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MORE(1P)                   POSIX Programmer's Manual                  MORE(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       more - display files on a page-by-page basis

SYNOPSIS
       more [-ceisu][-n number][-p command][-t tagstring][file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  more utility shall read files and either write them to the terminal on a page-by-page basis or filter them
       to standard output. If standard output is not a terminal device, all input files shall be  copied  to  standard
       output in their entirety, without modification, except as specified for the -s option.  If standard output is a
       terminal device, the files shall be written a number of lines (one screenful) at a time under  the  control  of
       user commands. See the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section.

       Certain  block-mode  terminals  do not have all the capabilities necessary to support the complete more defini-
       tion; they are incapable of accepting commands that are not terminated with a <newline>.  Implementations  that
       support  such  terminals shall provide an operating mode to more in which all commands can be terminated with a
       <newline> on those terminals. This mode:

        * Shall be documented in the system documentation


        * Shall, at invocation, inform the user of the terminal deficiency that requires the <newline> usage and  pro-
          vide instructions on how this warning can be suppressed in future invocations


        * Shall not be required for implementations supporting only fully capable terminals


        * Shall not affect commands already requiring <newline>s


        * Shall  not  affect  users  on  the  capable  terminals  from  using  more  as  described  in  this volume of
          IEEE Std 1003.1-2001


OPTIONS
       The more utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  12.2,  Utility
       Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -c     If a screen is to be written that has no lines in common with the current screen, or more is writing its
              first screen, more shall not scroll the screen, but instead shall redraw each  line  of  the  screen  in
              turn,  from  the  top of the screen to the bottom. In addition, if more is writing its first screen, the
              screen shall be cleared. This option may be silently ignored on devices with insufficient terminal capa-
              bilities.

       -e     By  default,  more  shall  exit immediately after writing the last line of the last file in the argument
              list. If the -e option is specified:

               1. If there is only a single file in the argument list and that file was completely displayed on a sin-
                  gle screen, more shall exit immediately after writing the last line of that file.


               2. Otherwise,  more  shall  exit  only after reaching end-of-file on the last file in the argument list
                  twice without an intervening operation. See the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section.


       -i     Perform pattern matching in searches without  regard  to  case;  see  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of
              IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 9.2, Regular Expression General Requirements.

       -n  number
              Specify  the  number  of  lines per screenful. The number argument is a positive decimal integer. The -n
              option shall override any values obtained from any other source.

       -p  command
              Each time a screen from a new file is displayed or redisplayed (including as a result of more  commands;
              for  example,  :p),  execute  the more command(s) in the command arguments in the order specified, as if
              entered by the user after the first screen has been displayed. No intermediate  results  shall  be  dis-
              played  (that  is, if the command is a movement to a screen different from the normal first screen, only
              the screen resulting from the command shall be displayed.) If any of the commands fail for  any  reason,
              an informational message to this effect shall be written, and no further commands specified using the -p
              option shall be executed for this file.

       -s     Behave as if consecutive empty lines were a single empty line.

       -t  tagstring
              Write the screenful of the file containing the tag named by the tagstring argument. See the ctags  util-
              ity.  The  tags feature represented by -t tagstring and the :t command is optional. It shall be provided
              on any system that also provides a conforming implementation of ctags; otherwise, the use of -t produces
              undefined results.

       The  filename  resulting  from  the  -t option shall be logically added as a prefix to the list of command line
       files, as if specified by the user. If the tag named by the tagstring argument is not found,  it  shall  be  an
       error, and more shall take no further action.

       If  the tag specifies a line number, the first line of the display shall contain the beginning of that line. If
       the tag specifies a pattern, the first line of the display shall contain the beginning  of  the  matching  text
       from  the first line of the file that contains that pattern. If the line does not exist in the file or matching
       text is not found, an informational message to this effect shall be  displayed,  and  more  shall  display  the
       default screen as if -t had not been specified.

       If  both the -t tagstring and -p command options are given, the -t tagstring shall be processed first; that is,
       the file and starting line for the display shall be as specified by -t, and then the -p more command  shall  be
       executed.  If  the  line  (matching text) specified by the -t command does not exist (is not found), no -p more
       command shall be executed for this file at any time.

       -u     Treat a <backspace> as a printable control character, displayed as an  implementation-defined  character
              sequence  (see  the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section), suppressing backspacing and the special handling that
              produces underlined or standout mode text on some terminal types.  Also,  do  not  ignore  a  <carriage-
              return> at the end of a line.


OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A  pathname  of an input file. If no file operands are specified, the standard input shall be used. If a
              file is '-', the standard input shall be read at that point in the sequence.


STDIN
       The standard input shall be used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is '-' .

INPUT FILES
       The input files being examined shall be text files. If standard output is a terminal, standard error  shall  be
       used to read commands from the user. If standard output is a terminal, standard error is not readable, and com-
       mand input is needed, more may attempt to obtain user commands from  the  controlling  terminal  (for  example,
       /dev/tty);  otherwise,  more shall terminate with an error indicating that it was unable to read user commands.
       If standard output is not a terminal, no error shall result if standard error cannot be opened for reading.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of more:

       COLUMNS
              Override the  system-selected  horizontal  display  line  size.  See  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of
              IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Chapter 8, Environment Variables for valid values and results when it is unset or
              null.

       EDITOR Used by the v command to select an editor. See the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section.

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or  null.  (See  the  Base
              Definitions  volume  of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the prece-
              dence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE

              Determine the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multi-character collating ele-
              ments within regular expressions.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for  exam-
              ple,  single-byte  as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files) and the behavior of
              character classes within regular expressions.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages  writ-
              ten to standard error and informative messages written to standard output.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

       LINES  Override  the  system-selected vertical screen size, used as the number of lines in a screenful. See the
              Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Chapter 8, Environment Variables for valid  values  and
              results when it is unset or null. The -n option shall take precedence over the LINES variable for deter-
              mining the number of lines in a screenful.

       MORE   Determine a string containing options described  in  the  OPTIONS  section  preceded  with  hyphens  and
              <blank>-separated as on the command line. Any command line options shall be processed after those in the
              MORE variable, as if the command line were:


              more $MORE options operands

       The MORE variable shall take precedence over the TERM and LINES variables for determining the number  of  lines
       in a screenful.

       TERM   Determine  the name of the terminal type. If this variable is unset or null, an unspecified default ter-
              minal type is used.


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The standard output shall be used to write the contents of the input files.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used for diagnostic messages and user commands (see the INPUT FILES section),  and,
       if  standard output is a terminal device, to write a prompting string. The prompting string shall appear on the
       screen line below the last line of the file displayed in the current screenful. The prompt  shall  contain  the
       name  of the file currently being examined and shall contain an end-of-file indication and the name of the next
       file, if any, when prompting at the end-of-file. If an error or  informational  message  is  displayed,  it  is
       unspecified  whether it is contained in the prompt. If it is not contained in the prompt, it shall be displayed
       and then the user shall be prompted for a continuation character, at which point another message  or  the  user
       prompt  may be displayed. The prompt is otherwise unspecified. It is unspecified whether informational messages
       are written for other user commands.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       The following section describes the behavior of more when the standard output is  a  terminal  device.  If  the
       standard  output  is not a terminal device, no options other than -s shall have any effect, and all input files
       shall be copied to standard output otherwise unmodified, at which time more shall exit without further  action.

       The number of lines available per screen shall be determined by the -n option, if present, or by examining val-
       ues in the environment (see the ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section). If neither method yields a number, an  unspeci-
       fied number of lines shall be used.

       The  maximum number of lines written shall be one less than this number, because the screen line after the last
       line written shall be used to write a user prompt and user input. If the number of lines in the screen is  less
       than  two,  the  results are undefined. It is unspecified whether user input is permitted to be longer than the
       remainder of the single line where the prompt has been written.

       The number of columns available per line shall be determined by examining values in the  environment  (see  the
       ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES  section),  with  a  default  value  as  described  in  the  Base  Definitions volume of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Chapter 8, Environment Variables.

       Lines that are longer than the display shall be folded; the length at which folding occurs is unspecified,  but
       should be appropriate for the output device. Folding may occur between glyphs of single characters that take up
       multiple display columns.

       When standard output is a terminal and -u is not  specified,  more  shall  treat  <backspace>s  and  <carriage-
       return>s specially:

        * A  character,  followed  first  by a sequence of n <backspace>s (where n is the same as the number of column
          positions that the character occupies), then by n underscore characters ( '_' ), shall cause that  character
          to  be written as underlined text, if the terminal type supports that. The n underscore characters, followed
          first by n <backspace>s, then any character with n column positions, shall also cause that character  to  be
          written as underlined text, if the terminal type supports that.


        * A  sequence of n <backspace>s (where n is the same as the number of column positions that the previous char-
          acter occupies) that appears between two identical printable characters shall cause the first of  those  two
          characters  to  be  written  as emboldened text (that is, visually brighter, standout mode, or inverse-video
          mode), if the terminal type supports that, and the second to be  discarded.  Immediately  subsequent  occur-
          rences  of  <backspace>/  character pairs for that same character shall also be discarded. (For example, the
          sequence "a\ba\ba\ba" is interpreted as a single emboldened 'a' .)


        * The more utility shall logically discard all other <backspace>s from the line as well as the character which
          precedes them, if any.


        * A  <carriage-return>  at  the  end  of a line shall be ignored, rather than being written as a non-printable
          character, as described in the next paragraph.


       It is implementation-defined how other non-printable characters are written.  Implementations  should  use  the
       same  format  that  they  use  for  the  ex print command; see the OPTIONS section within the ed utility. It is
       unspecified whether a multi-column character shall be separated if it crosses a display line boundary; it shall
       not  be  discarded. The behavior is unspecified if the number of columns on the display is less than the number
       of columns any single character in the line being displayed would occupy.

       When each new file is displayed (or redisplayed), more shall write the first screen of the file. Once the  ini-
       tial  screen  has  been  written,  more  shall  prompt for a user command. If the execution of the user command
       results in a screen that has lines in common with the current screen, and the device  has  sufficient  terminal
       capabilities,  more  shall  scroll  the  screen; otherwise, it is unspecified whether the screen is scrolled or
       redrawn.

       For all files but the last (including standard input if no file was specified, and for the last file  as  well,
       if  the  -e option was not specified), when more has written the last line in the file, more shall prompt for a
       user command.  This prompt shall contain the name of the next file as well  as  an  indication  that  more  has
       reached  end-of-file.  If the user command is f, <control>-F, <space>, j, <newline>, d, <control>-D, or s, more
       shall display the next file. Otherwise, if displaying the last file, more shall  exit.  Otherwise,  more  shall
       execute the user command specified.

       Several  of the commands described in this section display a previous screen from the input stream. In the case
       that text is being taken from a non-rewindable stream, such as a pipe, it is  implementation-defined  how  much
       backwards  motion is supported. If a command cannot be executed because of a limitation on backwards motion, an
       error message to this effect shall be displayed, the current screen shall not change, and  the  user  shall  be
       prompted for another command.

       If  a  command cannot be performed because there are insufficient lines to display, more shall alert the termi-
       nal. If a command cannot be performed because there are insufficient lines to display or a / command fails:  if
       the  input is the standard input, the last screen in the file may be displayed; otherwise, the current file and
       screen shall not change, and the user shall be prompted for another command.

       The interactive commands in the following sections shall be supported.  Some commands can be preceded by a dec-
       imal  integer,  called  count  in  the  following  descriptions. If not specified with the command, count shall
       default to 1. In the following descriptions, pattern is a basic regular expression, as described  in  the  Base
       Definitions  volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 9.3, Basic Regular Expressions. The term "examine" is his-
       torical usage meaning "open the file for viewing''; for example, more foo would be expressed as examining  file
       foo.

       In  the following descriptions, unless otherwise specified, line is a line in the more display, not a line from
       the file being examined.

       In the following descriptions, the current position refers to two things:

        1. The position of the current line on the screen


        2. The line number (in the file) of the current line on the screen


       Usually, the line on the screen corresponding to the current position is the third line on the screen. If  this
       is  not  possible  (there are fewer than three lines to display or this is the first page of the file, or it is
       the last page of the file), then the current position is either the  first  or  last  line  on  the  screen  as
       described later.

   Help
       Synopsis:


              h


       Write  a  summary  of these commands and other implementation-defined commands. The behavior shall be as if the
       more utility were executed with the -e option on a file that contained the summary information. The user  shall
       be  prompted  as  described  earlier in this section when end-of-file is reached. If the user command is one of
       those specified to continue to the next file, more shall return to the file and screen state from which  the  h
       command was executed.

   Scroll Forward One Screenful
       Synopsis:


              [count]f
              [count]<control>-F


       Scroll  forward  count lines, with a default of one screenful.  If count is more than the screen size, only the
       final screenful shall be written.

   Scroll Backward One Screenful
       Synopsis:


              [count]b
              [count]<control>-B


       Scroll backward count lines, with a default of one screenful (see the -n option). If count  is  more  than  the
       screen size, only the final screenful shall be written.

   Scroll Forward One Line
       Synopsis:


              [count]<space>
              [count]j
              [count]<newline>


       Scroll  forward count lines. The default count for the <space> shall be one screenful; for j and <newline>, one
       line. The entire count lines shall be written, even if count is more than the screen size.

   Scroll Backward One Line
       Synopsis:


              [count]k


       Scroll backward count lines. The entire count lines shall be written, even if count is  more  than  the  screen
       size.

   Scroll Forward One Half Screenful
       Synopsis:


              [count]d
              [count]<control>-D


       Scroll  forward  count  lines,  with  a default of one half of the screen size. If count is specified, it shall
       become the new default for subsequent d, <control>-D, and u commands.

   Skip Forward One Line
       Synopsis:


              [count]s


       Display the screenful beginning with the line count lines after the last line on the current screen.  If  count
       would  cause  the current position to be such that less than one screenful would be written, the last screenful
       in the file shall be written.

   Scroll Backward One Half Screenful
       Synopsis:


              [count]u
              [count]<control>-U


       Scroll backward count lines, with a default of one half of the screen size. If count  is  specified,  it  shall
       become the new default for subsequent d, <control>-D, u, and <control>-U commands. The entire count lines shall
       be written, even if count is more than the screen size.

   Go to Beginning of File
       Synopsis:


              [count]g


       Display the screenful beginning with line count.

   Go to End-of-File
       Synopsis:


              [count]G


       If count is specified, display the screenful beginning with the line count. Otherwise, display the last screen-
       ful of the file.

   Refresh the Screen
       Synopsis:


              r
              <control>-L


       Refresh the screen.

   Discard and Refresh
       Synopsis:


              R


       Refresh  the  screen,  discarding any buffered input. If the current file is non-seekable, buffered input shall
       not be discarded and the R command shall be equivalent to the r command.

   Mark Position
       Synopsis:


              mletter


       Mark the current position with the letter named by letter, where letter represents the name of one of the  low-
       ercase letters of the portable character set. When a new file is examined, all marks may be lost.

   Return to Mark
       Synopsis:


              'letter


       Return to the position that was previously marked with the letter named by letter, making that line the current
       position.

   Return to Previous Position
       Synopsis:


              ''


       Return to the position from which the last large movement command was executed (where  a  "large  movement"  is
       defined  as any movement of more than a screenful of lines). If no such movements have been made, return to the
       beginning of the file.

   Search Forward for Pattern
       Synopsis:


              [count]/[!]pattern<newline>


       Display the screenful beginning with the countth line containing the pattern. The search shall start after  the
       first  line  currently  displayed.  The null regular expression ( '/' followed by a <newline>) shall repeat the
       search using the previous regular expression, with a default count. If  the  character  '!'  is  included,  the
       matching  lines shall be those that do not contain the pattern. If no match is found for the pattern, a message
       to that effect shall be displayed.

   Search Backward for Pattern
       Synopsis:


              [count]?[!]pattern<newline>


       Display the screenful beginning with the countth previous line containing the pattern. The search  shall  start
       on  the  last  line  before the first line currently displayed. The null regular expression ( '?' followed by a
       <newline>) shall repeat the search using the previous regular expression, with a default count. If the  charac-
       ter  '!'  is included, matching lines shall be those that do not contain the pattern.  If no match is found for
       the pattern, a message to that effect shall be displayed.

   Repeat Search
       Synopsis:


              [count]n


       Repeat the previous search for countth line containing the last pattern (or not containing the last pattern, if
       the previous search was "/!" or "?!"  ).

   Repeat Search in Reverse
       Synopsis:


              [count]N


       Repeat  the  search  in  the opposite direction of the previous search for the countth line containing the last
       pattern (or not containing the last pattern, if the previous search was "/!" or "?!" ).

   Examine New File
       Synopsis:


              :e [filename]<newline>


       Examine a new file. If the filename argument is not specified, the current file (see the  :n  and  :p  commands
       below)  shall be re-examined. The filename shall be subjected to the process of shell word expansions (see Word
       Expansions ); if more than a single pathname results, the effects are unspecified.  If  filename  is  a  number
       sign  (  '#' ), the previously examined file shall be re-examined. If filename is not accessible for any reason
       (including that it is a non-seekable file), an error message to this effect shall be displayed and the  current
       file and screen shall not change.

   Examine Next File
       Synopsis:


              [count]:n


       Examine  the  next  file.  If a number count is specified, the countth next file shall be examined. If filename
       refers to a non-seekable file, the results are unspecified.

   Examine Previous File
       Synopsis:


              [count]:p


       Examine the previous file. If a number count is specified, the countth previous  file  shall  be  examined.  If
       filename refers to a non-seekable file, the results are unspecified.

   Go to Tag
       Synopsis:


              :t tagstring<newline>


       If the file containing the tag named by the tagstring argument is not the current file, examine the file, as if
       the :e command was executed with that file as the argument. Otherwise, or in addition,  display  the  screenful
       beginning  with the tag, as described for the -t option (see the OPTIONS section).  If the ctags utility is not
       supported by the system, the use of :t produces undefined results.

   Invoke Editor
       Synopsis:


              v


       Invoke an editor to edit the current file being examined. If standard input is being examined, the results  are
       unspecified.  The  name of the editor shall be taken from the environment variable EDITOR , or shall default to
       vi. If the last pathname component in EDITOR is either vi or ex, the editor shall be invoked with a -c linenum-
       ber  command  line  argument,  where linenumber is the line number of the file line containing the display line
       currently displayed as the first line of the screen. It is implementation-defined whether line-setting  options
       are passed to editors other than vi and ex.

       When the editor exits, more shall resume with the same file and screen as when the editor was invoked.

   Display Position
       Synopsis:


              =
              <control>-G


       Write a message for which the information references the first byte of the line after the last line of the file
       on the screen.  This message shall include the name of the file currently being examined, its  number  relative
       to  the  total number of files there are to examine, the line number in the file, the byte number and the total
       bytes in the file, and what percentage of the file precedes the current position. If more is reading from stan-
       dard input, or the file is shorter than a single screen, the line number, the byte number, the total bytes, and
       the percentage need not be written.

   Quit
       Synopsis:


              q
              :q
              ZZ


       Exit more.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       If an error is encountered accessing a file when using the :n command, more shall attempt to examine  the  next
       file in the argument list, but the final exit status shall be affected.  If an error is encountered accessing a
       file via the :p command, more shall attempt to examine the previous file in the argument list,  but  the  final
       exit  status  shall  be  affected.   If an error is encountered accessing a file via the :e command, more shall
       remain in the current file and the final exit status shall not be affected.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       When the standard output is not a terminal, only the -s filter-modification option is effective. This is  based
       on  historical  practice.  For  example,  a  typical  implementation of man pipes its output through more -s to
       squeeze excess white space for terminal users. When man is piped to lp, however, it  is  undesirable  for  this
       squeezing to happen.

EXAMPLES
       The -p allows arbitrary commands to be executed at the start of each file. Examples are:

       more  -p G  file1 file2

              Examine each file starting with its last screenful.

       more  -p  100 file1 file2

              Examine  each  file  starting  with line 100 in the current position (usually the third line, so line 98
              would be the first line written).

       more  -p  /100 file1 file2

              Examine each file starting with the first line containing the string "100" in the current position


RATIONALE
       The more utility, available in BSD and BSD-derived systems, was chosen as the prototype for the POSIX file dis-
       play  program  since it is more widely available than either the public-domain program less or than pg, a pager
       provided in System V. The 4.4 BSD more is the model for the features selected; it is almost fully  upwards-com-
       patible from the 4.3 BSD version in wide use and has become more amenable for vi users.  Several features orig-
       inally derived from various file editors, found in both less  and  pg,  have  been  added  to  this  volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 as they have proved extremely popular with users.

       There  are  inconsistencies  between more and vi that result from historical practice. For example, the single-
       character commands h, f, b, and <space> are screen movers in more, but cursor movers in vi. These  inconsisten-
       cies  were  maintained  because  the cursor movements are not applicable to more and the powerful functionality
       achieved without the use of the control key justifies the differences.

       The tags interface has been included in a program that is not a text editor because it promotes another  degree
       of  consistent  operation  with vi. It is conceivable that the paging environment of more would be superior for
       browsing source code files in some circumstances.

       The operating mode referred to for block-mode terminals effectively adds a <newline> to each Synopsis line that
       currently  has  none.  So, for example, d <newline> would page one screenful.  The mode could be triggered by a
       command line option, environment variable, or some other method. The details are not imposed by this volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001  because  there  are  so few systems known to support such terminals. Nevertheless, it was
       considered that all systems should be able to support more given the exception cited for this  small  community
       of terminals because, in comparison to vi, the cursor movements are few and the command set relatively amenable
       to the optional <newline>s.

       Some versions of more provide a shell escaping mechanism similar to the ex ! command. The  standard  developers
       did  not  consider  that  this was necessary in a paginator, particularly given the wide acceptance of multiple
       window terminals and job control features.  (They chose to retain  such  features  in  the  editors  and  mailx
       because  the  shell interaction also gives an opportunity to modify the editing buffer, which is not applicable
       to more.)

       The -p (position) option replaces the + command because of the Utility Syntax Guidelines. In  early  proposals,
       it  took a pattern argument, but historical less provided the more general facility of a command. It would have
       been desirable to use the same -c as ex and vi, but the letter was already in use.

       The text stating "from a non-rewindable stream ... implementations may limit the  amount  of  backwards  motion
       supported"  would allow an implementation that permitted no backwards motion beyond text already on the screen.
       It was not possible to require a minimum amount of backwards motion that would be effective for all conceivable
       device types. The implementation should allow the user to back up as far as possible, within device and reason-
       able memory allocation constraints.

       Historically, non-printable characters were displayed using the ARPA standard mappings, which are as follows:

        1. Printable characters are left alone.


        2. Control characters less than \177 are represented as followed by the character offset from the '@'  charac-
           ter in the ASCII map; for example, \007 is represented as 'G' .


        3. \177 is represented as followed by '?' .


       The  display  of  characters  having  their eighth bit set was less standard.  Existing implementations use hex
       (0x00), octal (\000), and a meta-bit display. (The latter displayed characters with their eighth bit set as the
       two  characters  "M-",  followed by the seven-bit display as described previously.) The latter probably has the
       best claim to historical practice because it was used with the -v option of 4 BSD and 4 BSD-derived versions of
       the cat utility since 1980.

       No  specific  display format is required by IEEE Std 1003.1-2001.  Implementations are encouraged to conform to
       historic practice in the absence of any strong reason to diverge.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       Shell Command Language, ctags, ed, ex, vi

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifica-
       tions Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and  The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee  document.  The  original  Standard  can  be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                             MORE(1P)