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MAKEDEPEND(1)                                                    MAKEDEPEND(1)



NAME
       makedepend - create dependencies in makefiles

SYNOPSIS
       makedepend  [ -Dname=def ] [ -Dname ] [ -Iincludedir ] [ -Yincludedir ] [ -a ] [ -fmakefile ] [ -include file ]
       [ -oobjsuffix ] [ -pobjprefix ] [ -sstring ] [ -wwidth ] [ -v ] [ -m ] [ -- otheroptions -- ] sourcefile ...

DESCRIPTION
       The makedepend program reads each sourcefile in sequence and parses it like a  C-preprocessor,  processing  all
       #include,  #define,  #undef,  #ifdef, #ifndef, #endif, #if, #elif and #else directives so that it can correctly
       tell which #include, directives would be used in a compilation.  Any #include, directives can  reference  files
       having other #include directives, and parsing will occur in these files as well.

       Every  file  that  a sourcefile includes, directly or indirectly, is what makedepend calls a dependency.  These
       dependencies are then written to a makefile in such a way that make(1) will know which  object  files  must  be
       recompiled when a dependency has changed.

       By  default,  makedepend  places  its  output  in the file named makefile if it exists, otherwise Makefile.  An
       alternate makefile may be specified with the -f option.  It first searches the makefile for the line

           # DO NOT DELETE THIS LINE -- make depend depends on it.

       or one provided with the -s option, as a delimiter for the dependency output.  If it finds it, it  will  delete
       everything  following  this  to the end of the makefile and put the output after this line.  If it doesn't find
       it, the program will append the string to the end of the makefile and place the  output  following  that.   For
       each sourcefile appearing on the command line, makedepend puts lines in the makefile of the form

            sourcefile.o: dfile ...

       Where  sourcefile.o  is  the  name  from  the command line with its suffix replaced with ''.o'', and dfile is a
       dependency discovered in a #include directive while parsing sourcefile or one of the files it included.

EXAMPLE
       Normally, makedepend will be used in a makefile target so that typing ''make depend'' will bring the  dependen-
       cies up to date for the makefile.  For example,
           SRCS = file1.c file2.c ...
           CFLAGS = -O -DHACK -I../foobar -xyz
           depend:
                   makedepend -- $(CFLAGS) -- $(SRCS)

OPTIONS
       The  program will ignore any option that it does not understand so that you may use the same arguments that you
       would for cc(1).

       -Dname=def or -Dname
            Define.  This places a definition for name in makedepend's symbol table.  Without =def the symbol  becomes
            defined as ''1''.

       -Iincludedir
            Include  directory.   This  option  tells  makedepend  to prepend includedir to its list of directories to
            search when it encounters a #include directive.  By default, makedepend only searches the standard include
            directories (usually /usr/include and possibly a compiler-dependent directory).

       -Yincludedir
            Replace  all of the standard include directories with the single specified include directory; you can omit
            the includedir to simply prevent searching the standard include directories.

       -a   Append the dependencies to the end of the file instead of replacing them.

       -fmakefile
            Filename.  This allows you to specify an alternate makefile in which  makedepend  can  place  its  output.
            Specifying  ''-'' as the file name (i.e., -f-) sends the output to standard output instead of modifying an
            existing file.

       -include file
            Process file as input, and include all the resulting output before processing the regular input file. This
            has  the  same  affect as if the specified file is an include statement that appears before the very first
            line of the regular input file.

       -oobjsuffix
            Object file suffix.  Some systems may have object files whose suffix is something other than ''.o''.  This
            option  allows  you  to  specify  another  suffix, such as ''.b'' with -o.b or '':obj'' with -o:obj and so
            forth.

       -pobjprefix
            Object file prefix.  The prefix is prepended to the name of the object file. This is usually used to  des-
            ignate a different directory for the object file.  The default is the empty string.

       -sstring
            Starting  string  delimiter.  This option permits you to specify a different string for makedepend to look
            for in the makefile.

       -wwidth
            Line width.  Normally, makedepend will ensure that every output line that it writes will be no wider  than
            78 characters for the sake of readability.  This option enables you to change this width.

       -v   Verbose operation.  This option causes makedepend to emit the list of files included by each input file.

       -m   Warn  about  multiple  inclusion.   This  option  causes makedepend to produce a warning if any input file
            includes another file more than once.  In previous versions of makedepend this was the  default  behavior;
            the  default has been changed to better match the behavior of the C compiler, which does not consider mul-
            tiple inclusion to be an error.  This option is provided for backward compatibility, and to aid in  debug-
            ging problems related to multiple inclusion.

       -- options --
            If makedepend encounters a double hyphen (--) in the argument list, then any unrecognized argument follow-
            ing it will be silently ignored; a second double hyphen terminates this special treatment.  In  this  way,
            makedepend  can  be  made  to  safely ignore esoteric compiler arguments that might normally be found in a
            CFLAGS make macro (see the EXAMPLE section above).  All options  that  makedepend  recognizes  and  appear
            between the pair of double hyphens are processed normally.

ALGORITHM
       The  approach  used  in this program enables it to run an order of magnitude faster than any other ''dependency
       generator'' I have ever seen.  Central to this performance are two assumptions: that all files  compiled  by  a
       single  makefile  will  be  compiled  with  roughly the same -I and -D options; and that most files in a single
       directory will include largely the same files.

       Given these assumptions, makedepend expects to be called once for each makefile, with all source files that are
       maintained by the makefile appearing on the command line.  It parses each source and include file exactly once,
       maintaining an internal symbol table for each.  Thus, the first file on the command line will take an amount of
       time  proportional  to  the  amount of time that a normal C preprocessor takes.  But on subsequent files, if it
       encounters an include file that it has already parsed, it does not parse it again.

       For example, imagine you are compiling two files, file1.c and  file2.c,  they  each  include  the  header  file
       header.h, and the file header.h in turn includes the files def1.h and def2.h.  When you run the command

           makedepend file1.c file2.c

       makedepend  will parse file1.c and consequently, header.h and then def1.h and def2.h.  It then decides that the
       dependencies for this file are

           file1.o: header.h def1.h def2.h

       But when the program parses file2.c and discovers that it, too, includes header.h, it does not parse the  file,
       but simply adds header.h, def1.h and def2.h to the list of dependencies for file2.o.

SEE ALSO
       cc(1), make(1)

BUGS
       makedepend  parses,  but  does not currently evaluate, the SVR4 #predicate(token-list) preprocessor expression;
       such expressions are simply assumed to be true.  This may cause the wrong #include directives to be  evaluated.

       Imagine  you  are  parsing two files, say file1.c and file2.c, each includes the file def.h.  The list of files
       that def.h includes might truly be different when def.h is included by file1.c than  when  it  is  included  by
       file2.c.  But once makedepend arrives at a list of dependencies for a file, it is cast in concrete.

AUTHOR
       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix, Inc. and MIT Project Athena



4th Berkeley Distribution      makedepend 1.0.2                  MAKEDEPEND(1)