), but the data should be accessed via the FETCH routine
       rather than directly, so SvIOK is false. Another is when numeric conversion has occurred and precision has been
       lost: only the private flag is set on 'lossy' values. So when an NV is converted to an IV with loss, SvIOKp,
       SvNOKp and SvNOK will be set, while SvIOK wont be.

       In general, though, it's best to use the "Sv*V" macros.

       Working with AVs

       There are two ways to create and load an AV.  The first method creates an empty AV:

           AV*  newAV();

       The second method both creates the AV and initially populates it with SVs:

           AV*  av_make(I32 num, SV **ptr);

       The second argument points to an array containing "num" "SV*"'s.  Once the AV has been created, the SVs can be
       destroyed, if so desired.

       Once the AV has been created, the following operations are possible on AVs:

           void  av_push(AV*, SV*);
           SV*   av_pop(AV*);
           SV*   av_shift(AV*);
           void  av_unshift(AV*, I32 num);

       These should be familiar operations, with the exception of "av_unshift".  This routine adds "num" elements at
       the front of the array with the "undef" value.  You must then use "av_store" (described below) to assign values
       to these new elements.

       Here are some other functions:

           I32   av_len(AV*);
           SV**  av_fetch(AV*, I32 key, I32 lval);
           SV**  av_store(AV*, I32 key, SV* val);

       The "av_len" function returns the highest index value in array (just like $#array in Perl).  If the array is
       empty, -1 is returned.  The "av_fetch" function returns the value at index "key", but if "lval" is non-zero,
       then "av_fetch" will store an undef value at that index.  The "av_store" function stores the value "val" at
       index "key", and does not increment the reference count of "val".  Thus the caller is responsible for taking
       care of that, and if "av_store" returns NULL, the caller will have to decrement the reference count to avoid a
       memory leak.  Note that "av_fetch" and "av_store" both return "SV**"'s, not "SV*"'s as their return value.

           void  av_clear(AV*);
           void  av_undef(AV*);
           void  av_extend(AV*, I32 key);

       The "av_clear" function deletes all the elements in the AV* array, but does not actually delete the array
       itself.  The "av_undef" function will delete all the elements in the array plus the array itself.  The
       "av_extend" function extends the array so that it contains at least "key+1" elements.  If "key+1" is less than
       the currently allocated length of the array, then nothing is done.

       If you know the name of an array variable, you can get a pointer to its AV by using the following:

           AV*  get_av("package::varname", FALSE);

       This returns NULL if the variable does not exist.

       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" for more information on how to use the array access
       functions on tied arrays.

       Working with HVs

       To create an HV, you use the following routine:

           HV*  newHV();

       Once the HV has been created, the following operations are possible on HVs:

           SV**  hv_store(HV*, const char* key, U32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash);
           SV**  hv_fetch(HV*, const char* key, U32 klen, I32 lval);

       The "klen" parameter is the length of the key being passed in (Note that you cannot pass 0 in as a value of
       "klen" to tell Perl to measure the length of the key).  The "val" argument contains the SV pointer to the
       scalar being stored, and "hash" is the precomputed hash value (zero if you want "hv_store" to calculate it for
       you).  The "lval" parameter indicates whether this fetch is actually a part of a store operation, in which case
       a new undefined value will be added to the HV with the supplied key and "hv_fetch" will return as if the value
       had already existed.

       Remember that "hv_store" and "hv_fetch" return "SV**"'s and not just "SV*".  To access the scalar value, you
       must first dereference the return value.  However, you should check to make sure that the return value is not
       NULL before dereferencing it.

       These two functions check if a hash table entry exists, and deletes it.

           bool  hv_exists(HV*, const char* key, U32 klen);
           SV*   hv_delete(HV*, const char* key, U32 klen, I32 flags);

       If "flags" does not include the "G_DISCARD" flag then "hv_delete" will create and return a mortal copy of the
       deleted value.

       And more miscellaneous functions:

           void   hv_clear(HV*);
           void   hv_undef(HV*);

       Like their AV counterparts, "hv_clear" deletes all the entries in the hash table but does not actually delete
       the hash table.  The "hv_undef" deletes both the entries and the hash table itself.

       Perl keeps the actual data in linked list of structures with a typedef of HE.  These contain the actual key and
       value pointers (plus extra administrative overhead).  The key is a string pointer; the value is an "SV*".  How-
       ever, once you have an "HE*", to get the actual key and value, use the routines specified below.

           I32    hv_iterinit(HV*);
                   /* Prepares starting point to traverse hash table */
           HE*    hv_iternext(HV*);
                   /* Get the next entry, and return a pointer to a
                      structure that has both the key and value */
           char*  hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen);
                   /* Get the key from an HE structure and also return
                      the length of the key string */
           SV*    hv_iterval(HV*, HE* entry);
                   /* Return an SV pointer to the value of the HE
                      structure */
           SV*    hv_iternextsv(HV*, char** key, I32* retlen);
                   /* This convenience routine combines hv_iternext,
                      hv_iterkey, and hv_iterval.  The key and retlen
                      arguments are return values for the key and its
                      length.  The value is returned in the SV* argument */

       If you know the name of a hash variable, you can get a pointer to its HV by using the following:

           HV*  get_hv("package::varname", FALSE);

       This returns NULL if the variable does not exist.

       The hash algorithm is defined in the "PERL_HASH(hash, key, klen)" macro:

           hash = 0;
           while (klen--)
               hash = (hash * 33) + *key++;
           hash = hash + (hash >> 5);                  /* after 5.6 */

       The last step was added in version 5.6 to improve distribution of lower bits in the resulting hash value.

       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" for more information on how to use the hash access
       functions on tied hashes.

       Hash API Extensions

       Beginning with version 5.004, the following functions are also supported:

           HE*     hv_fetch_ent  (HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash);
           HE*     hv_store_ent  (HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash);

           bool    hv_exists_ent (HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash);
           SV*     hv_delete_ent (HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash);

           SV*     hv_iterkeysv  (HE* entry);

       Note that these functions take "SV*" keys, which simplifies writing of extension code that deals with hash
       structures.  These functions also allow passing of "SV*" keys to "tie" functions without forcing you to
       stringify the keys (unlike the previous set of functions).

       They also return and accept whole hash entries ("HE*"), making their use more efficient (since the hash number
       for a particular string doesn't have to be recomputed every time).  See perlapi for detailed descriptions.

       The following macros must always be used to access the contents of hash entries.  Note that the arguments to
       these macros must be simple variables, since they may get evaluated more than once.  See perlapi for detailed
       descriptions of these macros.

           HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)
           HeVAL(HE* he)
           HeHASH(HE* he)
           HeSVKEY(HE* he)
           HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)
           HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)

       These two lower level macros are defined, but must only be used when dealing with keys that are not "SV*"s:

           HeKEY(HE* he)
           HeKLEN(HE* he)

       Note that both "hv_store" and "hv_store_ent" do not increment the reference count of the stored "val", which is
       the caller's responsibility.  If these functions return a NULL value, the caller will usually have to decrement
       the reference count of "val" to avoid a memory leak.

       AVs, HVs and undefined values

       Sometimes you have to store undefined values in AVs or HVs. Although this may be a rare case, it can be tricky.
       That's because you're used to using &PL_sv_undef if you need an undefined SV.

       For example, intuition tells you that this XS code:

           AV *av = newAV();
           av_store( av, 0, &PL_sv_undef );

       is equivalent to this Perl code:

           my @av;
           $av[0] = undef;

       Unfortunately, this isn't true. AVs use &PL_sv_undef as a marker for indicating that an array element has not
       yet been initialized.  Thus, "exists $av[0]" would be true for the above Perl code, but false for the array
       generated by the XS code.

       Other problems can occur when storing &PL_sv_undef in HVs:

           hv_store( hv, "key", 3, &PL_sv_undef, 0 );

       This will indeed make the value "undef", but if you try to modify the value of "key", you'll get the following
       error:

           Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted

       In perl 5.8.0, &PL_sv_undef was also used to mark placeholders in restricted hashes. This caused such hash
       entries not to appear when iterating over the hash or when checking for the keys with the "hv_exists" function.

       You can run into similar problems when you store &PL_sv_true or &PL_sv_false into AVs or HVs. Trying to modify
       such elements will give you the following error:

           Modification of a read-only value attempted

       To make a long story short, you can use the special variables &PL_sv_undef, &PL_sv_true and &PL_sv_false with
       AVs and HVs, but you have to make sure you know what you're doing.

       Generally, if you want to store an undefined value in an AV or HV, you should not use &PL_sv_undef, but rather
       create a new undefined value using the "newSV" function, for example:

           av_store( av, 42, newSV(0) );
           hv_store( hv, "foo", 3, newSV(0), 0 );

       References

       References are a special type of scalar that point to other data types (including references).

       To create a reference, use either of the following functions:

           SV* newRV_inc((SV*) thing);
           SV* newRV_noinc((SV*) thing);

       The "thing" argument can be any of an "SV*", "AV*", or "HV*".  The functions are identical except that
       "newRV_inc" increments the reference count of the "thing", while "newRV_noinc" does not.  For historical rea-
       sons, "newRV" is a synonym for "newRV_inc".

       Once you have a reference, you can use the following macro to dereference the reference:

           SvRV(SV*)

       then call the appropriate routines, casting the returned "SV*" to either an "AV*" or "HV*", if required.

       To determine if an SV is a reference, you can use the following macro:

           SvROK(SV*)

       To discover what type of value the reference refers to, use the following macro and then check the return
       value.

           SvTYPE(SvRV(SV*))

       The most useful types that will be returned are:

           SVt_IV    Scalar
           SVt_NV    Scalar
           SVt_PV    Scalar
           SVt_RV    Scalar
           SVt_PVAV  Array
           SVt_PVHV  Hash
           SVt_PVCV  Code
           SVt_PVGV  Glob (possible a file handle)
           SVt_PVMG  Blessed or Magical Scalar

           See the sv.h header file for more details.

       Blessed References and Class Objects

       References are also used to support object-oriented programming.  In perl's OO lexicon, an object is simply a
       reference that has been blessed into a package (or class).  Once blessed, the programmer may now use the refer-
       ence to access the various methods in the class.

       A reference can be blessed into a package with the following function:

           SV* sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash);

       The "sv" argument must be a reference value.  The "stash" argument specifies which class the reference will
       belong to.  See "Stashes and Globs" for information on converting class names into stashes.

       /* Still under construction */

       Upgrades rv to reference if not already one.  Creates new SV for rv to point to.  If "classname" is non-null,
       the SV is blessed into the specified class.  SV is returned.

               SV* newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname);

       Copies integer, unsigned integer or double into an SV whose reference is "rv".  SV is blessed if "classname" is
       non-null.

               SV* sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv);
               SV* sv_setref_uv(SV* rv, const char* classname, UV uv);
               SV* sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV iv);

       Copies the pointer value (the address, not the string!) into an SV whose reference is rv.  SV is blessed if
       "classname" is non-null.

               SV* sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, PV iv);

       Copies string into an SV whose reference is "rv".  Set length to 0 to let Perl calculate the string length.  SV
       is blessed if "classname" is non-null.

               SV* sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, PV iv, STRLEN length);

       Tests whether the SV is blessed into the specified class.  It does not check inheritance relationships.

               int  sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name);

       Tests whether the SV is a reference to a blessed object.

               int  sv_isobject(SV* sv);

       Tests whether the SV is derived from the specified class. SV can be either a reference to a blessed object or a
       string containing a class name. This is the function implementing the "UNIVERSAL::isa" functionality.

               bool sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name);

       To check if you've got an object derived from a specific class you have to write:

               if (sv_isobject(sv) && sv_derived_from(sv, class)) { ... }

       Creating New Variables

       To create a new Perl variable with an undef value which can be accessed from your Perl script, use the follow-
       ing routines, depending on the variable type.

           SV*  get_sv("package::varname", TRUE);
           AV*  get_av("package::varname", TRUE);
           HV*  get_hv("package::varname", TRUE);

       Notice the use of TRUE as the second parameter.  The new variable can now be set, using the routines appropri-
       ate to the data type.

       There are additional macros whose values may be bitwise OR'ed with the "TRUE" argument to enable certain extra
       features.  Those bits are:

       GV_ADDMULTI
           Marks the variable as multiply defined, thus preventing the:

             Name <varname> used only once: possible typo

           warning.

       GV_ADDWARN
           Issues the warning:

             Had to create <varname> unexpectedly

           if the variable did not exist before the function was called.

       If you do not specify a package name, the variable is created in the current package.

       Reference Counts and Mortality

       Perl uses a reference count-driven garbage collection mechanism. SVs, AVs, or HVs (xV for short in the follow-
       ing) start their life with a reference count of 1.  If the reference count of an xV ever drops to 0, then it
       will be destroyed and its memory made available for reuse.

       This normally doesn't happen at the Perl level unless a variable is undef'ed or the last variable holding a
       reference to it is changed or overwritten.  At the internal level, however, reference counts can be manipulated
       with the following macros:

           int SvREFCNT(SV* sv);
           SV* SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv);
           void SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv);

       However, there is one other function which manipulates the reference count of its argument.  The "newRV_inc"
       function, you will recall, creates a reference to the specified argument.  As a side effect, it increments the
       argument's reference count.  If this is not what you want, use "newRV_noinc" instead.

       For example, imagine you want to return a reference from an XSUB function.  Inside the XSUB routine, you create
       an SV which initially has a reference count of one.  Then you call "newRV_inc", passing it the just-created SV.
       This returns the reference as a new SV, but the reference count of the SV you passed to "newRV_inc" has been
       incremented to two.  Now you return the reference from the XSUB routine and forget about the SV.  But Perl
       hasn't!  Whenever the returned reference is destroyed, the reference count of the original SV is decreased to
       one and nothing happens.  The SV will hang around without any way to access it until Perl itself terminates.
       This is a memory leak.

       The correct procedure, then, is to use "newRV_noinc" instead of "newRV_inc".  Then, if and when the last refer-
       ence is destroyed, the reference count of the SV will go to zero and it will be destroyed, stopping any memory
       leak.

       There are some convenience functions available that can help with the destruction of xVs.  These functions
       introduce the concept of "mortality".  An xV that is mortal has had its reference count marked to be decre-
       mented, but not actually decremented, until "a short time later".  Generally the term "short time later" means
       a single Perl statement, such as a call to an XSUB function.  The actual determinant for when mortal xVs have
       their reference count decremented depends on two macros, SAVETMPS and FREETMPS.  See perlcall and perlxs for
       more details on these macros.

       "Mortalization" then is at its simplest a deferred "SvREFCNT_dec".  However, if you mortalize a variable twice,
       the reference count will later be decremented twice.

       "Mortal" SVs are mainly used for SVs that are placed on perl's stack.  For example an SV which is created just
       to pass a number to a called sub is made mortal to have it cleaned up automatically when it's popped off the
       stack. Similarly, results returned by XSUBs (which are pushed on the stack) are often made mortal.

       To create a mortal variable, use the functions:

           SV*  sv_newmortal()
           SV*  sv_2mortal(SV*)
           SV*  sv_mortalcopy(SV*)

       The first call creates a mortal SV (with no value), the second converts an existing SV to a mortal SV (and thus
       defers a call to "SvREFCNT_dec"), and the third creates a mortal copy of an existing SV.  Because "sv_newmor-
       tal" gives the new SV no value,it must normally be given one via "sv_setpv", "sv_setiv", etc. :

           SV *tmp = sv_newmortal();
           sv_setiv(tmp, an_integer);

       As that is multiple C statements it is quite common so see this idiom instead:

           SV *tmp = sv_2mortal(newSViv(an_integer));

       You should be careful about creating mortal variables.  Strange things can happen if you make the same value
       mortal within multiple contexts, or if you make a variable mortal multiple times. Thinking of "Mortalization"
       as deferred "SvREFCNT_dec" should help to minimize such problems.  For example if you are passing an SV which
       you know has high enough REFCNT to survive its use on the stack you need not do any mortalization.  If you are
       not sure then doing an "SvREFCNT_inc" and "sv_2mortal", or making a "sv_mortalcopy" is safer.

       The mortal routines are not just for SVs -- AVs and HVs can be made mortal by passing their address
       (type-casted to "SV*") to the "sv_2mortal" or "sv_mortalcopy" routines.

       Stashes and Globs

       A stash is a hash that contains all variables that are defined within a package.  Each key of the stash is a
       symbol name (shared by all the different types of objects that have the same name), and each value in the hash
       table is a GV (Glob Value).  This GV in turn contains references to the various objects of that name, including
       (but not limited to) the following:

           Scalar Value
           Array Value
           Hash Value
           I/O Handle
           Format
           Subroutine

       There is a single stash called "PL_defstash" that holds the items that exist in the "main" package.  To get at
       the items in other packages, append the string "::" to the package name.  The items in the "Foo" package are in
       the stash "Foo::" in PL_defstash.  The items in the "Bar::Baz" package are in the stash "Baz::" in "Bar::"'s
       stash.

       To get the stash pointer for a particular package, use the function:

           HV*  gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 create)
           HV*  gv_stashsv(SV*, I32 create)

       The first function takes a literal string, the second uses the string stored in the SV.  Remember that a stash
       is just a hash table, so you get back an "HV*".  The "create" flag will create a new package if it is set.

       The name that "gv_stash*v" wants is the name of the package whose symbol table you want.  The default package
       is called "main".  If you have multiply nested packages, pass their names to "gv_stash*v", separated by "::" as
       in the Perl language itself.

       Alternately, if you have an SV that is a blessed reference, you can find out the stash pointer by using:

           HV*  SvSTASH(SvRV(SV*));

       then use the following to get the package name itself:

           char*  HvNAME(HV* stash);

       If you need to bless or re-bless an object you can use the following function:

           SV*  sv_bless(SV*, HV* stash)

       where the first argument, an "SV*", must be a reference, and the second argument is a stash.  The returned
       "SV*" can now be used in the same way as any other SV.

       For more information on references and blessings, consult perlref.

       Double-Typed SVs

       Scalar variables normally contain only one type of value, an integer, double, pointer, or reference.  Perl will
       automatically convert the actual scalar data from the stored type into the requested type.

       Some scalar variables contain more than one type of scalar data.  For example, the variable $! contains either
       the numeric value of "errno" or its string equivalent from either "strerror" or "sys_errlist[]".

       To force multiple data values into an SV, you must do two things: use the "sv_set*v" routines to add the addi-
       tional scalar type, then set a flag so that Perl will believe it contains more than one type of data.  The four
       macros to set the flags are:

               SvIOK_on
               SvNOK_on
               SvPOK_on
               SvROK_on

       The particular macro you must use depends on which "sv_set*v" routine you called first.  This is because every
       "sv_set*v" routine turns on only the bit for the particular type of data being set, and turns off all the rest.

       For example, to create a new Perl variable called "dberror" that contains both the numeric and descriptive
       string error values, you could use the following code:

           extern int  dberror;
           extern char *dberror_list;

           SV* sv = get_sv("dberror", TRUE);
           sv_setiv(sv, (IV) dberror);
           sv_setpv(sv, dberror_list[dberror]);
           SvIOK_on(sv);

       If the order of "sv_setiv" and "sv_setpv" had been reversed, then the macro "SvPOK_on" would need to be called
       instead of "SvIOK_on".

       Magic Variables

       [This section still under construction.  Ignore everything here.  Post no bills.  Everything not permitted is
       forbidden.]

       Any SV may be magical, that is, it has special features that a normal SV does not have.  These features are
       stored in the SV structure in a linked list of "struct magic"'s, typedef'ed to "MAGIC".

           struct magic {
               MAGIC*      mg_moremagic;
               MGVTBL*     mg_virtual;
               U16         mg_private;
               char        mg_type;
               U8          mg_flags;
               SV*         mg_obj;
               char*       mg_ptr;
               I32         mg_len;
           };

       Note this is current as of patchlevel 0, and could change at any time.

       Assigning Magic

       Perl adds magic to an SV using the sv_magic function:

           void sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen);

       The "sv" argument is a pointer to the SV that is to acquire a new magical feature.

       If "sv" is not already magical, Perl uses the "SvUPGRADE" macro to convert "sv" to type "SVt_PVMG". Perl then
       continues by adding new magic to the beginning of the linked list of magical features.  Any prior entry of the
       same type of magic is deleted.  Note that this can be overridden, and multiple instances of the same type of
       magic can be associated with an SV.

       The "name" and "namlen" arguments are used to associate a string with the magic, typically the name of a vari-
       able. "namlen" is stored in the "mg_len" field and if "name" is non-null then either a "savepvn" copy of "name"
       or "name" itself is stored in the "mg_ptr" field, depending on whether "namlen" is greater than zero or equal
       to zero respectively.  As a special case, if "(name && namlen == HEf_SVKEY)" then "name" is assumed to contain
       an "SV*" and is stored as-is with its REFCNT incremented.

       The sv_magic function uses "how" to determine which, if any, predefined "Magic Virtual Table" should be
       assigned to the "mg_virtual" field.  See the "Magic Virtual Tables" section below.  The "how" argument is also
       stored in the "mg_type" field. The value of "how" should be chosen from the set of macros "PERL_MAGIC_foo"
       found in perl.h. Note that before these macros were added, Perl internals used to directly use character liter-
       als, so you may occasionally come across old code or documentation referring to 'U' magic rather than
       "PERL_MAGIC_uvar" for example.

       The "obj" argument is stored in the "mg_obj" field of the "MAGIC" structure.  If it is not the same as the "sv"
       argument, the reference count of the "obj" object is incremented.  If it is the same, or if the "how" argument
       is "PERL_MAGIC_arylen", or if it is a NULL pointer, then "obj" is merely stored, without the reference count
       being incremented.

       See also "sv_magicext" in perlapi for a more flexible way to add magic to an SV.

       There is also a function to add magic to an "HV":

           void hv_magic(HV *hv, GV *gv, int how);

       This simply calls "sv_magic" and coerces the "gv" argument into an "SV".

       To remove the magic from an SV, call the function sv_unmagic:

           void sv_unmagic(SV *sv, int type);

       The "type" argument should be equal to the "how" value when the "SV" was initially made magical.

       Magic Virtual Tables

       The "mg_virtual" field in the "MAGIC" structure is a pointer to an "MGVTBL", which is a structure of function
       pointers and stands for "Magic Virtual Table" to handle the various operations that might be applied to that
       variable.

       The "MGVTBL" has five pointers to the following routine types:

           int  (*svt_get)(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg);
           int  (*svt_set)(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg);
           U32  (*svt_len)(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg);
           int  (*svt_clear)(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg);
           int  (*svt_free)(SV* sv, MAGIC* mg);

       This MGVTBL structure is set at compile-time in perl.h and there are currently 19 types (or 21 with overloading
       turned on).  These different structures contain pointers to various routines that perform additional actions
       depending on which function is being called.

           Function pointer    Action taken
           ----------------    ------------
           svt_get             Do something before the value of the SV is retrieved.
           svt_set             Do something after the SV is assigned a value.
           svt_len             Report on the SV's length.
           svt_clear           Clear something the SV represents.
           svt_free            Free any extra storage associated with the SV.

       For instance, the MGVTBL structure called "vtbl_sv" (which corresponds to an "mg_type" of "PERL_MAGIC_sv") con-
       tains:

           { magic_get, magic_set, magic_len, 0, 0 }

       Thus, when an SV is determined to be magical and of type "PERL_MAGIC_sv", if a get operation is being per-
       formed, the routine "magic_get" is called.  All the various routines for the various magical types begin with
       "magic_".  NOTE: the magic routines are not considered part of the Perl API, and may not be exported by the
       Perl library.

       The current kinds of Magic Virtual Tables are:

           mg_type
           (old-style char and macro)   MGVTBL         Type of magic
           --------------------------   ------         ----------------------------
           \0 PERL_MAGIC_sv             vtbl_sv        Special scalar variable
           A  PERL_MAGIC_overload       vtbl_amagic    %OVERLOAD hash
           a  PERL_MAGIC_overload_elem  vtbl_amagicelem %OVERLOAD hash element
           c  PERL_MAGIC_overload_table (none)         Holds overload table (AMT)
                                                       on stash
           B  PERL_MAGIC_bm             vtbl_bm        Boyer-Moore (fast string search)
           D  PERL_MAGIC_regdata        vtbl_regdata   Regex match position data
                                                       (@+ and @- vars)
           d  PERL_MAGIC_regdatum       vtbl_regdatum  Regex match position data
                                                       element
           E  PERL_MAGIC_env            vtbl_env       %ENV hash
           e  PERL_MAGIC_envelem        vtbl_envelem   %ENV hash element
           f  PERL_MAGIC_fm             vtbl_fm        Formline ('compiled' format)
           g  PERL_MAGIC_regex_global   vtbl_mglob     m//g target / study()ed string
           I  PERL_MAGIC_isa            vtbl_isa       @ISA array
           i  PERL_MAGIC_isaelem        vtbl_isaelem   @ISA array element
           k  PERL_MAGIC_nkeys          vtbl_nkeys     scalar(keys()) lvalue
           L  PERL_MAGIC_dbfile         (none)         Debugger %_<filename
           l  PERL_MAGIC_dbline         vtbl_dbline    Debugger %_<filename element
           m  PERL_MAGIC_mutex          vtbl_mutex     ???
           o  PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm       vtbl_collxfrm  Locale collate transformation
           P  PERL_MAGIC_tied           vtbl_pack      Tied array or hash
           p  PERL_MAGIC_tiedelem       vtbl_packelem  Tied array or hash element
           q  PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar     vtbl_packelem  Tied scalar or handle
           r  PERL_MAGIC_qr             vtbl_qr        precompiled qr// regex
           S  PERL_MAGIC_sig            vtbl_sig       %SIG hash
           s  PERL_MAGIC_sigelem        vtbl_sigelem   %SIG hash element
           t  PERL_MAGIC_taint          vtbl_taint     Taintedness
           U  PERL_MAGIC_uvar           vtbl_uvar      Available for use by extensions
           v  PERL_MAGIC_vec            vtbl_vec       vec() lvalue
           V  PERL_MAGIC_vstring        (none)         v-string scalars
           w  PERL_MAGIC_utf8           vtbl_utf8      UTF-8 length+offset cache
           x  PERL_MAGIC_substr         vtbl_substr    substr() lvalue
           y  PERL_MAGIC_defelem        vtbl_defelem   Shadow "foreach" iterator
                                                       variable / smart parameter
                                                       vivification
           *  PERL_MAGIC_glob           vtbl_glob      GV (typeglob)
           #  PERL_MAGIC_arylen         vtbl_arylen    Array length ($#ary)
           .  PERL_MAGIC_pos            vtbl_pos       pos() lvalue
           <  PERL_MAGIC_backref        vtbl_backref   ???
           ~  PERL_MAGIC_ext            (none)         Available for use by extensions

       When an uppercase and lowercase letter both exist in the table, then the uppercase letter is typically used to
       represent some kind of composite type (a list or a hash), and the lowercase letter is used to represent an ele-
       ment of that composite type. Some internals code makes use of this case relationship.  However, 'v' and 'V'
       (vec and v-string) are in no way related.

       The "PERL_MAGIC_ext" and "PERL_MAGIC_uvar" magic types are defined specifically for use by extensions and will
       not be used by perl itself.  Extensions can use "PERL_MAGIC_ext" magic to 'attach' private information to vari-
       ables (typically objects).  This is especially useful because there is no way for normal perl code to corrupt
       this private information (unlike using extra elements of a hash object).

       Similarly, "PERL_MAGIC_uvar" magic can be used much like tie() to call a C function any time a scalar's value
       is used or changed.  The "MAGIC"'s "mg_ptr" field points to a "ufuncs" structure:

           struct ufuncs {
               I32 (*uf_val)(pTHX_ IV, SV*);
               I32 (*uf_set)(pTHX_ IV, SV*);
               IV uf_index;
           };

       When the SV is read from or written to, the "uf_val" or "uf_set" function will be called with "uf_index" as the
       first arg and a pointer to the SV as the second.  A simple example of how to add "PERL_MAGIC_uvar" magic is
       shown below.  Note that the ufuncs structure is copied by sv_magic, so you can safely allocate it on the stack.

           void
           Umagic(sv)
               SV *sv;
           PREINIT:
               struct ufuncs uf;
           CODE:
               uf.uf_val   = &my_get_fn;
               uf.uf_set   = &my_set_fn;
               uf.uf_index = 0;
               sv_magic(sv, 0, PERL_MAGIC_uvar, (char*)&uf, sizeof(uf));

       Note that because multiple extensions may be using "PERL_MAGIC_ext" or "PERL_MAGIC_uvar" magic, it is important
       for extensions to take extra care to avoid conflict.  Typically only using the magic on objects blessed into
       the same class as the extension is sufficient.  For "PERL_MAGIC_ext" magic, it may also be appropriate to add
       an I32 'signature' at the top of the private data area and check that.

       Also note that the "sv_set*()" and "sv_cat*()" functions described earlier do not invoke 'set' magic on their
       targets.  This must be done by the user either by calling the "SvSETMAGIC()" macro after calling these func-
       tions, or by using one of the "sv_set*_mg()" or "sv_cat*_mg()" functions.  Similarly, generic C code must call
       the "SvGETMAGIC()" macro to invoke any 'get' magic if they use an SV obtained from external sources in func-
       tions that don't handle magic.  See perlapi for a description of these functions.  For example, calls to the
       "sv_cat*()" functions typically need to be followed by "SvSETMAGIC()", but they don't need a prior "SvGET-
       MAGIC()" since their implementation handles 'get' magic.

       Finding Magic

           MAGIC* mg_find(SV*, int type); /* Finds the magic pointer of that type */

       This routine returns a pointer to the "MAGIC" structure stored in the SV.  If the SV does not have that magical
       feature, "NULL" is returned.  Also, if the SV is not of type SVt_PVMG, Perl may core dump.

           int mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, STRLEN klen);

       This routine checks to see what types of magic "sv" has.  If the mg_type field is an uppercase letter, then the
       mg_obj is copied to "nsv", but the mg_type field is changed to be the lowercase letter.

       Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays

       Tied hashes and arrays are magical beasts of the "PERL_MAGIC_tied" magic type.

       WARNING: As of the 5.004 release, proper usage of the array and hash access functions requires understanding a
       few caveats.  Some of these caveats are actually considered bugs in the API, to be fixed in later releases, and
       are bracketed with [MAYCHANGE] below. If you find yourself actually applying such information in this section,
       be aware that the behavior may change in the future, umm, without warning.

       The perl tie function associates a variable with an object that implements the various GET, SET, etc methods.
       To perform the equivalent of the perl tie function from an XSUB, you must mimic this behaviour.  The code below
       carries out the necessary steps - firstly it creates a new hash, and then creates a second hash which it
       blesses into the class which will implement the tie methods. Lastly it ties the two hashes together, and
       returns a reference to the new tied hash.  Note that the code below does NOT call the TIEHASH method in the
       MyTie class - see "Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs" for details on how to do this.

           SV*
           mytie()
           PREINIT:
               HV *hash;
               HV *stash;
               SV *tie;
           CODE:
               hash = newHV();
               tie = newRV_noinc((SV*)newHV());
               stash = gv_stashpv("MyTie", TRUE);
               sv_bless(tie, stash);
               hv_magic(hash, (GV*)tie, PERL_MAGIC_tied);
               RETVAL = newRV_noinc(hash);
           OUTPUT:
               RETVAL

       The "av_store" function, when given a tied array argument, merely copies the magic of the array onto the value
       to be "stored", using "mg_copy".  It may also return NULL, indicating that the value did not actually need to
       be stored in the array.  [MAYCHANGE] After a call to "av_store" on a tied array, the caller will usually need
       to call "mg_set(val)" to actually invoke the perl level "STORE" method on the TIEARRAY object.  If "av_store"
       did return NULL, a call to "SvREFCNT_dec(val)" will also be usually necessary to avoid a memory leak. [/MAY-
       CHANGE]

       The previous paragraph is applicable verbatim to tied hash access using the "hv_store" and "hv_store_ent" func-
       tions as well.

       "av_fetch" and the corresponding hash functions "hv_fetch" and "hv_fetch_ent" actually return an undefined mor-
       tal value whose magic has been initialized using "mg_copy".  Note the value so returned does not need to be
       deallocated, as it is already mortal.  [MAYCHANGE] But you will need to call "mg_get()" on the returned value
       in order to actually invoke the perl level "FETCH" method on the underlying TIE object.  Similarly, you may
       also call "mg_set()" on the return value after possibly assigning a suitable value to it using "sv_setsv",
       which will invoke the "STORE" method on the TIE object. [/MAYCHANGE]

       [MAYCHANGE] In other words, the array or hash fetch/store functions don't really fetch and store actual values
       in the case of tied arrays and hashes.  They merely call "mg_copy" to attach magic to the values that were
       meant to be "stored" or "fetched".  Later calls to "mg_get" and "mg_set" actually do the job of invoking the
       TIE methods on the underlying objects.  Thus the magic mechanism currently implements a kind of lazy access to
       arrays and hashes.

       Currently (as of perl version 5.004), use of the hash and array access functions requires the user to be aware
       of whether they are operating on "normal" hashes and arrays, or on their tied variants.  The API may be changed
       to provide more transparent access to both tied and normal data types in future versions.  [/MAYCHANGE]

       You would do well to understand that the TIEARRAY and TIEHASH interfaces are mere sugar to invoke some perl
       method calls while using the uniform hash and array syntax.  The use of this sugar imposes some overhead (typi-
       cally about two to four extra opcodes per FETCH/STORE operation, in addition to the creation of all the mortal
       variables required to invoke the methods).  This overhead will be comparatively small if the TIE methods are
       themselves substantial, but if they are only a few statements long, the overhead will not be insignificant.

       Localizing changes

       Perl has a very handy construction

         {
           local $var = 2;
           ...
         }

       This construction is approximately equivalent to

         {
           my $oldvar = $var;
           $var = 2;
           ...
           $var = $oldvar;
         }

       The biggest difference is that the first construction would reinstate the initial value of $var, irrespective
       of how control exits the block: "goto", "return", "die"/"eval", etc. It is a little bit more efficient as well.

       There is a way to achieve a similar task from C via Perl API: create a pseudo-block, and arrange for some
       changes to be automatically undone at the end of it, either explicit, or via a non-local exit (via die()). A
       block-like construct is created by a pair of "ENTER"/"LEAVE" macros (see "Returning a Scalar" in perlcall).
       Such a construct may be created specially for some important localized task, or an existing one (like bound-
       aries of enclosing Perl subroutine/block, or an existing pair for freeing TMPs) may be used. (In the second
       case the overhead of additional localization must be almost negligible.) Note that any XSUB is automatically
       enclosed in an "ENTER"/"LEAVE" pair.

       Inside such a pseudo-block the following service is available:

       "SAVEINT(int i)"
       "SAVEIV(IV i)"
       "SAVEI32(I32 i)"
       "SAVELONG(long i)"
           These macros arrange things to restore the value of integer variable "i" at the end of enclosing pseudo-
           block.

       SAVESPTR(s)
       SAVEPPTR(p)
           These macros arrange things to restore the value of pointers "s" and "p". "s" must be a pointer of a type
           which survives conversion to "SV*" and back, "p" should be able to survive conversion to "char*" and back.

       "SAVEFREESV(SV *sv)"
           The refcount of "sv" would be decremented at the end of pseudo-block.  This is similar to "sv_2mortal" in
           that it is also a mechanism for doing a delayed "SvREFCNT_dec".  However, while "sv_2mortal" extends the
           lifetime of "sv" until the beginning of the next statement, "SAVEFREESV" extends it until the end of the
           enclosing scope.  These lifetimes can be wildly different.

           Also compare "SAVEMORTALIZESV".

       "SAVEMORTALIZESV(SV *sv)"
           Just like "SAVEFREESV", but mortalizes "sv" at the end of the current scope instead of decrementing its
           reference count.  This usually has the effect of keeping "sv" alive until the statement that called the
           currently live scope has finished executing.

       "SAVEFREEOP(OP *op)"
           The "OP *" is op_free()ed at the end of pseudo-block.

       SAVEFREEPV(p)
           The chunk of memory which is pointed to by "p" is Safefree()ed at the end of pseudo-block.

       "SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv)"
           Clears a slot in the current scratchpad which corresponds to "sv" at the end of pseudo-block.

       "SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length)"
           The key "key" of "hv" is deleted at the end of pseudo-block. The string pointed to by "key" is Safe-
           free()ed.  If one has a key in short-lived storage, the corresponding string may be reallocated like this:

             SAVEDELETE(PL_defstash, savepv(tmpbuf), strlen(tmpbuf));

       "SAVEDESTRUCTOR(DESTRUCTORFUNC_NOCONTEXT_t f, void *p)"
           At the end of pseudo-block the function "f" is called with the only argument "p".

       "SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(DESTRUCTORFUNC_t f, void *p)"
           At the end of pseudo-block the function "f" is called with the implicit context argument (if any), and "p".

       "SAVESTACK_POS()"
           The current offset on the Perl internal stack (cf. "SP") is restored at the end of pseudo-block.

       The following API list contains functions, thus one needs to provide pointers to the modifiable data explicitly
       (either C pointers, or Perlish "GV *"s).  Where the above macros take "int", a similar function takes "int *".

       "SV* save_scalar(GV *gv)"
           Equivalent to Perl code "local $gv".

       "AV* save_ary(GV *gv)"
       "HV* save_hash(GV *gv)"
           Similar to "save_scalar", but localize @gv and %gv.

       "void save_item(SV *item)"
           Duplicates the current value of "SV", on the exit from the current "ENTER"/"LEAVE" pseudo-block will
           restore the value of "SV" using the stored value.

       "void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg)"
           A variant of "save_item" which takes multiple arguments via an array "sarg" of "SV*" of length "maxsarg".

       "SV* save_svref(SV **sptr)"
           Similar to "save_scalar", but will reinstate an "SV *".

       "void save_aptr(AV **aptr)"
       "void save_hptr(HV **hptr)"
           Similar to "save_svref", but localize "AV *" and "HV *".

       The "Alias" module implements localization of the basic types within the caller's scope.  People who are inter-
       ested in how to localize things in the containing scope should take a look there too.

Subroutines
       XSUBs and the Argument Stack

       The XSUB mechanism is a simple way for Perl programs to access C subroutines.  An XSUB routine will have a
       stack that contains the arguments from the Perl program, and a way to map from the Perl data structures to a C
       equivalent.

       The stack arguments are accessible through the ST(n) macro, which returns the "n"'th stack argument.  Argument
       0 is the first argument passed in the Perl subroutine call.  These arguments are "SV*", and can be used any-
       where an "SV*" is used.

       Most of the time, output from the C routine can be handled through use of the RETVAL and OUTPUT directives.
       However, there are some cases where the argument stack is not already long enough to handle all the return val-
       ues.  An example is the POSIX tzname() call, which takes no arguments, but returns two, the local time zone's
       standard and summer time abbreviations.

       To handle this situation, the PPCODE directive is used and the stack is extended using the macro:

           EXTEND(SP, num);

       where "SP" is the macro that represents the local copy of the stack pointer, and "num" is the number of ele-
       ments the stack should be extended by.

       Now that there is room on the stack, values can be pushed on it using "PUSHs" macro. The pushed values will
       often need to be "mortal" (See "Reference Counts and Mortality"):

           PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(an_integer)))
           PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSVuv(an_unsigned_integer)))
           PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSVnv(a_double)))
           PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSVpv("Some String",0)))

       And now the Perl program calling "tzname", the two values will be assigned as in:

           ($standard_abbrev, $summer_abbrev) = POSIX::tzname;

       An alternate (and possibly simpler) method to pushing values on the stack is to use the macro:

           XPUSHs(SV*)

       This macro automatically adjust the stack for you, if needed.  Thus, you do not need to call "EXTEND" to extend
       the stack.

       Despite their suggestions in earlier versions of this document the macros "(X)PUSH[iunp]" are not suited to
       XSUBs which return multiple results.  For that, either stick to the "(X)PUSHs" macros shown above, or use the
       new "m(X)PUSH[iunp]" macros instead; see "Putting a C value on Perl stack".

       For more information, consult perlxs and perlxstut.

       Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs

       There are four routines that can be used to call a Perl subroutine from within a C program.  These four are:

           I32  call_sv(SV*, I32);
           I32  call_pv(const char*, I32);
           I32  call_method(const char*, I32);
           I32  call_argv(const char*, I32, register char**);

       The routine most often used is "call_sv".  The "SV*" argument contains either the name of the Perl subroutine
       to be called, or a reference to the subroutine.  The second argument consists of flags that control the context
       in which the subroutine is called, whether or not the subroutine is being passed arguments, how errors should
       be trapped, and how to treat return values.

       All four routines return the number of arguments that the subroutine returned on the Perl stack.

       These routines used to be called "perl_call_sv", etc., before Perl v5.6.0, but those names are now deprecated;
       macros of the same name are provided for compatibility.

       When using any of these routines (except "call_argv"), the programmer must manipulate the Perl stack.  These
       include the following macros and functions:

           dSP
           SP
           PUSHMARK()
           PUTBACK
           SPAGAIN
           ENTER
           SAVETMPS
           FREETMPS
           LEAVE
           XPUSH*()
           POP*()

       For a detailed description of calling conventions from C to Perl, consult perlcall.

       Memory Allocation

       Allocation

       All memory meant to be used with the Perl API functions should be manipulated using the macros described in
       this section.  The macros provide the necessary transparency between differences in the actual malloc implemen-
       tation that is used within perl.

       It is suggested that you enable the version of malloc that is distributed with Perl.  It keeps pools of various
       sizes of unallocated memory in order to satisfy allocation requests more quickly.  However, on some platforms,
       it may cause spurious malloc or free errors.

       The following three macros are used to initially allocate memory :

           Newx(pointer, number, type);
           Newxc(pointer, number, type, cast);
           Newxz(pointer, number, type);

       The first argument "pointer" should be the name of a variable that will point to the newly allocated memory.

       The second and third arguments "number" and "type" specify how many of the specified type of data structure
       should be allocated.  The argument "type" is passed to "sizeof".  The final argument to "Newxc", "cast", should
       be used if the "pointer" argument is different from the "type" argument.

       Unlike the "Newx" and "Newxc" macros, the "Newxz" macro calls "memzero" to zero out all the newly allocated
       memory.

       Reallocation

           Renew(pointer, number, type);
           Renewc(pointer, number, type, cast);
           Safefree(pointer)

       These three macros are used to change a memory buffer size or to free a piece of memory no longer needed.  The
       arguments to "Renew" and "Renewc" match those of "New" and "Newc" with the exception of not needing the "magic
       cookie" argument.

       Moving

           Move(source, dest, number, type);
           Copy(source, dest, number, type);
           Zero(dest, number, type);

       These three macros are used to move, copy, or zero out previously allocated memory.  The "source" and "dest"
       arguments point to the source and destination starting points.  Perl will move, copy, or zero out "number"
       instances of the size of the "type" data structure (using the "sizeof" function).

       PerlIO

       The most recent development releases of Perl has been experimenting with removing Perl's dependency on the
       "normal" standard I/O suite and allowing other stdio implementations to be used.  This involves creating a new
       abstraction layer that then calls whichever implementation of stdio Perl was compiled with.  All XSUBs should
       now use the functions in the PerlIO abstraction layer and not make any assumptions about what kind of stdio is
       being used.

       For a complete description of the PerlIO abstraction, consult perlapio.

       Putting a C value on Perl stack

       A lot of opcodes (this is an elementary operation in the internal perl stack machine) put an SV* on the stack.
       However, as an optimization the corresponding SV is (usually) not recreated each time. The opcodes reuse spe-
       cially assigned SVs (targets) which are (as a corollary) not constantly freed/created.

       Each of the targets is created only once (but see "Scratchpads and recursion" below), and when an opcode needs
       to put an integer, a double, or a string on stack, it just sets the corresponding parts of its target and puts
       the target on stack.

       The macro to put this target on stack is "PUSHTARG", and it is directly used in some opcodes, as well as indi-
       rectly in zillions of others, which use it via "(X)PUSH[iunp]".

       Because the target is reused, you must be careful when pushing multiple values on the stack. The following code
       will not do what you think:

           XPUSHi(10);
           XPUSHi(20);

       This translates as "set "TARG" to 10, push a pointer to "TARG" onto the stack; set "TARG" to 20, push a pointer
       to "TARG" onto the stack".  At the end of the operation, the stack does not contain the values 10 and 20, but
       actually contains two pointers to "TARG", which we have set to 20.

       If you need to push multiple different values then you should either use the "(X)PUSHs" macros, or else use the
       new "m(X)PUSH[iunp]" macros, none of which make use of "TARG".  The "(X)PUSHs" macros simply push an SV* on the
       stack, which, as noted under "XSUBs and the Argument Stack", will often need to be "mortal".  The new
       "m(X)PUSH[iunp]" macros make this a little easier to achieve by creating a new mortal for you (via "(X)PUSHmor-
       tal"), pushing that onto the stack (extending it if necessary in the case of the "mXPUSH[iunp]" macros), and
       then setting its value.  Thus, instead of writing this to "fix" the example above:

           XPUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(10)))
           XPUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv(20)))

       you can simply write:

           mXPUSHi(10)
           mXPUSHi(20)

       On a related note, if you do use "(X)PUSH[iunp]", then you're going to need a "dTARG" in your variable declara-
       tions so that the "*PUSH*" macros can make use of the local variable "TARG".  See also "dTARGET" and "dXSTARG".

       Scratchpads

       The question remains on when the SVs which are targets for opcodes are created. The answer is that they are
       created when the current unit -- a subroutine or a file (for opcodes for statements outside of subroutines) --
       is compiled. During this time a special anonymous Perl array is created, which is called a scratchpad for the
       current unit.

       A scratchpad keeps SVs which are lexicals for the current unit and are targets for opcodes. One can deduce that
       an SV lives on a scratchpad by looking on its flags: lexicals have "SVs_PADMY" set, and targets have
       "SVs_PADTMP" set.

       The correspondence between OPs and targets is not 1-to-1. Different OPs in the compile tree of the unit can use
       the same target, if this would not conflict with the expected life of the temporary.

       Scratchpads and recursion

       In fact it is not 100% true that a compiled unit contains a pointer to the scratchpad AV. In fact it contains a
       pointer to an AV of (initially) one element, and this element is the scratchpad AV. Why do we need an extra
       level of indirection?

       The answer is recursion, and maybe threads. Both these can create several execution pointers going into the
       same subroutine. For the subroutine-child not write over the temporaries for the subroutine-parent (lifespan of
       which covers the call to the child), the parent and the child should have different scratchpads. (And the lexi-
       cals should be separate anyway!)

       So each subroutine is born with an array of scratchpads (of length 1).  On each entry to the subroutine it is
       checked that the current depth of the recursion is not more than the length of this array, and if it is, new
       scratchpad is created and pushed into the array.

       The targets on this scratchpad are "undef"s, but they are already marked with correct flags.

Compiled code
       Code tree

       Here we describe the internal form your code is converted to by Perl. Start with a simple example:

         $a = $b + $c;

       This is converted to a tree similar to this one:

                    assign-to
                  /           \
                 +             $a
               /   \
             $b     $c

       (but slightly more complicated).  This tree reflects the way Perl parsed your code, but has nothing to do with
       the execution order.  There is an additional "thread" going through the nodes of the tree which shows the order
       of execution of the nodes.  In our simplified example above it looks like:

            $b ---> $c ---> + ---> $a ---> assign-to

       But with the actual compile tree for "$a = $b + $c" it is different: some nodes optimized away.  As a corol-
       lary, though the actual tree contains more nodes than our simplified example, the execution order is the same
       as in our example.

       Examining the tree

       If you have your perl compiled for debugging (usually done with "-DDEBUGGING" on the "Configure" command line),
       you may examine the compiled tree by specifying "-Dx" on the Perl command line.  The output takes several lines
       per node, and for "$b+$c" it looks like this:

           5           TYPE = add  ===> 6
                       TARG = 1
                       FLAGS = (SCALAR,KIDS)
                       {
                           TYPE = null  ===> (4)
                             (was rv2sv)
                           FLAGS = (SCALAR,KIDS)
                           {
           3                   TYPE = gvsv  ===> 4
                               FLAGS = (SCALAR)
                               GV = main::b
                           }
                       }
                       {
                           TYPE = null  ===> (5)
                             (was rv2sv)
                           FLAGS = (SCALAR,KIDS)
                           {
           4                   TYPE = gvsv  ===> 5
                               FLAGS = (SCALAR)
                               GV = main::c
                           }
                       }

       This tree has 5 nodes (one per "TYPE" specifier), only 3 of them are not optimized away (one per number in the
       left column).  The immediate children of the given node correspond to "{}" pairs on the same level of indenta-
       tion, thus this listing corresponds to the tree:

                          add
                        /     \
                      null    null
                       |       |
                      gvsv    gvsv

       The execution order is indicated by "===>" marks, thus it is "3 4 5 6" (node 6 is not included into above list-
       ing), i.e., "gvsv gvsv add whatever".

       Each of these nodes represents an op, a fundamental operation inside the Perl core. The code which implements
       each operation can be found in the pp*.c files; the function which implements the op with type "gvsv" is
       "pp_gvsv", and so on. As the tree above shows, different ops have different numbers of children: "add" is a
       binary operator, as one would expect, and so has two children. To accommodate the various different numbers of
       children, there are various types of op data structure, and they link together in different ways.

       The simplest type of op structure is "OP": this has no children. Unary operators, "UNOP"s, have one child, and
       this is pointed to by the "op_first" field. Binary operators ("BINOP"s) have not only an "op_first" field but
       also an "op_last" field. The most complex type of op is a "LISTOP", which has any number of children. In this
       case, the first child is pointed to by "op_first" and the last child by "op_last". The children in between can
       be found by iteratively following the "op_sibling" pointer from the first child to the last.

       There are also two other op types: a "PMOP" holds a regular expression, and has no children, and a "LOOP" may
       or may not have children. If the "op_children" field is non-zero, it behaves like a "LISTOP". To complicate
       matters, if a "UNOP" is actually a "null" op after optimization (see "Compile pass 2: context propagation") it
       will still have children in accordance with its former type.

       Another way to examine the tree is to use a compiler back-end module, such as B::Concise.

       Compile pass 1: check routines

       The tree is created by the compiler while yacc code feeds it the constructions it recognizes. Since yacc works
       bottom-up, so does the first pass of perl compilation.

       What makes this pass interesting for perl developers is that some optimization may be performed on this pass.
       This is optimization by so-called "check routines".  The correspondence between node names and corresponding
       check routines is described in opcode.pl (do not forget to run "make regen_headers" if you modify this file).

       A check routine is called when the node is fully constructed except for the execution-order thread.  Since at
       this time there are no back-links to the currently constructed node, one can do most any operation to the top-
       level node, including freeing it and/or creating new nodes above/below it.

       The check routine returns the node which should be inserted into the tree (if the top-level node was not modi-
       fied, check routine returns its argument).

       By convention, check routines have names "ck_*". They are usually called from "new*OP" subroutines (or "con-
       vert") (which in turn are called from perly.y).

       Compile pass 1a: constant folding

       Immediately after the check routine is called the returned node is checked for being compile-time executable.
       If it is (the value is judged to be constant) it is immediately executed, and a constant node with the "return
       value" of the corresponding subtree is substituted instead.  The subtree is deleted.

       If constant folding was not performed, the execution-order thread is created.

       Compile pass 2: context propagation

       When a context for a part of compile tree is known, it is propagated down through the tree.  At this time the
       context can have 5 values (instead of 2 for runtime context): void, boolean, scalar, list, and lvalue.  In con-
       trast with the pass 1 this pass is processed from top to bottom: a node's context determines the context for
       its children.

       Additional context-dependent optimizations are performed at this time.  Since at this moment the compile tree
       contains back-references (via "thread" pointers), nodes cannot be free()d now.  To allow optimized-away nodes
       at this stage, such nodes are null()ified instead of free()ing (i.e. their type is changed to OP_NULL).

       Compile pass 3: peephole optimization

       After the compile tree for a subroutine (or for an "eval" or a file) is created, an additional pass over the
       code is performed. This pass is neither top-down or bottom-up, but in the execution order (with additional com-
       plications for conditionals).  These optimizations are done in the subroutine peep().  Optimizations performed
       at this stage are subject to the same restrictions as in the pass 2.

       Pluggable runops

       The compile tree is executed in a runops function.  There are two runops functions, in run.c and in dump.c.
       "Perl_runops_debug" is used with DEBUGGING and "Perl_runops_standard" is used otherwise.  For fine control over
       the execution of the compile tree it is possible to provide your own runops function.

       It's probably best to copy one of the existing runops functions and change it to suit your needs.  Then, in the
       BOOT section of your XS file, add the line:

         PL_runops = my_runops;

       This function should be as efficient as possible to keep your programs running as fast as possible.

Examining internal data structures with the "dump" functions
       To aid debugging, the source file dump.c contains a number of functions which produce formatted output of
       internal data structures.

       The most commonly used of these functions is "Perl_sv_dump"; it's used for dumping SVs, AVs, HVs, and CVs. The
       "Devel::Peek" module calls "sv_dump" to produce debugging output from Perl-space, so users of that module
       should already be familiar with its format.

       "Perl_op_dump" can be used to dump an "OP" structure or any of its derivatives, and produces output similar to
       "perl -Dx"; in fact, "Perl_dump_eval" will dump the main root of the code being evaluated, exactly like "-Dx".

       Other useful functions are "Perl_dump_sub", which turns a "GV" into an op tree, "Perl_dump_packsubs" which
       calls "Perl_dump_sub" on all the subroutines in a package like so: (Thankfully, these are all xsubs, so there
       is no op tree)

           (gdb) print Perl_dump_packsubs(PL_defstash)

           SUB attributes::bootstrap = (xsub 0x811fedc 0)

           SUB UNIVERSAL::can = (xsub 0x811f50c 0)

           SUB UNIVERSAL::isa = (xsub 0x811f304 0)

           SUB UNIVERSAL::VERSION = (xsub 0x811f7ac 0)

           SUB DynaLoader::boot_DynaLoader = (xsub 0x805b188 0)

       and "Perl_dump_all", which dumps all the subroutines in the stash and the op tree of the main root.

How multiple interpreters and concurrency are supported
       Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT

       The Perl interpreter can be regarded as a closed box: it has an API for feeding it code or otherwise making it
       do things, but it also has functions for its own use.  This smells a lot like an object, and there are ways for
       you to build Perl so that you can have multiple interpreters, with one interpreter represented either as a C
       structure, or inside a thread-specific structure.  These structures contain all the context, the state of that
       interpreter.

       Two macros control the major Perl build flavors: MULTIPLICITY and USE_5005THREADS.  The MULTIPLICITY build has
       a C structure that packages all the interpreter state, and there is a similar thread-specific data structure
       under USE_5005THREADS.  In both cases, PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT is also normally defined, and enables the support
       for passing in a "hidden" first argument that represents all three data structures.

       All this obviously requires a way for the Perl internal functions to be either subroutines taking some kind of
       structure as the first argument, or subroutines taking nothing as the first argument.  To enable these two very
       different ways of building the interpreter, the Perl source (as it does in so many other situations) makes
       heavy use of macros and subroutine naming conventions.

       First problem: deciding which functions will be public API functions and which will be private.  All functions
       whose names begin "S_" are private (think "S" for "secret" or "static").  All other functions begin with
       "Perl_", but just because a function begins with "Perl_" does not mean it is part of the API. (See "Internal
       Functions".) The easiest way to be sure a function is part of the API is to find its entry in perlapi.  If it
       exists in perlapi, it's part of the API.  If it doesn't, and you think it should be (i.e., you need it for your
       extension), send mail via perlbug explaining why you think it should be.

       Second problem: there must be a syntax so that the same subroutine declarations and calls can pass a structure
       as their first argument, or pass nothing.  To solve this, the subroutines are named and declared in a particu-
       lar way.  Here's a typical start of a static function used within the Perl guts:

         STATIC void
         S_incline(pTHX_ char *s)

       STATIC becomes "static" in C, and may be #define'd to nothing in some configurations in future.

       A public function (i.e. part of the internal API, but not necessarily sanctioned for use in extensions) begins
       like this:

         void
         Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ SV* dsv, IV num)

       "pTHX_" is one of a number of macros (in perl.h) that hide the details of the interpreter's context.  THX
       stands for "thread", "this", or "thingy", as the case may be.  (And no, George Lucas is not involved. :-) The
       first character could be 'p' for a prototype, 'a' for argument, or 'd' for declaration, so we have "pTHX",
       "aTHX" and "dTHX", and their variants.

       When Perl is built without options that set PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, there is no first argument containing the
       interpreter's context.  The trailing underscore in the pTHX_ macro indicates that the macro expansion needs a
       comma after the context argument because other arguments follow it.  If PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT is not defined,
       pTHX_ will be ignored, and the subroutine is not prototyped to take the extra argument.  The form of the macro
       without the trailing underscore is used when there are no additional explicit arguments.

       When a core function calls another, it must pass the context.  This is normally hidden via macros.  Consider
       "sv_setiv".  It expands into something like this:

           #ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
             #define sv_setiv(a,b)      Perl_sv_setiv(aTHX_ a, b)
             /* can't do this for vararg functions, see below */
           #else
             #define sv_setiv           Perl_sv_setiv
           #endif

       This works well, and means that XS authors can gleefully write:

           sv_setiv(foo, bar);

       and still have it work under all the modes Perl could have been compiled with.

       This doesn't work so cleanly for varargs functions, though, as macros imply that the number of arguments is
       known in advance.  Instead we either need to spell them out fully, passing "aTHX_" as the first argument (the
       Perl core tends to do this with functions like Perl_warner), or use a context-free version.

       The context-free version of Perl_warner is called Perl_warner_nocontext, and does not take the extra argument.
       Instead it does dTHX; to get the context from thread-local storage.  We "#define warner Perl_warner_nocontext"
       so that extensions get source compatibility at the expense of performance.  (Passing an arg is cheaper than
       grabbing it from thread-local storage.)

       You can ignore [pad]THXx when browsing the Perl headers/sources.  Those are strictly for use within the core.
       Extensions and embedders need only be aware of [pad]THX.

       So what happened to dTHR?

       "dTHR" was introduced in perl 5.005 to support the older thread model.  The older thread model now uses the
       "THX" mechanism to pass context pointers around, so "dTHR" is not useful any more.  Perl 5.6.0 and later still
       have it for backward source compatibility, but it is defined to be a no-op.

       How do I use all this in extensions?

       When Perl is built with PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, extensions that call any functions in the Perl API will need to
       pass the initial context argument somehow.  The kicker is that you will need to write it in such a way that the
       extension still compiles when Perl hasn't been built with PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT enabled.

       There are three ways to do this.  First, the easy but inefficient way, which is also the default, in order to
       maintain source compatibility with extensions: whenever XSUB.h is #included, it redefines the aTHX and aTHX_
       macros to call a function that will return the context.  Thus, something like:

               sv_setiv(sv, num);

       in your extension will translate to this when PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT is in effect:

               Perl_sv_setiv(Perl_get_context(), sv, num);

       or to this otherwise:

               Perl_sv_setiv(sv, num);

       You have to do nothing new in your extension to get this; since the Perl library provides Perl_get_context(),
       it will all just work.

       The second, more efficient way is to use the following template for your Foo.xs:

               #define PERL_NO_GET_CONTEXT     /* we want efficiency */
               #include "EXTERN.h"
               #include "perl.h"
               #include "XSUB.h"

               static my_private_function(int arg1, int arg2);

               static SV *
               my_private_function(int arg1, int arg2)
               {
                   dTHX;       /* fetch context */
                   ... call many Perl API functions ...
               }

               [... etc ...]

               MODULE = Foo            PACKAGE = Foo

               /* typical XSUB */

               void
               my_xsub(arg)
                       int arg
                   CODE:
                       my_private_function(arg, 10);

       Note that the only two changes from the normal way of writing an extension is the addition of a "#define
       PERL_NO_GET_CONTEXT" before including the Perl headers, followed by a "dTHX;" declaration at the start of every
       function that will call the Perl API.  (You'll know which functions need this, because the C compiler will com-
       plain that there's an undeclared identifier in those functions.)  No changes are needed for the XSUBs them-
       selves, because the XS() macro is correctly defined to pass in the implicit context if needed.

       The third, even more efficient way is to ape how it is done within the Perl guts:

               #define PERL_NO_GET_CONTEXT     /* we want efficiency */
               #include "EXTERN.h"
               #include "perl.h"
               #include "XSUB.h"

               /* pTHX_ only needed for functions that call Perl API */
               static my_private_function(pTHX_ int arg1, int arg2);

               static SV *
               my_private_function(pTHX_ int arg1, int arg2)
               {
                   /* dTHX; not needed here, because THX is an argument */
                   ... call Perl API functions ...
               }

               [... etc ...]

               MODULE = Foo            PACKAGE = Foo

               /* typical XSUB */

               void
               my_xsub(arg)
                       int arg
                   CODE:
                       my_private_function(aTHX_ arg, 10);

       This implementation never has to fetch the context using a function call, since it is always passed as an extra
       argument.  Depending on your needs for simplicity or efficiency, you may mix the previous two approaches
       freely.

       Never add a comma after "pTHX" yourself--always use the form of the macro with the underscore for functions
       that take explicit arguments, or the form without the argument for functions with no explicit arguments.

       Should I do anything special if I call perl from multiple threads?

       If you create interpreters in one thread and then proceed to call them in another, you need to make sure perl's
       own Thread Local Storage (TLS) slot is initialized correctly in each of those threads.

       The "perl_alloc" and "perl_clone" API functions will automatically set the TLS slot to the interpreter they
       created, so that there is no need to do anything special if the interpreter is always accessed in the same
       thread that created it, and that thread did not create or call any other interpreters afterwards.  If that is
       not the case, you have to set the TLS slot of the thread before calling any functions in the Perl API on that
       particular interpreter.  This is done by calling the "PERL_SET_CONTEXT" macro in that thread as the first thing
       you do:

               /* do this before doing anything else with some_perl */
               PERL_SET_CONTEXT(some_perl);

               ... other Perl API calls on some_perl go here ...

       Future Plans and PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS

       Just as PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT provides a way to bundle up everything that the interpreter knows about itself
       and pass it around, so too are there plans to allow the interpreter to bundle up everything it knows about the
       environment it's running on.  This is enabled with the PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS macro.  Currently it only works with
       USE_ITHREADS and USE_5005THREADS on Windows (see inside iperlsys.h).

       This allows the ability to provide an extra pointer (called the "host" environment) for all the system calls.
       This makes it possible for all the system stuff to maintain their own state, broken down into seven C struc-
       tures.  These are thin wrappers around the usual system calls (see win32/perllib.c) for the default perl exe-
       cutable, but for a more ambitious host (like the one that would do fork() emulation) all the extra work needed
       to pretend that different interpreters are actually different "processes", would be done here.

       The Perl engine/interpreter and the host are orthogonal entities.  There could be one or more interpreters in a
       process, and one or more "hosts", with free association between them.

Internal Functions
       All of Perl's internal functions which will be exposed to the outside world are prefixed by "Perl_" so that
       they will not conflict with XS functions or functions used in a program in which Perl is embedded.  Similarly,
       all global variables begin with "PL_". (By convention, static functions start with "S_".)

       Inside the Perl core, you can get at the functions either with or without the "Perl_" prefix, thanks to a bunch
       of defines that live in embed.h. This header file is generated automatically from embed.pl and embed.fnc.
       embed.pl also creates the prototyping header files for the internal functions, generates the documentation and
       a lot of other bits and pieces. It's important that when you add a new function to the core or change an exist-
       ing one, you change the data in the table in embed.fnc as well. Here's a sample entry from that table:

           Apd |SV**   |av_fetch   |AV* ar|I32 key|I32 lval

       The second column is the return type, the third column the name. Columns after that are the arguments. The
       first column is a set of flags:

       A  This function is a part of the public API. All such functions should also have 'd', very few do not.

       p  This function has a "Perl_" prefix; i.e. it is defined as "Perl_av_fetch".

       d  This function has documentation using the "apidoc" feature which we'll look at in a second.  Some functions
          have 'd' but not 'A'; docs are good.

       Other available flags are:

       s  This is a static function and is defined as "STATIC S_whatever", and usually called within the sources as
          "whatever(...)".

       n  This does not need a interpreter context, so the definition has no "pTHX", and it follows that callers don't
          use "aTHX".  (See "Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT" in perlguts.)

       r  This function never returns; "croak", "exit" and friends.

       f  This function takes a variable number of arguments, "printf" style.  The argument list should end with
          "...", like this:

              Afprd   |void   |croak          |const char* pat|...

       M  This function is part of the experimental development API, and may change or disappear without notice.

       o  This function should not have a compatibility macro to define, say, "Perl_parse" to "parse". It must be
          called as "Perl_parse".

       x  This function isn't exported out of the Perl core.

       m  This is implemented as a macro.

       X  This function is explicitly exported.

       E  This function is visible to extensions included in the Perl core.

       b  Binary backward compatibility; this function is a macro but also has a "Perl_" implementation (which is
          exported).

       others
          See the comments at the top of "embed.fnc" for others.

       If you edit embed.pl or embed.fnc, you will need to run "make regen_headers" to force a rebuild of embed.h and
       other auto-generated files.

       Formatted Printing of IVs, UVs, and NVs

       If you are printing IVs, UVs, or NVS instead of the stdio(3) style formatting codes like %d, %ld, %f, you
       should use the following macros for portability

               IVdf            IV in decimal
               UVuf            UV in decimal
               UVof            UV in octal
               UVxf            UV in hexadecimal
               NVef            NV %e-like
               NVff            NV %f-like
               NVgf            NV %g-like

       These will take care of 64-bit integers and long doubles.  For example:

               printf("IV is %"IVdf"\n", iv);

       The IVdf will expand to whatever is the correct format for the IVs.

       If you are printing addresses of pointers, use UVxf combined with PTR2UV(), do not use %lx or %p.

       Pointer-To-Integer and Integer-To-Pointer

       Because pointer size does not necessarily equal integer size, use the follow macros to do it right.

               PTR2UV(pointer)
               PTR2IV(pointer)
               PTR2NV(pointer)
               INT2PTR(pointertotype, integer)

       For example:

               IV  iv = ...;
               SV *sv = INT2PTR(SV*, iv);

       and

               AV *av = ...;
               UV  uv = PTR2UV(av);

       Source Documentation

       There's an effort going on to document the internal functions and automatically produce reference manuals from
       them - perlapi is one such manual which details all the functions which are available to XS writers. perlintern
       is the autogenerated manual for the functions which are not part of the API and are supposedly for internal use
       only.

       Source documentation is created by putting POD comments into the C source, like this:

        /*
        =for apidoc sv_setiv

        Copies an integer into the given SV.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
        C<sv_setiv_mg>.

        =cut
        */

       Please try and supply some documentation if you add functions to the Perl core.

       Backwards compatibility

       The Perl API changes over time. New functions are added or the interfaces of existing functions are changed.
       The "Devel::PPPort" module tries to provide compatibility code for some of these changes, so XS writers don't
       have to code it themselves when supporting multiple versions of Perl.

       "Devel::PPPort" generates a C header file ppport.h that can also be run as a Perl script. To generate ppport.h,
       run:

           perl -MDevel::PPPort -eDevel::PPPort::WriteFile

       Besides checking existing XS code, the script can also be used to retrieve compatibility information for vari-
       ous API calls using the "--api-info" command line switch. For example:

         % perl ppport.h --api-info=sv_magicext

       For details, see "perldoc ppport.h".

Unicode Support
       Perl 5.6.0 introduced Unicode support. It's important for porters and XS writers to understand this support and
       make sure that the code they write does not corrupt Unicode data.

       What is Unicode, anyway?

       In the olden, less enlightened times, we all used to use ASCII. Most of us did, anyway. The big problem with
       ASCII is that it's American. Well, no, that's not actually the problem; the problem is that it's not particu-
       larly useful for people who don't use the Roman alphabet. What used to happen was that particular languages
       would stick their own alphabet in the upper range of the sequence, between 128 and 255. Of course, we then
       ended up with plenty of variants that weren't quite ASCII, and the whole point of it being a standard was lost.

       Worse still, if you've got a language like Chinese or Japanese that has hundreds or thousands of characters,
       then you really can't fit them into a mere 256, so they had to forget about ASCII altogether, and build their
       own systems using pairs of numbers to refer to one character.

       To fix this, some people formed Unicode, Inc. and produced a new character set containing all the characters
       you can possibly think of and more. There are several ways of representing these characters, and the one Perl
       uses is called UTF-8. UTF-8 uses a variable number of bytes to represent a character, instead of just one. You
       can learn more about Unicode at http://www.unicode.org/

       How can I recognise a UTF-8 string?

       You can't. This is because UTF-8 data is stored in bytes just like non-UTF-8 data. The Unicode character 200,
       (0xC8 for you hex types) capital E with a grave accent, is represented by the two bytes "v196.172". Unfortu-
       nately, the non-Unicode string "chr(196).chr(172)" has that byte sequence as well. So you can't tell just by
       looking - this is what makes Unicode input an interesting problem.

       The API function "is_utf8_string" can help; it'll tell you if a string contains only valid UTF-8 characters.
       However, it can't do the work for you. On a character-by-character basis, "is_utf8_char" will tell you whether
       the current character in a string is valid UTF-8.

       How does UTF-8 represent Unicode characters?

       As mentioned above, UTF-8 uses a variable number of bytes to store a character. Characters with values 1...128
       are stored in one byte, just like good ol' ASCII. Character 129 is stored as "v194.129"; this continues up to
       character 191, which is "v194.191". Now we've run out of bits (191 is binary 10111111) so we move on; 192 is
       "v195.128". And so it goes on, moving to three bytes at character 2048.

       Assuming you know you're dealing with a UTF-8 string, you can find out how long the first character in it is
       with the "UTF8SKIP" macro:

           char *utf = "\305\233\340\240\201";
           I32 len;

           len = UTF8SKIP(utf); /* len is 2 here */
           utf += len;
           len = UTF8SKIP(utf); /* len is 3 here */

       Another way to skip over characters in a UTF-8 string is to use "utf8_hop", which takes a string and a number
       of characters to skip over. You're on your own about bounds checking, though, so don't use it lightly.

       All bytes in a multi-byte UTF-8 character will have the high bit set, so you can test if you need to do some-
       thing special with this character like this (the UTF8_IS_INVARIANT() is a macro that tests whether the byte can
       be encoded as a single byte even in UTF-8):

           U8 *utf;
           UV uv;      /* Note: a UV, not a U8, not a char */

           if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*utf))
               /* Must treat this as UTF-8 */
               uv = utf8_to_uv(utf);
           else
               /* OK to treat this character as a byte */
               uv = *utf;

       You can also see in that example that we use "utf8_to_uv" to get the value of the character; the inverse func-
       tion "uv_to_utf8" is available for putting a UV into UTF-8:

           if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
               /* Must treat this as UTF8 */
               utf8 = uv_to_utf8(utf8, uv);
           else
               /* OK to treat this character as a byte */
               *utf8++ = uv;

       You must convert characters to UVs using the above functions if you're ever in a situation where you have to
       match UTF-8 and non-UTF-8 characters. You may not skip over UTF-8 characters in this case. If you do this,
       you'll lose the ability to match hi-bit non-UTF-8 characters; for instance, if your UTF-8 string contains
       "v196.172", and you skip that character, you can never match a "chr(200)" in a non-UTF-8 string.  So don't do
       that!

       How does Perl store UTF-8 strings?

       Currently, Perl deals with Unicode strings and non-Unicode strings slightly differently. If a string has been
       identified as being UTF-8 encoded, Perl will set a flag in the SV, "SVf_UTF8". You can check and manipulate
       this flag with the following macros:

           SvUTF8(sv)
           SvUTF8_on(sv)
           SvUTF8_off(sv)

       This flag has an important effect on Perl's treatment of the string: if Unicode data is not properly distin-
       guished, regular expressions, "length", "substr" and other string handling operations will have undesirable
       results.

       The problem comes when you have, for instance, a string that isn't flagged is UTF-8, and contains a byte
       sequence that could be UTF-8 - especially when combining non-UTF-8 and UTF-8 strings.

       Never forget that the "SVf_UTF8" flag is separate to the PV value; you need be sure you don't accidentally
       knock it off while you're manipulating SVs. More specifically, you cannot expect to do this:

           SV *sv;
           SV *nsv;
           STRLEN len;
           char *p;

           p = SvPV(sv, len);
           frobnicate(p);
           nsv = newSVpvn(p, len);

       The "char*" string does not tell you the whole story, and you can't copy or reconstruct an SV just by copying
       the string value. Check if the old SV has the UTF-8 flag set, and act accordingly:

           p = SvPV(sv, len);
           frobnicate(p);
           nsv = newSVpvn(p, len);
           if (SvUTF8(sv))
               SvUTF8_on(nsv);

       In fact, your "frobnicate" function should be made aware of whether or not it's dealing with UTF-8 data, so
       that it can handle the string appropriately.

       Since just passing an SV to an XS function and copying the data of the SV is not enough to copy the UTF-8
       flags, even less right is just passing a "char *" to an XS function.

       How do I convert a string to UTF-8?

       If you're mixing UTF-8 and non-UTF-8 strings, you might find it necessary to upgrade one of the strings to
       UTF-8. If you've got an SV, the easiest way to do this is:

           sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);

       However, you must not do this, for example:

           if (!SvUTF8(left))
               sv_utf8_upgrade(left);

       If you do this in a binary operator, you will actually change one of the strings that came into the operator,
       and, while it shouldn't be noticeable by the end user, it can cause problems.

       Instead, "bytes_to_utf8" will give you a UTF-8-encoded copy of its string argument. This is useful for having
       the data available for comparisons and so on, without harming the original SV. There's also "utf8_to_bytes" to
       go the other way, but naturally, this will fail if the string contains any characters above 255 that can't be
       represented in a single byte.

       Is there anything else I need to know?

       Not really. Just remember these things:

       ?  There's no way to tell if a string is UTF-8 or not. You can tell if an SV is UTF-8 by looking at is "SvUTF8"
          flag. Don't forget to set the flag if something should be UTF-8. Treat the flag as part of the PV, even
          though it's not - if you pass on the PV to somewhere, pass on the flag too.

       ?  If a string is UTF-8, always use "utf8_to_uv" to get at the value, unless "UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)" in which
          case you can use *s.

       ?  When writing a character "uv" to a UTF-8 string, always use "uv_to_utf8", unless "UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv))" in
          which case you can use "*s = uv".

       ?  Mixing UTF-8 and non-UTF-8 strings is tricky. Use "bytes_to_utf8" to get a new string which is UTF-8
          encoded. There are tricks you can use to delay deciding whether you need to use a UTF-8 string until you get
          to a high character - "HALF_UPGRADE" is one of those.

Custom Operators
       Custom operator support is a new experimental feature that allows you to define your own ops. This is primarily
       to allow the building of interpreters for other languages in the Perl core, but it also allows optimizations
       through the creation of "macro-ops" (ops which perform the functions of multiple ops which are usually executed
       together, such as "gvsv, gvsv, add".)

       This feature is implemented as a new op type, "OP_CUSTOM". The Perl core does not "know" anything special about
       this op type, and so it will not be involved in any optimizations. This also means that you can define your
       custom ops to be any op structure - unary, binary, list and so on - you like.

       It's important to know what custom operators won't do for you. They won't let you add new syntax to Perl,
       directly. They won't even let you add new keywords, directly. In fact, they won't change the way Perl compiles
       a program at all. You have to do those changes yourself, after Perl has compiled the program. You do this
       either by manipulating the op tree using a "CHECK" block and the "B::Generate" module, or by adding a custom
       peephole optimizer with the "optimize" module.

       When you do this, you replace ordinary Perl ops with custom ops by creating ops with the type "OP_CUSTOM" and
       the "pp_addr" of your own PP function. This should be defined in XS code, and should look like the PP ops in
       "pp_*.c". You are responsible for ensuring that your op takes the appropriate number of values from the stack,
       and you are responsible for adding stack marks if necessary.

       You should also "register" your op with the Perl interpreter so that it can produce sensible error and warning
       messages. Since it is possible to have multiple custom ops within the one "logical" op type "OP_CUSTOM", Perl
       uses the value of "o->op_ppaddr" as a key into the "PL_custom_op_descs" and "PL_custom_op_names" hashes. This
       means you need to enter a name and description for your op at the appropriate place in the "PL_custom_op_names"
       and "PL_custom_op_descs" hashes.

       Forthcoming versions of "B::Generate" (version 1.0 and above) should directly support the creation of custom
       ops by name.

AUTHORS
       Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto <okamotoATcorp.com>.  It is now maintained as
       part of Perl itself by the Perl 5 Porters <perl5-portersATperl.org>.

       With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Malcolm Beattie, Andreas Koenig, Paul Hudson, Ilya
       Zakharevich, Paul Marquess, Neil Bowers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spider Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer, Stephen
       McCamant, and Gurusamy Sarathy.

SEE ALSO
       perlapi(1), perlintern(1), perlxs(1), perlembed(1)



perl v5.8.8                       2006-01-07                       PERLGUTS(1)