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LDAP(3)                                                                LDAP(3)

       ldap - OpenLDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol API

       OpenLDAP LDAP (libldap, -lldap)

       #include <ldap.h>

       The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) (RFC 4510) provides access to X.500 directory services.  These
       services may be stand-alone or part of a distributed directory service.  This client API supports LDAP over TCP
       (RFC  4511), LDAP over TLS/SSL, and LDAP over IPC (UNIX domain sockets).  This API supports SASL (RFC 4513) and
       Start TLS (RFC 4513) as well as a number of protocol extensions.  This API is loosely based upon IETF/LDAPEXT C
       LDAP API draft specification, a (orphaned) work in progress.

       The  OpenLDAP  Software  package  includes  a stand-alone server in slapd(8), various LDAP clients, and an LDAP
       client library used to provide programmatic access to the LDAP protocol. This man page gives an overview of the
       LDAP library routines.

       Both  synchronous  and asynchronous APIs are provided.  Also included are various routines to parse the results
       returned from these routines.  These routines are found in the -lldap library.

       The basic interaction is as follows.  A session handle is created using ldap_initialize(3) and set the protocol
       version  to  3 by calling ldap_set_option(3).  The underlying session is established first operation is issued.
       This would generally be a Start TLS or Bind operation, or a Search operation to read  attributes  of  the  Root
       DSE.  A Start TLS operation is performed by calling ldap_start_tls_s(3).  A LDAP bind operation is performed by
       calling  ldap_sasl_bind(3)  or  one  of  its  friends.   A   Search   operation   is   performed   by   calling
       ldap_search_ext_s(3) or one of its friends.

       Subsequently,  additional  operations  are performed by calling one of the synchronous or asynchronous routines
       (e.g., ldap_compare_ext_s(3) or ldap_compare_ext(3) followed by ldap_result(3)).  Results returned  from  these
       routines  are interpreted by calling the LDAP parsing routines such as ldap_parse_result(3).  The LDAP associa-
       tion and underlying connection is terminated by calling ldap_unbind_ext(3).  Errors can be interpreted by call-
       ing ldap_err2string(3).

LDAP versions
       This  library  supports version 3 of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAPv3) as defined in RFC 4510.
       It also supports a variant of version 2 of LDAP as defined by U-Mich LDAP and, to some degree, RFC 1777.   Ver-
       sion 2 (all variants) are considered obsolete.  Version 3 should be used instead.

       For  backwards  compatibility reasons, the library defaults to version 2.  Hence, all new applications (and all
       actively maintained applications) should use ldap_set_option(3) to select version 3.  The library manual  pages
       assume version 3 has been selected.

       All character string input/output is expected to be/is UTF-8 encoded Unicode (version 3.2).

       Distinguished  names (DN) (and relative distinguished names (RDN) to be passed to the LDAP routines should con-
       form to RFC 4514 UTF-8 string representation.

       Search filters to be passed to the search routines are to be constructed by hand and should conform to RFC 4515
       UTF-8 string representation.

       LDAP URLs to be passed to routines are expected to conform to RFC 4516 format.  The ldap_url(3) routines can be
       used to work with LDAP URLs.

       LDAP controls to be passed to routines can be manipulated using the ldap_controls(3) routines.

       Results obtained from  the  search  routines  can  be  output  by  hand,  by  calling  ldap_first_entry(3)  and
       ldap_next_entry(3)  to step through the entries returned, ldap_first_attribute(3) and ldap_next_attribute(3) to
       step through an entry's attributes, and ldap_get_values(3) to retrieve a given attribute's  values.   Attribute
       values may or may not be displayable.

       Also  provided are various utility routines.  The ldap_sort(3) routines are used to sort the entries and values
       returned via the ldap search routines.

       A number of interfaces are now considered deprecated.  For instance, ldap_add(3)  is  deprecated  in  favor  of
       ldap_add_ext(3).   Deprecated  interfaces  generally  remain  in the library.  The macro LDAP_DEPRECATED can be
       defined to a non-zero value (e.g., -DLDAP_DEPRECATED=1) when  compiling  program  designed  to  use  deprecated
       interfaces.   It  is  recommended  that developers writing new programs, or updating old programs, avoid use of
       deprecated interfaces.  Over time, it is expected that documentation (and, eventually, support) for  deprecated
       interfaces to be eliminated.

       Also  included  in  the distribution is a set of lightweight Basic Encoding Rules routines.  These routines are
       used by the LDAP library routines to encode and decode LDAP protocol elements using the  (slightly  simplified)
       Basic  Encoding  Rules  defined  by  LDAP.   They are not normally used directly by an LDAP application program
       except in the handling of controls and extended operations.  The  routines  provide  a  printf  and  scanf-like
       interface,  as  well  as  lower-level  access.  These routines are discussed in lber-decode(3), lber-encode(3),
       lber-memory(3), and lber-types(3).

       ldap_initialize(3)  initialize the LDAP library without opening a connection to a server

       ldap_result(3)      wait for the result from an asynchronous operation

       ldap_abandon_ext(3) abandon (abort) an asynchronous operation

       ldap_add_ext(3)     asynchronously add an entry

       ldap_add_ext_s(3)   synchronously add an entry

       ldap_sasl_bind(3)   asynchronously bind to the directory

       ldap_sasl_bind_s(3) synchronously bind to the directory

       ldap_unbind_ext(3)  synchronously unbind from the LDAP server and close the connection

       ldap_unbind(3) and ldap_unbind_s(3) are
                           equivalent to ldap_unbind_ext(3)

       ldap_memfree(3)     dispose of memory allocated by LDAP routines.

       ldap_compare_ext(3) asynchronously compare to a directory entry

                           synchronously compare to a directory entry

       ldap_delete_ext(3)  asynchronously delete an entry

                           synchronously delete an entry

       ld_errno(3)         LDAP error indication

       ldap_errlist(3)     list of LDAP errors and their meanings

       ldap_err2string(3)  convert LDAP error indication to a string

                           asynchronously perform an arbitrary extended operation

                           synchronously perform an arbitrary extended operation

                           return first attribute name in an entry

                           return next attribute name in an entry

       ldap_first_entry(3) return first entry in a chain of search results

       ldap_next_entry(3)  return next entry in a chain of search results

                           return number of entries in a search result

       ldap_get_dn(3)      extract the DN from an entry

                           return an attribute's values with lengths

                           free memory allocated by ldap_get_values_len(3)

                           return number of values

       ldap_modify_ext(3)  asynchronously modify an entry

                           synchronously modify an entry

       ldap_mods_free(3)   free array of pointers to mod structures used by ldap_modify_ext(3)

       ldap_rename(3)      asynchronously rename an entry

       ldap_rename_s(3)    synchronously rename an entry

       ldap_msgfree(3)     free results allocated by ldap_result(3)

       ldap_msgtype(3)     return the message type of a message from ldap_result(3)

       ldap_msgid(3)       return the message id of a message from ldap_result(3)

       ldap_search_ext(3)  asynchronously search the directory

                           synchronously search the directory

       ldap_is_ldap_url(3) check a URL string to see if it is an LDAP URL

       ldap_url_parse(3)   break up an LDAP URL string into its components

                           sort a list of search results

       ldap_sort_values(3) sort a list of attribute values

                           case insensitive string comparison

       ldap.conf(5), slapd(8), draft-ietf-ldapext-ldap-c-api-xx.txt <>;

       OpenLDAP Software is developed and maintained by The  OpenLDAP  Project  <>;.   OpenLDAP
       Software is derived from University of Michigan LDAP 3.3 Release.

       These  API  manual  pages  are loosely based upon descriptions provided in the IETF/LDAPEXT C LDAP API Internet
       Draft, a (orphaned) work in progress.

OpenLDAP 2.4.40                   2014/09/20                           LDAP(3)