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LDEXP(3P)                  POSIX Programmer's Manual                 LDEXP(3P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       ldexp, ldexpf, ldexpl - load exponent of a floating-point number

SYNOPSIS
       #include <math.h>

       double ldexp(double x, int exp);
       float ldexpf(float x, int exp);
       long double ldexpl(long double x, int exp);


DESCRIPTION
       These functions shall compute the quantity x * 2**exp.

       An  application  wishing  to  check  for  error  situations  should  set  errno  to  zero  and  call feclearex-
       cept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions.  On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID
       | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon successful completion, these functions shall return x multiplied by 2, raised to the power exp.

       If  these  functions  would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and ldexp(), ldexpf(), and ldexpl() shall
       return ?HUGE_VAL, ?HUGE_VALF, and ?HUGE_VALL (according to the sign of x), respectively.

       If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not representable, a range error may occur, and  either  0.0
       (if supported), or an implementation-defined value shall be returned.

       If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.

       If x is ?0 or ?Inf, x shall be returned.

       If exp is 0, x shall be returned.

       If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value
       shall be returned.

ERRORS
       These functions shall fail if:

       Range Error
              The result overflows.

       If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE].  If
       the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point excep-
       tion shall be raised.


       These functions may fail if:

       Range Error
              The result underflows.

       If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE].  If
       the  integer  expression  (math_errhandling  &  MATH_ERREXCEPT)  is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point
       exception shall be raised.


       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES
       None.

APPLICATION USAGE
       On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are  indepen-
       dent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.

RATIONALE
       None.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       feclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), frexp(), isnan(), the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section
       4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifica-
       tions Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and  The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee  document.  The  original  Standard  can  be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                            LDEXP(3P)