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GENISOIMAGE(1)                                                  GENISOIMAGE(1)



NAME
       genisoimage - create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes

SYNOPSIS
       genisoimage [options] [-o filename] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       genisoimage is a pre-mastering program to generate ISO9660/Joliet/HFS hybrid filesystems.

       genisoimage is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge
       Interchange Protocol.  This is used to further describe the files in the ISO9660 filesystem to a Unix host, and
       provides  information such as long filenames, UID/GID, POSIX permissions, symbolic links, and block and charac-
       ter device files.

       If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, genisoimage will create the  additional  filesystem
       metadata needed for Joliet or HFS.  Otherwise genisoimage will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem.

       genisoimage  can  generate  a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same files are seen as HFS files when
       accessed from a Macintosh and as ISO9660 files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands  for  Hierarchical
       File System and is the native filesystem used on Macintosh computers.

       As  an  alternative,  genisoimage  can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 for each file. These extensions
       provide each file with CREATOR, TYPE and certain Finder flags when accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS  MAC-
       INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       genisoimage  takes  a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image which will correspond to
       an ISO9660 and/or HFS filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have a filename in the 8.3 format (up to 8 characters, period,
       up  to  3  characters, all uppercase), even if Rock Ridge is in use.  This filename is used on systems that are
       not able to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be
       different from the other filenames in the same directory.  genisoimage generally tries to form correct names by
       forcing the Unix filename to uppercase and truncating as required, but often this yields unsatisfactory results
       when the truncated names are not all unique.  genisoimage assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names
       that are otherwise the same are found, the name with the lower priority is renamed to include a 3-digit  number
       (guaranteed  to  be unique).  For example, the two files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~ could be rendered as FOO.BAR;1
       and FOO000.BAR;1.

       When used with various HFS options, genisoimage  will  attempt  to  recognise  files  stored  in  a  number  of
       Apple/Unix  file  formats and will copy the data and resource forks as well as any relevant Finder information.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about formats genisoimage supports.

       Note that genisoimage is not designed to communicate with the writer directly.  Most writers  have  proprietary
       command  sets which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool to actually burn the
       disc.  wodim is one such tool.  The latest version of wodim is available from http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the ISO9660 filesystem.   Multiple  paths  can  be
       specified,  and  genisoimage  will  merge  the  files found in all of the specified path components to form the
       filesystem image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft the paths at points other than the root
       directory, and it is possible to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different than what
       they have in the source filesystem.  This is easiest to illustrate with a couple of examples.  Let's  start  by
       assuming that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.

              foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

              foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The same sort of syntax can be used with directories
       as well.  genisoimage will create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the cdrom  image
       --  the  directories do not need to appear in one of the paths.  By default, any directories that are created on
       the fly like this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person running genisoimage.  If  you
       wish  other  permissions  or  owners of the intermediate directories, see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and
       -new-dir-mode.

       genisoimage will also run on Windows machines when compiled with Cygnus' cygwin (available from http://www.cyg-
       win.com/).  Therefore most references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS
       Several  options can be specified as defaults in a .genisoimagerc configuration file, as well as on the command
       line.  If a parameter is specified in both places, the setting from the command line is used.  For  details  on
       the format and possible locations of this file, see genisoimagerc(5).

       -abstract file
              Specifies  the  abstract  filename.   There  is  space  for  37  characters.   Equivalent to ABST in the
              .genisoimagerc file.

       -A application_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should describe the  applica-
              tion that will be on the disc.  There is space for 128 characters.  Equivalent to APPI in the .genisoim-
              agerc file.

       -allow-limited-size
              When processing files larger than 2GiB which cannot be easily represented in ISO9660, add  them  with  a
              shrunk visible file size to ISO9660 and with the correct visible file size to the UDF system. The result
              is an inconsistent filesystem and users need to make sure that they really use UDF rather  than  ISO9660
              driver to read a such disk. Implies enabling -udf.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO9660  filenames to begin with a period.  Usually, a leading dot is replaced with an underscore
              in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
              This options allows lowercase characters to appear in ISO9660 filenames.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
              This options allows more than one dot to appear in ISO9660 filenames.  A leading dot is not affected  by
              this option, it may be allowed separately using -allow-leading-dots.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio file
              Specifies  the  bibliographic  filename.   There  is space for 37 characters.  Equivalent to BIBL in the
              .genisoimagerc file.

       -cache-inodes

       -no-cache-inodes
              Enable or disable caching inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If genisoimage finds  a
              hard  link  (a  file with multiple names), the file will also be hard-linked on the CD, so the file con-
              tents only appear once.  This helps to save space.  -cache-inodes is default on Unix-like operating sys-
              tems,  but  -no-cache-inodes  is default on some other systems such as Cygwin, because it is not safe to
              assume that inode numbers are unique on those systems.  (Some versions of Cygwin create fake inode  num-
              bers  using  a  weak hashing algorithm, which may produce duplicates.)  If two files have the same inode
              number but are not hard links to the same file, genisoimage -cache-inodes  will  not  behave  correctly.
              -no-cache-inodes  is  safe  in all situations, but in that case genisoimage cannot detect hard links, so
              the resulting CD image may be larger than necessary.

       -alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used when making an Alpha/SRM bootable  CD.  The
              pathname must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.

       -hppa-bootloader hppa_bootloader_image
              Specifies  the path and filename of the boot image to be used when making an HPPA bootable CD. The path-
              name must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.  Other options are required,  at  the
              very  least a kernel filename and a boot command line.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more infor-
              mation.

       -hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
              Specifies the command line to be passed to the HPPA boot loader when making a bootable CD. Separate  the
              parameters with spaces or commas. More options must be passed to genisoimage, at the very least a kernel
              filename and the boot loader filename.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32

       -hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
              Specifies the path and filename of the 32-bit and/or 64-bit kernel images to be used when making an HPPA
              bootable  CD. The pathnames must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.  Other options
              are required, at the very least the boot loader filename and the boot command line.  See the HPPA  NOTES
              section below for more information.

       -hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the ramdisk image to be used when making an HPPA bootable CD. The
              pathname must be relative to the source path specified to  genisoimage.   This  parameter  is  optional.
              Other  options are required, at the very least a kernel filename and the boot command line. See the HPPA
              NOTES section below for more information.

       -mips-boot mips_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used when making an SGI/big-endian MIPS bootable
              CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.  This option may be spec-
              ified several times, to store up to 15 boot images.

       -mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be  used  when  making  an  DEC/little-endian  MIPS
              bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies a comma-separated list of boot images that are needed to make a bootable CD for SPARC systems.
              Partition 0 is used for the ISO9660 image, the first image file is mapped to partition  1.   The  comma-
              separated  list  may  have  up  to  7 fields, including empty fields.  This option is required to make a
              bootable CD for Sun SPARC systems.  If -B or -sparc-boot has been specified, the  first  sector  of  the
              resulting  image  will contain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0 for the ISO9660 image
              and slices 1 to 7 for the boot images that have been specified with this option.  Byte  offsets  512  to
              8191  within each of the additional boot images must contain a primary boot that works for the appropri-
              ate SPARC architecture. The rest of each of the images usually contains a UFS filesystem  used  for  the
              primary kernel boot stage.

              The  implemented boot method is the one found with SunOS 4.x and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend
              on SunOS internals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom, so it should be usable for any  OS  for
              SPARC systems.  For more information also see the NOTES section below.

              If  the  special  filename  ...  is used, the actual and all following boot partitions are mapped to the
              previous partition. If genisoimage is called with -G image -B ...  all boot partitions are mapped to the
              partition  that  contains the ISO9660 filesystem image and the generic boot image that is located in the
              first 16 sectors of the disc is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making a generic bootable  CD.
              The  boot  image  will  be  placed  on the first 16 sectors of the CD, before the ISO9660 primary volume
              descriptor.  If this option is used together with -sparc-boot, the Sun disk label will overlay the first
              512 bytes of the generic boot image.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and filename of the boot image to be used when making an El Torito bootable CD for
              x86 PCs. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified  to  genisoimage.   This  option  is
              required  to make an El Torito bootable CD.  The boot image must be exactly 1200 kB, 1440 kB or 2880 kB,
              and genisoimage will use this size when creating the output ISO9660 filesystem.  The PC  BIOS  will  use
              the image to emulate a floppy disk, so the first 512-byte sector should contain PC boot code.  This will
              work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO-based boot floppy.

              If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add either -hard-disk-boot or  -no-emul-boot.
              If the system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

              If  -sort  has not been specified, the boot images are sorted with low priority (+2) to the beginning of
              the medium.  If you don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Start with a new set of El Torito boot parameters.  Up to 63 El Torito boot entries may be stored  on  a
              single CD.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Specifies that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable CDs is a hard disk image. The image must
              begin with a master boot record that contains a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
              Specifies that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable CDs is a "no emulation" image. The  sys-
              tem will load and execute this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
              Specifies  that  the  created  El Torito CD should be marked as not bootable. The system will provide an
              emulated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emulation El Torito CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in no-emulation mode.  The  default  is  to
              load the entire boot file.  Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
              Specifies  that  a 56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM layout will be patched in at offset 8 in
              the boot file.  If this option is given, the boot file is modified in the source filesystem, so  make  a
              copy  of  this file if it cannot be easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a
              description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This option is needed to create a CD Extra or the image of a second session or  a  higher-level  session
              for  a  multisession  disc.  -C takes two numbers separated by a comma. The first is the first sector in
              the last session of the disc that should be appended to.  The second number is the starting sector  num-
              ber  of  the  new  session.  The correct numbers may be retrieved by calling wodim -msinfo ...  If -C is
              used in conjunction with -M, genisoimage will create a filesystem image that is intended to be a contin-
              uation  of  the  previous session.  If -C is used without -M, genisoimage will create a filesystem image
              that is intended to be used for a second session on a CD Extra. This is a  multisession  CD  that  holds
              audio data in the first session and an ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog, which is required for an El Torito bootable CD. The
              pathname must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.  This file will be inserted  into
              the  output  tree  and  not created in the source filesystem, so be sure the specified filename does not
              conflict with an existing file, or it will be excluded. Usually a name like boot.catalog is chosen.

              If -sort has not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning of  the
              medium.  If you don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
              Check  all  filenames  imported  from the old session for compliance with the ISO9660 file naming rules.
              Without this option, only names longer than 31 characters are checked, as these files are a serious vio-
              lation of the ISO9660 standard.

       -check-session file
              Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance with actual genisoimage ISO9660 file naming rules.  This is a
              high-level option that combines -M file -C  0,0  -check-oldnames.   For  the  parameter  file,  see  the
              description of -M.

       -copyright file
              Specifies  copyright  information,  typically a filename on the disc.  There is space for 37 characters.
              Equivalent to COPY in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -d     Do not append a period to files that do not have one.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we see them.
              If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660 standard, but it  happens  to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides  the mode of directories used to create the image to mode, specified as 4 digits of permission
              bits as in chmod(1).  This option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
              Generate a DVD-Video compliant UDF filesystem. This is done by sorting the order of the content  of  the
              appropriate  files  and by adding padding between the files if needed.  Note that the sorting only works
              if the DVD-Video filenames include uppercase characters only.

              Note that in order to get a DVD-Video compliant filesystem image, you need to prepare a  DVD-Video  com-
              pliant  directory  tree.   This  requires  a  directory VIDEO_TS (all caps) in the root directory of the
              resulting DVD, and usually another directory AUDIO_TS.  VIDEO_TS  needs  to  include  all  needed  files
              (filenames must be all caps) for a compliant DVD-Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow  symbolic  links  when generating the filesystem.  When this option is not in use, symbolic links
              will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise they will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides the mode of regular files used to create the image to mode, specified as 4 digits  of  permis-
              sion bits as in chmod(1).  This option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gid gid
              Overrides the group ID read from the source files to the value of gid.  Specifying this option automati-
              cally enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output more verbose but may have other  effects
              in the future.

       -graft-points
              Allow  use  of  graft  points for filenames. If this option is used, all filenames are checked for graft
              points. The filename is divided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of '\' and '='  char-
              acters must be escaped with '\' if -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide  any  files  matching  glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being seen in the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge
              directory.  glob may match any part of the filename or path.  If glob matches a directory, the  contents
              of  that  directory will be hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not
              include a trailing '/' character.  All the hidden files will still be written to  the  output  CD  image
              file.  See also -hide-joliet, and README.hide.  This option may be used multiple times.

       -hide-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden.  See -hide.

       -hidden glob
              Add  the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for files and directories matching glob, a shell
              wildcard pattern.  This attribute will prevent the files from being shown by  some  MS-DOS  and  Windows
              commands.   glob  may  match any part of the filename or path.  In order to match a directory name, make
              sure the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character.  This option may be used multiple times.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to get the hidden attribute.  See -hidden.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide files and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being seen in the Joliet direc-
              tory.   glob  may  match any part of the filename or path.  If glob matches a directory, the contents of
              that directory will be hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make  sure  the  pathname  does  not
              include  a  trailing  '/'  character.  All the hidden files will still be written to the output CD image
              file.  This option is usually used with -hide.  See also README.hide.  This option may be used  multiple
              times.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden from the Joliet tree.  See -hide-joliet.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
              Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.  These files usually don't make sense in the Joliet world
              as they list the real name and the ISO9660 name which may both be different from the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge tree.  It seems to be  impossible  to  com-
              pletely  hide  the RR_MOVED directory from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option only makes the visible tree
              less confusing for people who don't know what this directory is for.  If you need to  have  no  RR_MOVED
              directory  at  all,  you should use -D.  Note that if -D has been specified, the resulting filesystem is
              not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be readable on MS-DOS.  See also the NOTES section.

       -input-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters used in local filenames.  To  get  a  list  of  valid  charset
              names, call genisoimage -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default as charset name.
              The default initial values are cp437 on DOS-based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.   See  the
              CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
              Output  charset  that defines the characters that will be used in Rock Ridge filenames.  Defaults to the
              input charset.  See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set the ISO9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1 to 4.

              With level 1, files may only consist of one section and filenames are restricted to 8.3 characters.

              With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

              With level 3, no restrictions (other than ISO-9660:1988) do apply.

              With all ISO9660 levels from 1 to 3, all filenames are restricted  to  uppercase  letters,  numbers  and
              underscores  (_).  Filenames are limited to 31 characters, directory nesting is limited to 8 levels, and
              pathnames are limited to 255 characters.

              Level 4 officially does not exist but genisoimage maps it to ISO-9660:1999, which is ISO9660 version  2.

              With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number and file structure version number set to
              2 is emitted.  Directory nesting is not limited to 8 levels, there is no need for a file  to  contain  a
              dot  and  the dot has no special meaning, filenames do not have version numbers, and filenames can be up
              to 207 characters long, or 197 characters if Rock Ridge is used.

              When creating Version 2 images, genisoimage emits an enhanced volume descriptor, similar but not identi-
              cal  to  a  primary  volume  descriptor.  Be  careful  not to use broken software to make ISO9660 images
              bootable by assuming a second PVD copy and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular ISO9660 filenames.  This  is  primarily  useful
              when  the  discs are to be used on Windows machines.  Joliet filenames are specified in Unicode and each
              path component can be up to 64 Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet  is  not  a  standard  --  only
              Microsoft Windows and Linux systems can read Joliet extensions.  For greater portability, consider using
              both Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions.

       -joliet-long
              Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters, instead of 64.  This breaks the Joliet speci-
              fication, but appears to work. Use with caution.

       -jcharset charset
              A combination of -J -input-charset charset.  See the CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31-character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3 format which is com-
              patible with MS-DOS, even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31 characters.   If  you
              use  this  option, the disc may be difficult to use on a MS-DOS system, but will work on most other sys-
              tems.  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated option; use -allow-leading-dots instead.

       -jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
              Produce a jigdo .jigdo metadata file as well as the filesystem image.  See the JIGDO NOTES section below
              for more information.

       -jigdo-template template_file
              Produce  a  jigdo .template file as well as the filesystem image.  See the JIGDO NOTES section below for
              more information.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
              Specify the minimum size for a file to be listed in the .jigdo file. Default (and  minimum  allowed)  is
              1KB. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-force-md5 path
              Specify  a file pattern where files must be contained in the externally-supplied MD5 list as supplied by
              -md5-list.  See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-exclude path
              Specify a file pattern where files will not be listed in the .jigdo file. See the  JIGDO  NOTES  section
              below for more information.

       -jigdo-map path
              Specify a pattern mapping for the jigdo file (e.g.  Debian=/mirror/debian).  See the JIGDO NOTES section
              below for more information.

       -md5-list md5_file
              Specify a file containing the MD5sums, sizes and pathnames of the files to be  included  in  the  .jigdo
              file. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-template-compress algorithm
              Specify  a  compression  algorithm to use for template date. gzip and bzip2 are currently supported, and
              gzip is the default. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
              Exclude files matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being written to  CD-ROM.   glob  may  match
              either  the filename component or the full pathname.  This option may be used multiple times.  For exam-
              ple:

                   genisoimage -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

              would exclude all files ending in '.o', or called core or foobar from the image.  Note that if you had a
              directory called foobar, it too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.

       -exclude-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be excluded.  See -m.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow  ISO9660 filenames to be up to 37 characters long.  This option enables -N as the extra name space
              is taken from the space reserved for file version numbers.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work  on  many  systems.   Although  a  conforming
              application  needs  to  provide a buffer space of at least 37 characters, discs created with this option
              may cause a buffer overflow in the reading operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path

       -M device

       -dev device
              Specifies path to existing ISO9660 image to be merged. The alternate form takes a SCSI device  specifier
              that  uses the same syntax as the dev= parameter of wodim.  The output of genisoimage will be a new ses-
              sion which should get written to the end of the image specified in -M.  Typically this  requires  multi-
              session  capability  for  the CD recorder used to write the image.  This option may only be used in con-
              junction with -C.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 filenames.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the version numbers anyway.   Use  with  cau-
              tion.

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Specify  the  mode,  a  4-digit  number as used in chmod(1), to use when creating new directories in the
              filesystem image.  The default is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
              Exclude backup files files on the ISO9660 filesystem; that is, filenames that contain the characters '~'
              or '#' or end in .bak.  These are typically backup files for Unix text editors.

       -force-rr
              Do  not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for previous sessions.  This can work around
              problems with images created by, e.g., NERO Burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.  This  may  help  to  avoid  problems  when
              genisoimage finds illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
              Don't  split the symlink components, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This may waste some
              space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in reading split symlink components.

              It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
              Don't split the symlink fields, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE)  instead.  This  may  waste  some
              space,  but the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split symlink fields (a
              '/' can be dropped).

              It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -o filename
              Specify the output file for the the ISO9660 filesystem image.  This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or
              it  can  correspond directly to the device name of the optical disc writer.  If not specified, stdout is
              used.  Note that the output can also be a block device for a regular disk partition, in which  case  the
              ISO9660 filesystem can be mounted normally to verify that it was generated correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  This option is enabled by default.  If used in
              combination with -B, padding is inserted between the ISO9660 partition and  the  boot  partitions,  such
              that the first boot partition starts on a sector number that is a multiple of 16.

              The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) implement read-ahead bugs in their filesys-
              tem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on files that are located near the end of  a  track,  particu-
              larly if the disc is written in Track At Once mode, or where a CD audio track follows the data track.

       -no-pad
              Do  not  pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the the boot partitions start on a multiple
              of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames to be added to  the  ISO9660  filesystem.
              This  list  of  pathspecs are processed after any that appear on the command line. If the argument is -,
              the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated option; use -publisher instead.

       -publisher publisher_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should describe the publisher
              of  the  CD-ROM,  usually  with  a mailing address and phone number.  There is space for 128 characters.
              Equivalent to PUBL in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -p preparer_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should describe the  preparer
              of  the  CD-ROM,  usually  with  a mailing address and phone number.  There is space for 128 characters.
              Equivalent to PREP in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -print-size
              Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size (2048 bytes) and exit.  This  option  is
              needed  for  Disk  At  Once  mode and with some CD-R drives when piping directly into wodim, cases where
              wodim needs to know the size of the filesystem image in advance.  Old versions  of  mkisofs  wrote  this
              information  (among  other  information)  to  stderr.  As this turns out to be hard to parse, the number
              without any other information is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a simple shell script,
              redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout.  This may be done with:

                   cdblocks=' genisoimage -print-size -quiet ... '
                   genisoimage ... | wodim ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes genisoimage even less verbose.  No progress output will be provided.

       -R     Generate  SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe the files on the ISO9660
              filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set to more useful values.  The uid and gid
              are  set  to  zero,  because  they are usually only useful on the author's system, and not useful to the
              client.  All the file read bits are set true, so that files and directories are globally readable on the
              client.   If  any  execute  bit  is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are
              globally executable on the client.  If any search bit is set for a directory,  set  all  of  the  search
              bits,  so  that  directories are globally searchable on the client.  All write bits are cleared, because
              the filesystem will be mounted read-only in any case.  If any of the special mode bits  are  set,  clear
              them, because file locks are not useful on a read-only filesystem, and set-id bits are not desirable for
              uid 0 or gid 0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is set on all files. This is a result of  the  lack
              of  file  permissions  on  Win32  and the Cygwin POSIX emulation layer.  See also -uid, -gid, -dir-mode,
              -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
              Allows ISO9660 filenames to include all 7-bit ASCII characters except lowercase letters.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
              Moves all files and directories  into  dir  in  the  image.  This  is  essentially  the  same  as  using
              -graft-points and adding dir in front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.  dir may actually be sev-
              eral levels deep. It is created with the same permissions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
              This option is necessary when writing a multisession image and the previous (or even older) session  was
              written  with -root dir.  Using a directory name not found in the previous session causes genisoimage to
              abort with an error.  Without this option, genisoimage would not be able to find  unmodified  files  and
              would  be forced to write their data into the image once more.  -root and -old-root are meant to be used
              together to do incremental backups.  The initial session would  e.g.  use:  genisoimage  -root  backup_1
              dirs.   The  next  incremental backup with genisoimage -root backup_2 -old-root backup_1 dirs would take
              another snapshot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found in backup_1, the second one  in
              backup_2,  but  only  modified  or  new files need to be written into the second session.  Without these
              options, new files would be added and old ones would be preserved. But old ones would be overwritten  if
              the  file  was  modified.  Recovering  the  files by copying the whole directory back from CD would also
              restore files that were deleted intentionally. Accessing several older versions of a file requires  sup-
              port by the operating system to choose which sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort_file
              Sort  file  locations on the media. Sorting is controlled by a file that contains pairs of filenames and
              sorting offset weighting.  If the weighting is higher, the file will be located closer to the  beginning
              of  the media, if the weighting is lower, the file will be located closer to the end of the media. There
              must be only one space or tabs character between the filename and the weight and the weight must be  the
              last  characters on a line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to, but not including
              the last space or tab character on a line. This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end
              of  a  filename.  This option does not sort the order of the filenames that appear in the ISO9660 direc-
              tory. It sorts the order in which the file data is written to the CD image, which is useful in order  to
              optimize the data layout on a CD. See README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              See -B above.

       -sparc-label label
              Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is created with -sparc-boot.

       -split-output
              Split  the  output  image into several files of approximately 1 GB each.  This helps to create DVD-sized
              ISO9660 images on operating systems without large file support.  wodim will concatenate  more  than  one
              file  into  a  single track if writing to a DVD.  To make -split-output work, -o filename must be speci-
              fied. The resulting output images will be named: filename_00, filename_01, filename_02....

       -stream-media-size #
              Select streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.  This allows you to pipe the  output  of
              the  tar(1) program into genisoimage and to create an ISO9660 filesystem without the need of an interme-
              diate tar archive file.  If this option has been specified, genisoimage reads from stdin and  creates  a
              file with the name STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of the file (with padding) is 200 sectors less than the
              specified media size. If -no-pad has been specified, the file size is 50 sectors less than the specified
              media size.  If the file is smaller, genisoimage will write padding. This may take awhile.

              The  option  -stream-media-size  creates  simple ISO9660 filesystems only and may not used together with
              multisession or hybrid filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS_img,,,AUX1_img
              Specifies a comma-separated list of filesystem images that are needed to make a bootable CD for  Solaris
              x86 systems.

              Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO9660 image and that partition 2 is the whole disk, so partition
              1 and 2 may not be used by external partition data.  The first image file  is  mapped  to  partition  0.
              There  may  be  empty fields in the comma-separated list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2 must be
              empty.  The maximum number of supported partitions is 8 (although the Solaris x86 partition table  could
              support  up to 16 partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than 6 partition images.  This option
              is required to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              If -sunx86-boot has been specified, the first sector of the resulting image  will  contain  a  PC  fdisk
              label  with  a  Solaris  type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512 and spans the whole CD.  In
              addition, for the Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at offset  1024  in  the
              first  sector  of the CD.  This disk label specifies slice 0 for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem
              image that is used to boot the PC and slice 1 for the ISO9660 image.  Slice 2 spans the whole CD slice 3
              ... slice 7 may be used for additional filesystem images that have been specified with this option.

              A Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that uses the El-Torito no-emulation boot mode
              and a secondary generic boot that  is  in  CD  sectors  1..15.   For  this  reason,  both  -b  bootimage
              -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
              Set the SVr4 disk label name for the SVr4 disk label that is created with -sunx86-boot.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies  the  system  ID.  There is space for 32 characters.  Equivalent to SYSI in the .genisoimagerc
              file.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CD-ROM, which can be used  on  non-Rock Ridge-capable
              systems  to  help  establish  the correct filenames.  There is also information present in the file that
              indicates the major and minor numbers for block and character devices, and each symlink has the name  of
              the link file given.

       -table-name table_name
              Alternative  translation  table  filename  (see  above). Implies -T.  If you are creating a multisession
              image you must use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default level is 3.  It may be set  to  1..3  using
              this option.

       -udf   Include  UDF  filesystem  support  in the generated filesystem image.  UDF support is currently in alpha
              status and for this reason, it is not possible to create UDF-only images.  UDF data structures are  cur-
              rently  coupled  to  the  Joliet structures, so there are many pitfalls with the current implementation.
              There is no UID/GID support, there is no POSIX permission support, there is  no  support  for  symlinks.
              Note that UDF wastes the space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disc in addition to
              the space needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
              Overrides the uid read from the source files to the value of uid.  Specifying this option  automatically
              enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -use-fileversion
              The  option -use-fileversion allows genisoimage to use file version numbers from the filesystem.  If the
              option is not specified, genisoimage creates a version number of 1 for all  files.   File  versions  are
              strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is the default on VMS.

       -U     Allows  "untranslated"  filenames,  completely violating the ISO9660 standards described above.  Enables
              the following flags: -d -l -N -allow-leading-dots  -relaxed-filenames  -allow-lowercase  -allow-multidot
              -no-iso-translate.  Allows more than one '.' character in the filename, as well as mixed-case filenames.
              This is useful on HP-UX, where the built-in cdfs filesystem does not recognize any extensions. Use  with
              extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
              Do  not translate the characters '#' and '~' which are invalid for ISO9660 filenames.  Although invalid,
              these characters are often used by Microsoft systems.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block.  There is space  for
              32 characters.  Equivalent to VOLI in the .genisoimagerc file.  The volume ID is used as the mount point
              by the Solaris volume manager and as a label assigned to a disc  on  various  other  platforms  such  as
              Windows and Apple Mac OS.

       -volset ID
              Specifies  the  volume set ID.  There is space for 128 characters.  Equivalent to VOLS in the .genisoim-
              agerc file.

       -volset-size #
              Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the number of CDs that are in a CD volume set.  A
              volume set is a collection of one or more volumes, on which a set of files is recorded.

              Volume  Sets  are not intended to be used to create a set numbered CDs that are part of e.g. a Operation
              System installation set of CDs.  Volume Sets are rather used to record a big directory tree  that  would
              not  fit  on a single volume.  Each volume of a Volume Set contains a description of all the directories
              and files that are recorded on the volumes where the sequence numbers are less than, or  equal  to,  the
              assigned Volume Set Size of the current volume.

              genisoimage currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger than 1.

              The option -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets  the  volume  set  sequence number to #.  The volume set sequence number is the index number of the
              current CD in a CD set.  The option -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno on each  command
              line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra debug information will be printed.

       -x glob
              Identical to -m glob.

       -z     Generate  special RRIP records for transparently compressed files.  This is only of use and interest for
              hosts that support transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or later.  You must specify -R or  -r
              to  enable Rock Ridge, and generate compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running genisoim-
              age.  Note that transparent compression is a nonstandard Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks  are
              only transparently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems you will need to call mkzftree
              by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in conjunction with the -map, -magic  and/or
              the various double dash options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD  with  Apple's  extensions. Similar to -hfs, except that the Apple Extensions to
              ISO9660 are added instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.  Former  genisoimage  versions  did  include
              Rock  Ridge attributes by default if -apple was specified. This versions of genisoimage does not do this
              anymore. If you like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for a file based on the  filename's  exten-
              sion.  A  filename is mapped only if it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS CRE-
              ATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic number (usually the first few bytes of a
              file).  The  magic_file  is  only used if a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix file formats, or the
              filename extension has not been mapped using -map.  See the HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
              details.

       -hfs-creator creator
              Set  the  default  CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section
              below for more details.

       -hfs-type type
              Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below
              for more details.

       -probe Search the contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file formats.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FOR-
              MATS section below for more about these formats.  However, the only  way  to  check  for  MacBinary  and
              AppleSingle files is to open and read them, so this option may increase processing time. It is better to
              use one or more double dash options given below if the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
              Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will be created when the CD is used on a Mac-
              intosh  (and stored in the System Folder).  By default, empty Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
              Use the HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames. See the HFS
              MACINTOSH FILENAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
              Installs  the  driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Macintosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section
              below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table is generated, but some  older  Macintosh
              CD-ROM drivers need an HFS partition table on the CD-ROM to be able to recognize a hybrid CD-ROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make  the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to launch an application or document. The given
              filename must be the name of a document or application located at the top level of the CD. The  filename
              must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set  the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units of PC Exchange files. Implies --exchange.  See
              the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from the HFS volume.  The file or directory will still exist in the
              ISO9660  and/or  Joliet  directory.   glob  may  match  any part of the filename.  Multiple globs may be
              excluded.  Example:

                   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

              would exclude all files ending in '.o' or called foobar from the HFS volume. Note  that  if  you  had  a
              directory  called  foobar,  it  too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.  The glob can
              also be a path name relative to the source directories given on the command line. Example:

                   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would exclude just the file or directory called html from the src directory.  Any other file  or  direc-
              tory  called  html in the tree will not be excluded.  Should be used with -hide and/or -hide-joliet.  In
              order to match a directory name, make sure the pattern does not include a trailing  '/'  character.  See
              README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
              Specify a file containing a list of wildcard patterns to be hidden as in -hide-hfs.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
              Volume  name  for  the  HFS  partition. This is the name that is assigned to the disc on a Macintosh and
              replaces the volid used with -V.

       -icon-position
              Use the icon position information, if it exists, from the Apple/Unix file.  The icons will appear in the
              same position as they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size on screen, its scroll posi-
              tions, folder View (view as Icons, Small Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
              Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View etc. for the root folder of an HFS  vol-
              ume. See README.rootinfo for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot file
              PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot for more information.  (Alpha)

       -chrp-boot
              Add CHRP boot header.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input  charset  that defines the characters used in HFS filenames when used with -mac-name.  The default
              charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman).  See the CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES sections  below  for
              more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in the HFS filenames. Defaults to the input
              charset. See the CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
              By default, genisoimage will create an HFS volume  that  is  locked.   This  option  leaves  the  volume
              unlocked   so   that   other   applications  (e.g.   hfsutils)  can  modify  the  volume.  See  the  HFS
              PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System Folder and  is  used  in  creating  HFS
              bootable  CDs.  The  name of the directory must be the whole path name as genisoimage sees it.  E.g., if
              the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required folder is called System Folder, the whole path  name  is
              "/cddata/System Folder" (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms parameters
              Override  certain  parameters  used  to create the HFS filesystem. Unlikely to be used in normal circum-
              stances.  See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look for AUFS CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix file formats only. Searching for the  other
              possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled, unless other double dash options are given.

       --netatalk
              Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
              Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
              Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
              Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
              Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
              Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files (NT only) (Alpha)

       --osx-double
              Look for Mac OS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
              Look for Mac OS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       genisoimage processes filenames in a POSIX-compliant way as strings of 8-bit characters.  To represent all cod-
       ings for all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient.  Unicode or  ISO-10646  define  character  codings
       that  need  at  least  21 bits to represent all known languages. They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or
       UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32 uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used  by  Microsoft  with
       Win32 with the disadvantage that 16-bit characters are not compliant with the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern  Unix operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  Each 32-bit character is represented by one
       or more 8-bit characters.  If a character is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North America)  is
       maps  1:1  to  a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA
       and other countries with limited character set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode  charac-
       ter.   Character codes that cannot be represented as a single byte in UTF-8 (if the value is > 0x7F) use escape
       sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems used UTF-8, genisoimage would not need to recode characters  in  filenames.   Unfortu-
       nately,  Apple  uses  completely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that is not compatible
       with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non-UTF-8-coded operating systems, the actual character that each byte represents depends on the  char-
       acter  set  or  codepage  (the name used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system -- the characters in a
       character set will reflect the region or natural language set by the user.

       Usually character codes 0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes 0x20-0x7f are the 7-bit  ASCII  characters  and
       (on PCs and Macs) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters.

       As  there are a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small subset are represented in a character
       set. Therefore the same character code may represent a different character in different character  sets.  So  a
       filename  generated, say in central Europe, may not display the same character when viewed on a machine in, say
       eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use different character sets for  the  region  or
       language.  For  example, the character code for 'e' (small e with acute accent) may be character code 0x82 on a
       PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh, code 0xe9 on a Unix system in western Europe, and code 0x000e9 in Unicode.

       As long as not all operating systems and applications use the same character set as the basis for filenames, it
       may  be  necessary  to  specify which character set your filenames use in and which character set the filenames
       should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
              Defines the local character set you are using on your host machine.  Any character set conversions  that
              take place will use this character set as the starting point. The default input character sets are cp437
              on MS-DOS-based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  If -J is given, the Unicode equivalents  of
              the  input  character set will be used in the Joliet directory.  -jcharset is the same as -input-charset
              -J.

       -output-charset
              Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock Ridge names on the CD.   Defaults  to  the
              input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
              Defines  the  HFS  character  set used for HFS filenames decoded from any of the various Apple/Unix file
              formats. Only useful when used with -mac-name.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES  for  more  information.
              Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
              Defines  the HFS character set used to create HFS filenames from the input character set in use. In most
              cases this will be from the character set given with -input-charset.  Defaults to the input HFS  charac-
              ter set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to genisoimage.  To get a listing, use -input-charset help.  This
       list doesn't include the charset derived from the current locale, if genisoimage is built with iconv support.

       Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the character set options by giving  a  filename  as
       the  argument  to  the options. The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of the built-in
       character sets.

       The format of the character set files  is  the  same  as  the  mapping  files  available  from  http://www.uni-
       code.org/Public/MAPPINGS.  This format is:

              Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
              Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
              The rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank  line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format or comments lines (starting with the #
       character) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing input code is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

       Note that, while UTF-8 is supported, other Unicode encodings such as UCS-2/UTF-16 and UCS-4/UTF-32 are not,  as
       POSIX operating systems cannot handle them natively.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default as the argument to any of the character
       set options. This is the behaviour of old versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 filenames generated from the input filenames are not converted from the input  character  set.  The
       ISO9660 character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be pointless.

       Any character that genisoimage cannot convert will be replaced with a '_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A  Macintosh  file  has  two properties associated with it which define which application created the file, the
       CREATOR and what data the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this allows  a
       Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a par-
       ticular file can be found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the various Apple/Unix encoded files.  For other files it  is
       possible to base the CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension using a mapping file (with -map) and/or using
       the magic number (usually a signature in the first few bytes) of a file (with -magic).  If both  these  options
       are  given, their order on the command line is significant.  If -map is given first, a filename extension match
       is attempted before a magic number match. However, if -magic is given first, a magic number match is  attempted
       before a filename extension match.

       If  a  mapping  or  magic  file is not used, or no match is found, the default CREATOR and TYPE for all regular
       files can be set by using entries in the .genisoimagerc file or using -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type,  otherwise
       the default CREATOR and TYPE are Unix and TEXT.

       The  format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by aufs.  This file has five columns for the
       extension, file translation, CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with  the  '#'  character  are  comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     '8BIM'    'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   'BnHq'    'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     'MSWD'    'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     'TVOD'    'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   'ttxt'    'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

              The  first  column  EXTN  defines  the Unix filename extension to be mapped. The default mapping for any
              filename extension that doesn't match is defined with the '*' character.

              The Xlate column defines the type of text translation between the Unix and Macintosh file it is  ignored
              by genisoimage, but is kept to be compatible with aufs(1).  Although genisoimage does not alter the con-
              tents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on  a  Macintosh.
              Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

              The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and enclosed in single quotes.

              The comment field is enclosed in double quotes -- it is ignored by genisoimage, but is kept to be compat-
              ible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(5) file used by the file(1) command.

       This file has four tab-separated columns for the byte offset, type, test and message.  Lines starting with  the
       '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type      test       message
       0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard Unix compress
       0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The  format of the file is described in magic(5).  The only difference here is that for each entry in the magic
       file, the message for the initial offset must be be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by 4  characters  for
       the  TYPE  -- white space is optional between them. Any other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation
       lines (starting with a '>') are also ignored, i.e., only the initial offset lines are used.

       Using -magic may significantly increase processing time as each file has to opened and read to find  its  magic
       number.

       In  summary,  for all files, the default CREATOR is Unix and the default TYPE is TEXT.  These can be changed by
       using entries in the .genisoimagerc file or by using -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type.

       If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format has been  selected),  the  CREATOR  and
       TYPE are taken from the values stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other  files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their filename extension (with -map), or their magic num-
       ber (with -magic).  If the default match is used in the mapping file, these values override the default CREATOR
       and TYPE.

       A full CREATOR/TYPE database can be found at http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh  files  have  two parts called the Data and Resource fork.  Either may be empty. Unix (and many other
       OSs) can only cope with files having one part (or fork). To add to this,  Macintosh  files  have  a  number  of
       attributes  associated  with  them  -- probably the most important are the TYPE and CREATOR.  Again, Unix has no
       concept of these types of attributes.

       E.g., a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in the Data fork and a  desktop  thumbnail
       stored in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across platforms.

       Therefore  to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to be found to cope with the two forks and
       the extra attributes (which are referred to as the Finder info).  Unfortunately, it seems that  every  software
       package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that genisoimage (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
              Data  fork  stored  in  a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .resource with same filename as data fork.
              Finder info in subdirectory .finderinfo with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with '%'. Finder info
              also stored in same '%' file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/Finder info stored in
              subdirectory .AppleDouble with same filename as data fork.

       AppleSingle
              Data structures similar to above, except both forks and Finder info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data fork stored in a file.  Resource fork and Finder info together  in  subdirectory  .rsrc  with  same
              filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
              Like the EtherShare format, but the Finder info is stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
              Both forks and Finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used  by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.  Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
              in subdirectory resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK).  Finder info  as  one  record  in  file  finder.dat  (or
              FINDER.DAT).  Separate finder.dat for each data fork directory.

              Note:  genisoimage  needs to know the native FAT cluster size of the disk that the PC Exchange files are
              on (or have been copied from). This size is given by -cluster-size.  The cluster or allocation size  can
              be found by using the DOS utility chkdsk.

              May  not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC
              Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
              Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored in a file.  Resource fork in  subdirec-
              tory  .HSResource  with same filename.  Finder info as one record in file .HSancillary.  Separate .HSan-
              cillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              Allows Macintoshes to store Apple files on SMB servers.  Data fork stored in a file.  Resource  fork  in
              subdirectory resource.frk.  Uses the AppleDouble format to store resource fork.

       Services for Macintosh
              Format  of  files  stored  by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data fork is stored as filename.  Resource
              fork stored as a NTFS stream called filename:AFP_Resource.  The Finder info is stored as a  NTFS  stream
              called filename:Afp_AfpInfo.  NTFS streams are normally invisible to the user.

              Warning:  genisoimage  only partially supports the SFM format. If an HFS file or folder stored on the NT
              server contains an illegal NT character in its name, NT converts these characters to Private Use Unicode
              characters.   The  characters  are: " * / < > ? \ | and a space or period if it is the last character of
              the filename, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and Apple's apple logo.

              Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not  readable  by  the  genisoimage  NT  executable.
              Therefore  any  file  or directory name containing these characters will be ignored -- including the con-
              tents of any such directory.

       Mac OS X AppleDouble
              When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by Mac OS X on to a non-HFS filesystem (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the
              files are stored in AppleDouble format.  Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with
              same name prefixed with '._'. Finder info also stored in same '._' file.

       Mac OS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on a Mac OS X system. Data fork stored in a
              file.  Resource  fork stored in a pseudo file with the same name with the suffix /rsrc.  The Finder info
              is only available via a Mac OS X library call.

              See also README.macosx.

              Only works when used on Mac OS X.

              If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and empty finderinfo, it is assumed not to have  any
              Apple/Unix encoding -- therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       genisoimage  will  attempt  to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other flags from the finder info. Addi-
       tionally, if it exists, the Macintosh filename is set from the finder info, otherwise  the  Macintosh  name  is
       based on the Unix filename -- see the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES section below.

       When  using  -apple,  the  TYPE  and CREATOR are stored in the optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660
       Directory Record -- in much the same way as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make life easy, the  Apple
       extensions  are added at the beginning of the existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e., to get the Apple extensions
       you get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an ISO9660 associated file. This  is  just  like
       any  normal  file stored in the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is set in the Directory
       Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines).  Associated
       files are normally ignored by other OSs

       When using -hfs, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are stored in a separate HFS directory, not visi-
       ble on the ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the same data and resource fork files described  above.

       In most cases, it is better to use -hfs instead of -apple, as the latter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters
       allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the advantage that the files are packed on the disk
       more efficiently and it may be possible to fit more files on a CD.

HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
       Where  possible,  the  HFS  filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file is used for the HFS part of the CD.
       However, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases, the  Unix
       filename  is  used  -- with escaped special characters. Special characters include '/' and characters with codes
       over 127.

       AUFS escapes these characters by using ':' followed by the character code  as  two  hex  digits.  Netatalk  and
       EtherShare have a similar scheme, but uses '%' instead of a ':'.

       If  genisoimage  cannot find an HFS filename, it uses the Unix name, with any %xx or :xx characters (xx are two
       hex digits) converted to a single character code.  If xx are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), they are left  alone
       -- although any remaining ':' is converted to '%', as ':' is the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as
       an ordinary Unix file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.


       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase letters, the filesystem  is  case-insensitive,
       i.e.,  the  filenames  aBc  and  AbC  are  the  same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, genisoimage can use this name as the  starting  point  for  the  ISO9660,
       Joliet  and  Rock  Ridge filenames using -mac-name.  Normal Unix files without an HFS name will still use their
       Unix name.  e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on the Unix filesystem, but contains a  HFS
       file  called someimage.gif, this is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However, as genisoim-
       age uses the Unix name as the starting point for the other names, the ISO9660 name generated will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.BIN  and  the  Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  This option will use the HFS filename as
       the starting point and the ISO9660 name will probably be  SOMEIMAG.GIF  and  the  Joliet/Rock  Ridge  would  be
       someimage.gif.

       -mac-name will not currently work with -T -- the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS filename to a Joliet/Rock Ridge filename  defaults  to  cp10000  (Mac
       Roman).   The  character set used can be specified using -input-hfs-charset.  Other built-in HFS character sets
       are: cp10006 (MacGreek), cp10007 (MacCyrillic), cp10029  (MacLatin2),  cp10079  (MacIcelandandic)  and  cp10081
       (MacTurkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS filenames taken from the various Apple/Unix formats will not be converted
       as they are assumed to be in the correct Apple character set. Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the
       HFS filenames will be converted.

       The  existing genisoimage code will filter out any illegal characters for the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but
       as genisoimage expects to be dealing directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as  is.   But  as
       '/' is a legal HFS filename character, -mac-name converts '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, only the ISO9660 filenames will appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Mac-
       intosh ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, you can use options like -allow-multidot without problems  on
       a  Macintosh  --  still take care over the names, for example this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e.
       only have one '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will  be  seen  as  ABCDEFGHI.
       i.e.  with  a '.' at the end -- don't know if this is a Macintosh problem or a genisoimage/mkhybrid problem. All
       filenames will be in uppercase when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X machines will not be  able  to
       see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder includes a standard Macintosh volume icon
       file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be pasted over the  volume's  icon  in  the
       "Get Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible file called Icon\r ('\r' is the carriage return charac-
       ter) in the root folder.

       A custom folder icon is very similar -- an invisible file called Icon\r exists in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that genisoimage can use is to format a blank HFS floppy  disk
       on  a  Mac  and  paste  an  icon to its "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy:

              mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The floppy will be mounted as a CAP filesystem by default.  Then run genisoimage using something like:

              genisoimage --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, you can use hfsutils to copy the icon file from the floppy.  However, care  has  to
       be taken, as the icon file contains a control character.  For example:

              hmount /dev/fd0
              hdir -a
              hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then run genisoimage by using something like:

              genisoimage --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar -- paste an icon to folder's "Get Info" box
       and transfer the resulting Icon\r file to the relevant directory in the genisoimage source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To  give  a  custom   icon   to   a   Joliet   CD,   follow   the   instructions   found   at   http://www.cdr-
       faq.org/faq03.html#S3-21-1.

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a bootable HFS partition and the necessary
       System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using the apple_driver utility. This file can
       then be used with -boot-hfs-file.

       The  HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our case) must contain a suitable System Folder, again from another
       CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot block set. The boot block is in the first two blocks of a
       partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a System file is copied
       to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot block is filled with a number of required settings -- unfortunately I
       don't know the full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the following will work.

       Therefore,  the  utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from the first HFS partition it finds on the
       given CD-ROM and this is used for the HFS partition created by genisoimage.

       Please note: By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to your CD,  you  become  liable  to
       obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When  -boot-info-table  is  given, genisoimage will modify the boot file specified by -b by inserting a 56-byte
       boot information table at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in the source  filesystem,  so  make
       sure  you use a copy if this file is not easily recreated!  This file contains pointers which may not be easily
       or reliably obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table is as follows; all integers are in section 7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

              The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file starting at byte offset 64.  All
              linear block addresses (LBAs) are given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES
       To  make  a  bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a boot loader file (-hppa-bootloader), a kernel image file
       (32-bit, 64-bit, or both, depending on hardware) and a boot command line  (-hppa-cmdline)  must  be  specified.
       Some  systems  can  boot either a 32- or a 64-bit kernel, and the firmware will choose one if both are present.
       Optionally, a ramdisk can be used for the root filesystem using -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES
       Jigdo  is  a  tool  to  help  in  the  distribution  of   large   files   like   CD   and   DVD   images;   see
       http://atterer.net/jigdo/  for  more  details.  Debian CDs and DVD ISO images are published on the web in jigdo
       format to allow end users to download them more efficiently.

       To create jigdo and template files alongside the ISO image from genisoimage, you must first generate a list  of
       the files that will be used, in the following format:

         MD5sum   File size  Path
         32 chars 12 chars   to end of line

              The  MD5sum  should  be written in jigdo's pseudo-base64 format. The file size should be in decimal, and
              the path to the file must be absolute.

       Once you have this file, call genisoimage with all of your normal command-line parameters. Specify  the  output
       filenames  for the jigdo and template files using -jigdo-jigdo and -jigdo-template, and pass in the location of
       your MD5 list with -md5-list.

       If there are files that you do NOT want to be added into the jigdo file (e.g. if  they  are  likely  to  change
       often),  specify them using -jigdo-ignore. If you want to verify some of the files as they are written into the
       image, specify them using -jigdo-force-md5. If any files don't match, genisoimage will  then  abort.   Both  of
       these  options take regular expressions as input. It is possible to restrict the set of files that will be used
       further based on size -- use the -jigdo-min-file-size option.

       Finally, the jigdo code needs to know how to map the files it is given onto a mirror-style configuration. Spec-
       ify  how  to  map paths using -jigdo-map.  Using Debian=/mirror/debian will cause all paths starting with /mir-
       ror/debian to be mapped to Debian:<file> in the output jigdo file.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where the directory  cd_dir  will  become  the
       root directory if the CD, call:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir where all files have at least read
       permission and all files are owned by root, call:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain  a  simple  ISO9660  filesystem  with  the  tar
       archive call:

              % tar cf - . | genisoimage -stream-media-size 333000 | \
                   wodim dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that contains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create  a  HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all files CREATOR and TYPES based on just
       their filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the Apple Extensions to ISO9660, from the source directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files
       in  all  the  known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their
       magic number given in the file magic:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
                      cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the name README, but have different contents
       when seen as a ISO9660/Rock Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

              % ls -F
              README.hfs     README.joliet  README.Unix    cd_dir/

       The  following  command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the CD along with the three README files --
       but only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
                      -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
                      -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.Unix \
                      -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.Unix \
                      README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
                      README=README.Unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the other two README files  will  be  hidden.
       Similarly for the Joliet and ISO9660/Rock Ridge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible with combinations of the hide options ...

NOTES
       genisoimage  may  safely  be  installed suid root. This may be needed to allow genisoimage to read the previous
       session when creating a multisession image.

       If genisoimage is creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes and the directory nesting level of the
       source  directory tree is too much for ISO9660, genisoimage will do deep directory relocation.  This results in
       a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

       Many boot code options for different platforms are mutualy exclusive because the boot  blocks  cannot  coexist,
       ie.  different  platforms  share  the  same  data  locations  in the image. See http://lists.debian.org/debian-
       cd/2006/12/msg00109.html for details.

BUGS
       Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being copied to the ISO9660  filesystem  will  have  an
       incorrect file reference count.

       Does  not  check  for  SUSP  record(s) in '.' entry of the root directory to verify the existence of Rock Ridge
       enhancements.  This problem is present when reading old sessions while adding data in multisession mode.

       Does not properly read relocated directories in multisession mode when adding data.  Any relocated deep  direc-
       tory is lost if the new session does not include the deep directory.

       Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multisession from TRANS.TBL.

       Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multisession mode.

       There may be other bugs.  Please, report them to the maintainers.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I  have had to make several assumptions on how I expect the modified libhfs routines to work, however there may
       be situations that either I haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.  Therefore I  can't
       guarantee  that genisoimage will work as expected (although I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS
       features work fine, but some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase letters, the filesystem  is  case-insensitive,
       i.e.,  the  filenames  aBc  and  AbC  are  the  same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have '_N' (a decimal number)  substituted  for  the
       last few characters to generate unique names.

       Care  must  be  taken  when  "grafting"  Apple/Unix  files  or directories (see above for the method and syntax
       involved). It is not possible to use a new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a  Apple/Unix
       encoded file called oldname is to added to the CD, you cannot use the command line:

              genisoimage -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       genisoimage  will  be unable to decode oldname.  However, you can graft Apple/Unix encoded files or directories
       as long as you do not attempt to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C, only files in the last session will be in
       the HFS volume. i.e.  genisoimage cannot add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However,  if each session is created with -part, each session will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a
       Mac. In this case, it is worth using -V or -hfs-volid to give each session a unique volume name, otherwise each
       "volume" will appear on the Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized
       volumes) the difference can be significant. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does  the  allocation  block  size
       (the  smallest  amount  of space a file can occupy).  For a 650MB CD, the allocation block is 10kB, for a 4.7GB
       DVD it will be about 70kB.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -- although the real limit  will  be  somewhat  less
       than this.

       The  resulting  hybrid  volume  can  be  accessed on a Unix machine by using the hfsutils routines. However, no
       changes can be made to the volume as it is set as locked.  The option -hfs-unlock will create an  output  image
       that is unlocked -- however no changes should be made to the contents of the volume (unless you really know what
       you are doing) as it's not a "real" HFS volume.

       -mac-name will not currently work with -T -- the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       Although  genisoimage  does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE set as TEXT, it may
       be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

       -mac-boot-file may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files  (available  with  MacOS  8.1).   DOS  media  containing  PC
       Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported -- see HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section above.

       It is not possible to use -sparc-boot or -generic-boot with -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot.

       genisoimage should be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although this has not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       genisoimagerc(5), wodim(1), mkzftree(8), magic(5).

AUTHORS
       genisoimage  is  derived  from  mkisofs  from  the  cdrtools 2.01.01a08 package from May 2006 (with few updates
       extracted from cdrtools 2.01.01a24 from March 2007) from .IR http://cdrecord.berlios.de/ , but is now  part  of
       the cdrkit suite, maintained by Joerg Jaspert, Eduard Bloch, Steve McIntyre, Peter Samuelson, Christian Fromme,
       Ben   Hutchings,   and   other   contributors.    The   maintainers    can    be    contacted    at    debburn-
       develATlists.org, or see the cdrkit project web site at http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       Eric  Youngdale  wrote  the  first  versions  (1993-1998)  of mkisofs.  Jorg Schilling wrote the SCSI transport
       library and its interface, and has maintained mkisofs since 1999.  James Pearson wrote  the  HFS  hybrid  code,
       using  libhfs by Robert Leslie.  Pearson, Schilling, Jungshik Shin and Jaakko Heinonen contributed to the char-
       acter set conversion code.  The cdrkit maintainers have maintained genisoimage since 2006.

       Copyright 1993-1998 by Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.
       Copyright 1996-1997 by Robert Leslie
       Copyright 1997-2001 by James Pearson
       Copyright 1999-2006 by Jorg Schilling
       Copyright 2007 by Jorg Schilling (originating few updates)
       Copyright 2002-2003 by Jungshik Shin
       Copyright 2003 by Jaakko Heinonen
       Copyright 2006 by the Cdrkit maintainers

       If you want to take part in the development of genisoimage, you may join the cdrkit developer mailing  list  by
       following  the instructions on http://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006.  The email address of the list is
       debburn-develATlists.org.  This is also the address for user support questions.  Note that  cdrkit
       and cdrtools are not affiliated.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries.



                                  13 Dec 2006                   GENISOIMAGE(1)