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LOCK(7)                          SQL Commands                          LOCK(7)

       LOCK - lock a table

       LOCK [ TABLE ] [ ONLY ] name [ * ] [, ...] [ IN lockmode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ]

       where lockmode is one of:


       LOCK TABLE obtains a table-level lock, waiting if necessary for any conflicting locks to be released. If NOWAIT
       is specified, LOCK TABLE does not wait to acquire the desired lock: if it cannot be acquired  immediately,  the
       command  is  aborted  and an error is emitted. Once obtained, the lock is held for the remainder of the current
       transaction. (There is no UNLOCK TABLE command; locks are always released at transaction end.)

       When acquiring locks automatically for commands  that  reference  tables,  PostgreSQL  always  uses  the  least
       restrictive  lock  mode  possible.  LOCK TABLE provides for cases when you might need more restrictive locking.
       For example, suppose an application runs a transaction at the Read  Committed  isolation  level  and  needs  to
       ensure  that  data  in  a  table  remains stable for the duration of the transaction. To achieve this you could
       obtain SHARE lock mode over the table before querying. This will prevent concurrent  data  changes  and  ensure
       subsequent  reads  of the table see a stable view of committed data, because SHARE lock mode conflicts with the
       ROW EXCLUSIVE lock acquired by writers, and your LOCK TABLE name IN SHARE MODE statement will  wait  until  any
       concurrent  holders  of ROW EXCLUSIVE mode locks commit or roll back. Thus, once you obtain the lock, there are
       no uncommitted writes outstanding; furthermore none can begin until you release the lock.

       To achieve a similar effect when running a transaction at the Serializable isolation level, you have to execute
       the  LOCK  TABLE statement before executing any SELECT or data modification statement.  A serializable transac-
       tion's view of data will be frozen when its first SELECT or data modification statement begins.  A  LOCK  TABLE
       later  in  the transaction will still prevent concurrent writes -- but it won't ensure that what the transaction
       reads corresponds to the latest committed values.

       If a transaction of this sort is going to change the data in the table, then it should use SHARE ROW  EXCLUSIVE
       lock  mode  instead  of SHARE mode. This ensures that only one transaction of this type runs at a time. Without
       this, a deadlock is possible: two transactions might both acquire SHARE  mode,  and  then  be  unable  to  also
       acquire  ROW  EXCLUSIVE mode to actually perform their updates. (Note that a transaction's own locks never con-
       flict, so a transaction can acquire ROW EXCLUSIVE mode when it holds SHARE mode -- but not if anyone else  holds
       SHARE  mode.)  To  avoid  deadlocks,  make  sure all transactions acquire locks on the same objects in the same
       order, and if multiple lock modes are involved for a single object, then transactions should always acquire the
       most restrictive mode first.

       More information about the lock modes and locking strategies can be found in in the documentation.

       name   The name (optionally schema-qualified) of an existing table to lock. If ONLY is specified before the ta-
              ble name, only that table is locked. If ONLY is not specified, the table and all its  descendant  tables
              (if  any)  are  locked.  Optionally, * can be specified after the table name to explicitly indicate that
              descendant tables are included.

              The command LOCK TABLE a, b; is equivalent to LOCK TABLE a; LOCK TABLE b;. The tables are locked one-by-
              one in the order specified in the LOCK TABLE command.

              The  lock mode specifies which locks this lock conflicts with.  Lock modes are described in in the docu-

              If no lock mode is specified, then ACCESS EXCLUSIVE, the most restrictive mode, is used.

       NOWAIT Specifies that LOCK TABLE should not wait for any conflicting locks to be  released:  if  the  specified
              lock(s) cannot be acquired immediately without waiting, the transaction is aborted.

       LOCK  TABLE  ...  IN  ACCESS SHARE MODE requires SELECT privileges on the target table. All other forms of LOCK
       require at least one of UPDATE, DELETE, or TRUNCATE privileges.

       LOCK TABLE is useless outside a transaction block: the lock would remain held only to  the  completion  of  the
       statement.  Therefore  PostgreSQL  reports  an  error  if  LOCK is used outside a transaction block.  Use BEGIN
       [begin(7)] and COMMIT [commit(7)] (or ROLLBACK [rollback(7)]) to define a transaction block.

       LOCK TABLE only deals with table-level locks, and so the mode names involving ROW are all misnomers. These mode
       names  should  generally  be read as indicating the intention of the user to acquire row-level locks within the
       locked table. Also, ROW EXCLUSIVE mode is a sharable table lock. Keep in mind that  all  the  lock  modes  have
       identical  semantics  so far as LOCK TABLE is concerned, differing only in the rules about which modes conflict
       with which. For information on how to acquire an actual row-level lock, see in the documentation  and  the  FOR
       UPDATE/FOR SHARE Clause [select(7)] in the SELECT reference documentation.

       Obtain a SHARE lock on a primary key table when going to perform inserts into a foreign key table:

       BEGIN WORK;
       SELECT id FROM films
           WHERE name = 'Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace';
       -- Do ROLLBACK if record was not returned
       INSERT INTO films_user_comments VALUES
           (_id_, 'GREAT! I was waiting for it for so long!');

       Take a SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE lock on a primary key table when going to perform a delete operation:

       BEGIN WORK;
       DELETE FROM films_user_comments WHERE id IN
           (SELECT id FROM films WHERE rating < 5);
       DELETE FROM films WHERE rating < 5;

       There is no LOCK TABLE in the SQL standard, which instead uses SET TRANSACTION to specify concurrency levels on
       transactions. PostgreSQL supports that too; see SET TRANSACTION [set_transaction(7)] for details.

       Except for ACCESS SHARE, ACCESS EXCLUSIVE, and SHARE UPDATE EXCLUSIVE lock modes, the PostgreSQL lock modes and
       the LOCK TABLE syntax are compatible with those present in Oracle.

SQL - Language Statements         2014-02-17                           LOCK(7)